289 results in English
Saint Vladimir’s Cathedral, Kiev
Saint Vladimir’s Cathedral in Kiev was constructed in 1862–96 to mark the 900th anniversary of the conversion to Christianity of Kievan Rus by Prince Vladimir (or Volodymyr) Sviatoslavich, later known as Saint Vladimir the Great (circa 956–1015). A note from the publisher of this book states that publications describing Saint Vladimir’s Cathedral had mostly received rapturous reviews from readers, but that some readers were critical of the cathedral’s design and decorations. The purpose of this book, according to the note, was to provide readers with ...
Theatrical Design
Francisco Rizi was a painter of Italian descent who trained in the workshop of Vicente Carducho. In 1637 he began to work for King Philip IV of Spain, who appointed him the royal painter in 1656. His most productive period coincided with the reign of Philip, for whom he worked both on decorations of a mythological character for the Alcázar de Toledo and on the design and construction of theater sets from 1657 on. This drawing probably was made for a theatrical presentation at the Buen Retiro Palace, Madrid. It ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Treatise on Architectural Design
A rare survival from the 16th century, this working notebook of the Italian architect and sculptor Bartolomeo Ammannati (1511–92) contains designs for and textual descriptions of fortifications, systems of measurement, preparatory drawings for busts and other sculptures, and a lengthy text on the elements of architectural expression. Ammannati trained with Baccio Bandinelli in Florence and had commissions in Venice, Padua, Urbino, Naples and Rome, in addition to the work he did for Grand-Duke of Tuscany Cosimo I de’ Medici (1519–74) in his hometown of Florence. The 114 folio ...
Ringling Bros. Lion Tableau Wagon
Parades to celebrate the arrival of the circus to town in America featured highly decorated wagons carrying the circus band and artists along main thoroughfares to the big top circus tent, attracting patrons along the way. This “Lion Tableau” wagon was built by Sebastian Wagon Works of New York City in approximately 1880 for the Adam Forepaugh Circus.  A telescoping platform holding the figure of Saint George fighting a dragon was removed around 1889 and the lower portion was converted into a bandwagon. The wagon was purchased by the Ringling ...
Contributed by Circus World Museum
Tokareva House, Built around 1900, Detail of Main Facade, Perm', Russia
This view of the main façade of the Tokareva house at No. 67 Kirov (formerly Permskaia) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm' (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, Perm’ was the center of a large and prosperous merchant community ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Gribushin Mansion, Built around 1900, Perm', Russia
This view of the Gribushin House at No. 13 Pokrovskaia (now Lenin) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, the city was the center of a prosperous merchant community in which the Gribushins were ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of St. Nicholas (1705), South Facade, Detail, Nyrob, Russia
This photograph of the south façade of the Church of St. Nicholas in Nyrob (northern part of Perm' Territory) was taken in 2000 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated near the Kolva River some 160 kilometers north of Solikamsk, Nyrob is first mentioned in historical sources in 1579. Because of its remote location, the settlement was chosen by Tsar Boris Godunov in 1601 as the place of exile for the boyar ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Yegoshikha Cemetery, Church of the Dormition (1905), Southwest View, Perm', Russia
This southwest view of the entrance gate and the Church of the Dormition at the Egoshikha Cemetery in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. The first settlement was located on the small Egoshikha River, near its confluence with the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Noblemen's Assembly (1830), West Facade, Perm', Russia
This photograph of the former Noblemen's Assembly (Dvor'ianskoe sobranie) at No. 20 Sibirskaia (now Karl Marx) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is the largest metropolis on the European side of the Urals. Before the 1917 revolution, it had a significant concentration ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Log Church of the Epiphany (also known as Nativity of the Virgin), (1617), Northwest View, with Kama River in Background, Pianteg, Russia
This photograph of the southeast view of the log Church of the Epiphany (also known as the Church of the Nativity of the Mother of God) in the village of Pianteg (Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated on the steep left bank of the Kama River some 40 kilometers southwest of Cherdyn', the Pianteg church is the oldest surviving log structure in the western Urals ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Private Drawing Room, I, Kasr-el-Said, Tunisia
This photochrome print is part of “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” from the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It shows a private drawing room in the Kassar-Said Palace in Tunis. Baedeker’s The Mediterranean: Handbook for Travelers (1911) described the palace as “a château of the bey” to which admittance by tourists was not allowed. “Here, in 1881, was concluded the Bardo Treaty, which ended the independence of Tunisia.” Tunisia came under the control of the Ottoman Empire in 1574. Bey was originally the title of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bedchamber of the Late Bey of Tunis, Kasr-el-Said, Tunisia
This photochrome print, from circa 1899, is part of “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” from the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It shows the chamber of the bey of Tunis in the Kassar-Said Palace in Tunis. Baedeker’s The Mediterranean: Handbook for Travelers (1911) described the palace as “a château of the bey” to which admittance by tourists was not allowed. Muhammad III as-Sadiq (1813–82) ruled Tunisia from September 1859 until his death in October 1882. He was succeeded by Ali Muddat ibn al-Husayn (1817–1902 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bardo, Tribunal Chamber, Tunis, Tunisia
This photochrome print of the tribunal chamber in the Bardo Palace in Tunis is part of “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” from the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. Baedeker’s The Mediterranean: Handbook for Travellers (1911) informed its readers that the Bardo, located in the fertile plain to the west of Tunis, was a 13th- century palace that was “the former winter-residence of the beys.” It once “formed a little town by itself” and housed “a treasury, a mosque, baths, barracks, and a prison.” This photo shows ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Icon of the Mother of God, from Tokhtarevo Village (1694), East Facade. Reassembled at Khokhlovka Architectural Preserve, Russia.
