50 results in English
Kiev-Mezhyhirya Earthenware Factory
This book is a compilation of articles about the famed Kiev-Mezhyhirya Earthenware Factory, which was part of the 10th-century Mezhyhirya Monastery. The factory was founded at the end of the 18th century and produced such quantities of faience that by the mid-19th century it was the largest industrial enterprise in Kiev. The first part of the book is dedicated to the history of the factory, and includes details and illustrations of the wide range of its products, both decorative pieces and more practical ones. The factory hallmarks (seals) are shown ...
Compilation of Images of Ancient Objects from Private Collections in Kiev
This collection of images was put together by the Kiev amateur archaeologist Nikolaj Leopardov and numismatist Nikolaj Černev, who also collaborated in writing the introduction and explanatory texts. The images of crosses, icons, and other religious items and brief descriptions of them are included in Part I of the book. Part II contains the images of objects from the Bronze Age, mostly axes and knives, and Jewish Cabalistic amulets and coins. Part III contains the images and description of some of the thousands of medieval lead commercial seals from Drohiczyn ...
Carpathian Ruthenia. Ceramics
This image is part of an album probably published in about 1920 that contains 20 photographs of scenes in Carpathian Ruthenia, a mountainous region, most of which was part of the Austria-Hungary before World War I, but which became part of the new Czechoslovak state in 1919. Today the largest portion of it forms Zakarpattia Oblast in western Ukraine, with smaller parts in Slovakia and Poland. Ceramics have been one of the crafts of Carpathian Ruthenia for centuries, as the region has large deposits of kaolin (china clay). Decorated pottery ...
Design of the Monument to Alexander I, by Sculptor Martos, 1828
The monument to Tsar Alexander I (1777−1825) was unveiled on October 23 (October 11, Old Style), 1831, to commemorate Alexander’s visit to and death from illness in Taganrog, a village in southern Russian located on the north shore of the Sea of Azov. The tsar’s widow, Elizaveta Alekseevna, chose the site for the monument. Most of the money for its construction was donated by the imperial house of Romanov; the rest was raised by the residents of Taganrog. The bronze figure of the emperor at full height ...
Design of the Medal and Token Commemorating the Construction of the Monument to Nicholas I in Kiev, Kiev Province, 1895
This ink and watercolor document contains designs for the medal and the token issued to commemorate the construction of the monument to Tsar Nicholas I (1796−1855, reigned 1825−55) in Kiev. The designs are by the academician in architecture Vladimir Nikolaev (1847−1911), who also designed the pedestal for the monument. Nikolaev was the municipal and eparchial (diocesan) architect of Kiev at the time and designed many churches and mansions in the city. The statue of Nicholas was by the sculptor Matvei Afanas’evich Chizhov (1838−1916). The monument ...
Pre-Hispanic Idol
Shown here are three views of what remains of a terracotta seated human figure in an accentuated stylized form. The figure was discovered in the Painted Cave site at Gáldar, northwest Gran Canaria, in the Canary Islands archipelago of Spain, which lies about 100 kilometers west of Morocco. The cave complex was inhabited before the Castilian conquest of the Canaries in the 15th century by an indigenous people called the Guanches. The head of this figure is missing, but other examples of Guanche ceramics include figures with heads as prolongation ...
The Stele of Buddha Niches at Yique
Shown here are rubbings of the texts on the famous Yique fo kan bei (The stele of Yique Buddha niches), also known as the Stele of Three Niches or the Stele of Three Niches of Longmen. The tablet was erected in the 11th month of the 15th year of the Zhenguan reign (641) during the Tang dynasty, in the Binyang Cave of the Longmen Grottoes, Luoyang, Henan. The texts were composed by Cen Wenben (595−645) and written by famed calligrapher Chu Suiliang (596−658). The horizontal inscription in seal ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Iron Brush of Ju Kungao, Two Juan
Ju Lühou (1723−86), style name Kungao, a native of Fengxian, Shanghai, was a seal artist. Seal carving was one of the four essential skills required of a scholar. Ju was also the author of a number of works, among which are Kungao tie bi (Iron brush by Kungao), in two juan, Kungao tie bi yu ji (Remaining works of Kungao), in five juan, and Yin wen kao lue (A brief study on inscriptions on seals), in one juan. This work is a manual about seals collected by Ju. On ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Oil Production. Preparation of Dishes for Sesame Oil
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pottery Production. Manufacture of Earthenware Pots for Baking Bread (Tandoor)
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pottery Production. Pottery Wheel
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pottery Wares. Domestic Utensils
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pottery Wares. Domestic Utensils
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pottery Wares. Domestic Utensils
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pottery Wares. Domestic Utensils
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pottery Wares. Domestic Utensils
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pottery Wares. Domestic Utensils
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Merovingian Bees
The tomb of Childéric, king of the Salian Franks from 457 to 481 and the father of Clovis, was discovered by chance in 1653 by construction workers near the church of Saint-Brice in Tournai, in present-day Belgium. The treasure found was given to Archduke Leopold William of Habsburg (1614−62), governor of the southern Netherlands (at that time under Spanish rule). The archduke asked medical doctor and antique specialist Jean-Jacques Chifflet to write a study of the find, which was published in Antwerp in 1655 under the title Anastasis Childerici ...