This photograph of the northeast view of the log Church of the Mother of God from the village of Tokhtarevo (Suksun District, Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated on the Sylva River (a southern tributary of the Kama River), Tokhtarevo was once a flourishing village, as the size and beauty of its church indicate. Built in 1694, the church at Tokhtarevo follows the traditional plan ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Saviour Church, Copenhagen, Denmark
This photochrome print from circa 1890-1900 is from the “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Copenhagen, Denmark” section in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It shows Our Savior’s Church (Vor Frelsers Kirke), a large baroque church in the Christianshavn district of the city, that was built in 1682-96. The church was constructed in a Palladian-Netherlandic style for King Christian V by the court builder, Lambert van Haven (1630-95). Lauritz de Thurah (1706-59) designed the spire, which was completed in 1752, more than 50 years after the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of Transfiguration, from Yanidor Village (1702), Northwest View, Reassembled at Khokhlovka Architectural Preserve, Russia
This northwest view of the log Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior from the village of Yanidor (Cherdyn' District, Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated on the Sypan River (a northern sub-tributary of the Kama River), Yanidor was once a flourishing village, as the size and beauty of its church indicate. Built in 1702, the Church of the Transfiguration follows the traditional plan of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Igoshev House, from Village of Gribany (Mid-19th Century), Reassembled at Khokhlovka Architectural Preserve, Russia
This photograph of a log house (izba) at the V.I. Igoshev farmstead from the village of Gribany (Uinskoe District, Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated on the Teles River (a southern sub-tributary of the Kama River), Gribany was too small to have its own church, but the fertile river lands provided a reasonably secure existence for peasant farmers in the mid-19th century, when this ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Igoshev House, from Village of Gribany (Mid-19th Century), Interior, Main Room, Khokhlovka, Russia
This interior view of a log house (izba) at the V.I. Igoshev farmstead from the village of Gribany (Uinskoe District, Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated on the Teles River (a southern sub-tributary of the Kama River), Gribany was too small to have a church, but the fertile river lands provided a reasonably secure existence for peasant farmers and craftsmen in the mid-19th century ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Windmill from Shikhiri Village (Mid-19th Century), Reassembled at Khokhlovka Architectural Preserve, Russia
This photograph of a log windmill from the village of Shikhiri (or Shikhari, Ocher District, Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. This stout log structure was built in the mid-19th century by Kuz'ma Rakhmanov, a prosperous peasant from the region of the Ocher River (a western tributary of the Kama River). Constructed with squared pine logs tightly joined in a mortise and tenon (dovetail) technique ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Elevation of the Cross (1747-58), South View, Irkutsk, Russia
This southeast view of the Church of the Elevation of the Cross in the city of Irkutsk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Built in stages from 1747 to 1760 on the Hill of the Cross, the church originally bore the name of its first main altar, dedicated to the Trinity, with a secondary altar dedicated to the Elevation of the Cross. The elongated form combines traditional 17th-century ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Elevation of the Cross (1747-58), Southeast Corner, Irkutsk, Russia
This southeast view of the main structure of the Church of the Elevation of the Cross in the city of Irkutsk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Built in stages from 1747 to 1760 on the Hill of the Cross, the church originally bore the name of its first altar, dedicated to the Trinity, with a secondary altar dedicated to the Elevation of the Cross. The primary altar ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Resurrection (1690s), Southwest View, Kargopol', Russia
This northwest view of the Church of the Resurrection of the Savior in Kargopol' (Arkhangel'sk Oblast') was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Kargopol' is one of the oldest settlements in the Russian north, founded perhaps in the 12th, or even the 11th, century. Its location near Lake Lacha and the source of the Onega River (which flows into the White Sea) enabled Kargopol' to benefit from extensive ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Nativity of John the Baptist (1740-51), Southeast View, Kargopol', Russia
This southeast view of the Church of the Nativity of John the Baptist in Kargopol' (Arkhangel'sk Oblast') was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Kargopol' is one of the oldest settlements in the Russian north, founded perhaps in the 12th, or even the 11th, century. Its location near Lake Lacha and the source of the Onega River (which flows into the White Sea) enabled Kargopol' to benefit from ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Resurrection (1690s), Southwest View, Kargopol', Russia
This southwest winter view of the Church of the Resurrection of the Savior in Kargopol' (Arkhangel'sk Oblast') was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Kargopol' is one of the oldest settlements in the Russian north, founded perhaps in the 12th, or even the 11th, century. Its location near Lake Lacha and the source of the Onega River (which flows into the White Sea) enabled Kargopol' to benefit from ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cathedral of the Nativity of Christ (1552-62, 1652, 1770s), Northeast View, Kargopol', Russia
This northeast view of the Cathedral of the Nativity of Christ in Kargopol' (Arkhangel'sk Oblast') was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Kargopol' is one of the oldest settlements in the Russian north, founded perhaps in the 12th, or even the 11th, century. Its location near Lake Lacha and the source of the Onega River (which flows into the White Sea) enabled Kargopol' to benefit from trade in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Annuciation (1692), Northeast View, Kargopol', Russia
This northeast view of the Church of the Annunciation in Kargopol' (Arkhangel'sk Oblast') was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Kargopol' is one of the oldest settlements in the Russian north, founded perhaps in the 12th, or even the 11th, century. Its location near Lake Lacha and the source of the Onega River (which flows into the White Sea) enabled Kargopol' to benefit from trade in salt and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ivolginsk Buddhist Datsan, with Main Temple (1940s), Ivolga, Russia
This photograph of the Ivolginsk Buddhist datsan (monastery or lamasery) was taken in 2000 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. This primary Buddhist center in the Republic of Buriatiia (Russian Federation) is situated 25 kilometers to the southwest of Ulan-Ude near the Ivolga River. It was founded in 1946, after the destruction or closure of previous Buddhist monastic communities, in what appears to have been a cultural gesture by the Soviet regime ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Savior (1706-10), Southwest View, Irkutsk, Russia
This photograph of the Church of the Miraculous Icon of the Savior (Spas Nerukotvornyi) in the city of Irkutsk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. From the time of its first log forts in the 1660s, Irkutsk was destined to be the administrative and commercial center of eastern Siberia. In 1700, Irkutsk became the third Siberian city capable of producing bricks on a large scale. In 1706-10, master ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Log Fort Tower (Late 17th Century), Bel'sk, Russia
This photograph of the surviving log tower at the Bel'sk fort (Irkutsk territory, eastern Siberia) was taken in 2000 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. From the middle of the 17th century to the 19th century, Russian settlements in the vast Irkutsk territory were built almost entirely of logs. Remarkably, a few of these log structures from the 17th century have survived. Among them is this watch tower from the fort ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Savior (1706-10), East View, Irkutsk, Russia
This photograph of the Church of the Miraculous Icon of the Savior (Spas Nerukotvornyi) in the city of Irkutsk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. From the time of its first log forts in the 1660s, Irkutsk was destined to be the administrative and commercial center of eastern Siberia. In 1700, Irkutsk became the third Siberian city capable of producing bricks on a large scale. Shortly thereafter, in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Resurrection, Interior, with Icon Screen, Matigory, Russia
This view of the icon screen of the Church of the Resurrection in the village of Verkhnie Matigory (Arkhangel'sk Oblast) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. The Church of the Resurrection was built in 1686-94. Its five-tiered 18th-century icon screen (iconostasis) is one of the best preserved in the Russian north and contains a number of ancient icons. Although part of the second tier (Holy Festivals) is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Presentation of the Virgin (1688-93), Southwest View, Sol'vychegodsk, Russia
This southwest winter view of the Cathedral of the Presentation of the Virgin in Sol'vychegodsk (Arkhangel'sk Oblast) was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. This spectacular church was built for the Presentation Monastery, founded in 1565 by the Stroganov family as part of their trading compound at Sol’vychegodsk. Construction began in 1688, with the support of Grigorii Stroganov, soon to become prominent in the reign of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of St. Nicholas Gostunskii (Gostinnyi) (1680