Piece of the Charlemagne Chess Set: The Pawn
The famous chess set called the Jeu d'échec de Charlemagne (Charlemagne’s chess set) was once part of the treasury of the Basilica of Saint-Denis. It was made near Salerno, Italy, at the end of the 11th century. It was long thought to have belonged to Charlemagne, who was said to have received it as a gift from Caliph Harun al-Rashid. In fact, this cannot have been the case, because the game of chess was only introduced to the Western world by the Arabs two centuries after Charlemagne’s ...
Dom Pedro I Square
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This statue, erected in 1862, was the first civic monument in Rio de Janeiro. The sculpture features Emperor Pedro I on horseback. Around the base are four figures in ...
Statue of Dom Pedro I
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This statue, erected in 1862, was the first civic monument in Rio de Janeiro. The sculpture features Emperor Pedro I on horseback. Around the base are four figures in ...
Monumental Jaguar Sculpture
This painted buff ceramic sculpture was made in southern Veracruz, Mexico, in 600-900 AD, or the Late Classic Period of Mesoamerican civilization. Scholars traditionally have defined Mesoamerica as a cultural region comprising the modern countries of Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, western Honduras, and El Salvador. Its history is divided into an Archaic Period (circa 12,000-1500 BC), a Preclassic or Formative Period (circa 1500 BC-200 AD), a Classic Period (circa 200-900 AD), and a Postclassic Period (circa 900-1500 AD). The tropical jaguar was a major sacred creature in much of Mesoamerica ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Carving a Tray
This photograph from Suriname shows a man seated beside a thatched hut carving a large wooden tray from a single piece of wood, using a machete-like implement. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the western hemisphere adopted the OAS ...
Franc à cheval, John II
The franc à cheval was ordered issued on December 5, 1360 to finance the ransom of King John II (born 1319; reigned, 1350–64), who had been taken prisoner by the English at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356, during the Hundred Years’ War. The ransom totaled a vast 3 million écus, and the fact that the coin was used to secure the release of the king gave rise to the name by which it was known: franc, meaning free. The value of the coin was set at one livre ...
Jewel Book of the Duchess Anna of Bavaria
This unique manuscript was commissioned in 1552 by Duke Albrecht V of Bavaria, the founder of what is today the Bavarian State Library. The manuscript is an inventory of the jewelry owned by the duke and his wife, Duchess Anna, a member of the Habsburg dynasty and a daughter of Emperor Ferdinand I. The work contains 110 magnificent drawings by the Munich court painter Hans Mielich. One of the most impressive of these drawings is the front page miniature showing Albrecht and Anna playing chess, with Albrecht portrayed as a ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Brabo Monument, Antwerp, Belgium
This photochrome print of the Brabo Monument in Antwerp is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Dedicated to the legendary hero Salvius Brabo, the monument was designed by Jef Lambeaux (1852–1908) and is located on the Grand Place in Antwerp. As described in Baedeker’s Belgium and Holland including the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (1905), Brabo was “a mythical hero who defeated and cut off the hand of the giant Antigonus. The giant used to exact a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Etruscan Vases in the Hermitage in Saint Petersburg
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Very Old Tiles Found during Excavations. Kirillo-Belozerskii Monastery, Kirillov, Russian Empire
A major component of the Volga-Baltic Waterway (formerly called the Mariinsk Canal System), linking Saint Petersburg with the Volga River basin, is the Sheksna River, which drains the southeastern part of White Lake (Beloe ozero). One of the most important settlements near the Sheksna is Kirillov, founded in 1397 by the monk Kirill (Cyril) as part of his Dormition Monastery, subsequently named the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery. Seen in this 1909 photograph are ceramic tiles found during excavations at the monastery. Some of the tiles have polychrome glaze, while others others are ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Etruscan Vases in the Hermitage in Saint Petersburg
Shown here from behind is an Etruscan vase in the form of a sphinx as portrayed in Greek art: the head of a woman on the body of a lion, with the wings of a giant bird. The item was photograped in the Hermitage Museum, but the date of this photograph is not known. The photographer lived in Saint Petersburg and could have been taken it at any point during his professional career in that city, from 1901 until 1918. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Etruscan Vases in the Hermitage in Saint Petersburg
Produced under the influence of Greek art from the seventh to the fourth ceturies BCE, Etruscan vases occupied one of the most magnificent halls in the New Hermitage, the Hall of Graeco-Etruscan Vases. The bulk of the collection, which numbers some 1,300 items, was purchased in Rome in 1834 and originally displayed at the Imperial Academy of the Arts. With the completion of the New Hermitage in 1851, the collection was transferred to a temple-like setting at the end of the west enfilade. Shown here is a vase in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Etruscan Vases in the Hermitage in Saint Petersburg
Produced under the influence of Greek art from the seventy to the fourth ceturies BCE, Etruscan vases occupied one of the most magnificent halls in the New Hermitage, the Hall of Graeco-Etruscan Vases. The bulk of the collection, which numbers some 1,300 items, was purchased in Rome in 1834 and originally displayed at the Imperial Academy of the Arts. With the completion of the New Hermitage in 1851, the collection was transferred to a temple-like setting at the end of the west enfilade. Shown in this side view is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Etruscan Vases in the Hermitage in Saint Petersburg
Produced under the influence of Greek art from the seventh to the fourth centuries BCE, richly colored Etruscan vases occupied one of the most magnificent halls in the New Hermitage, the Hall of Graeco-Etruscan Vases. With the completion of the New Hermitage in 1851, the collection was transferred from the Imperial Academy of the Arts to a temple-like setting at the end of the west enfilade. Seen here is the head and bust of a Maenad, one of the ecstatic female followers of Bacchus, the god of wine. The bust ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Denier
Charlemagne (742–814) was crowned emperor of the Romans in 800. Yet coins bearing his imperial title are so rare that it is believed that he had them minted only after 812, when he received recognition as emperor of the West by the emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. This denier silver coin is typical of those produced during the Carolingian Renaissance, a period in which art, culture, and religion flourished under the influence of Charlemagne. Such coins include a classical imperial bust and a reverse side often inspired by ...
Royal Coin, Francis I. Sample Teston
This gold sample teston (16th-century French silver coin) representing the King Francis I (1494–1547; reigned, 1515–47) of France is one of the most characteristic monetary expressions of the Renaissance. The realistic portrait, classical inspiration, significant relief, and weight of the piece are all features that represent a break from the money of medieval times. The 19th-century numismatist, Henri de La Tour, showed that this 1529 coin was the work of Matteo del Nassaro (circa 1490–1547), an Italian artist from Verona who first entered the service of Francis ...
Royal Coin, Louis XIII. Ten Louis d'Or
The mechanization of the minting of coins from precious metals in France made possible the creation, in 1640, of the louis d'or, named after King Louis XIII (1601–43; reigned, 1610–43), who first introduced the coins. This series of gold pieces was part of a reform that changed the minting method from hammered coinage to a more precisely milled and weighed coinage. These coins included three types: the louis, the double louis, and the quadruple louis. It has been customary since the 17th century (incorrectly) to call the ...
Two Carved Wooden Pictures of the Korchev District. In the Tver Museum
Tver is an ancient city (first mentioned in 1135) on the Volga River to the northwest of Moscow. Opened in 1866, the Tver Museum included works of art and crafts. In 1897 the museum was allocated space in the Imperial Transit Palace. Nationalized in 1918, the museum was given the entire Transit Palace in 1921. It remained there until World War II, when it was severely damaged during the German occupation of Tver in the fall of 1941. Seen here are two wooden panels with painted relief carving from the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Old Iron Marriage Crowns: 1 - Iron from the Seventeenth Century, 2 - Strip of Bast from the Sixteenth Century, 3 - Carved from Wood and Gilded, from the Seventeenth Century. In the Rostov Museum. Rostov Velikii
The ancient city of Rostov the Great (present-day Rostov in Yaroslavl Oblast) was known as early as the 9th century. Between 1670 and 1690 Metropolitan Jonah Sysoevich created on the north shore of Lake Nero a remarkable complex known as the Rostov Kremlin (formally “Metropolitan's Court”) that included several churches as well as walls and towers. By the time this photograph was taken, the Rostov Kremlin had become one of Russia’s most notable historic sites, with an excellent museum of antiquities. Shown here are wedding crowns used in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Old Mirror from the Seventeenth Century, Adorned with Carved Iron Ornaments on Colored Mica. Museum Inventory Number 8661. In the Rostov Museum. Rostov Velikii
The ancient city of Rostov the Great (present-day Rostov in Yaroslavl Oblast) was known as early as the 9th century. Between 1670 and 1690 Metropolitan Jonah Sysoevich created on the north shore of Lake Nero a remarkable complex known as the Rostov Kremlin (formally “Metropolitan's Court”) that included several churches as well as walls and towers. By the time this photograph was taken in 1911, the Rostov Kremlin had become one of Russia’s most notable historic sites, with an excellent museum of antiquities. The image is by Russian ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Enamel Painting Process. In the Rostov Museum. Rostov Velikii
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Saint Dalmat's Hauberk and Helmet. Dalmatovo
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
In the Borodino Museum. Borodino
On September 7, 1812, during the invasion of Russia by Emperor Napoleon I of France, Russian and French armies clashed on the Borodino battlefield, situated to the west of Moscow. Although the battlefield became a revered site already in the 1820s and the first major monument was unveiled in 1839, the first museum at Borodino was opened only in 1903 at the initiative of P. Bogdanovich, the Borodino stationmaster. The museum exhibits, such as these photographed in 1911, were originally housed in the railroad station. Visible here in arrangement on ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Metal Ornament
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress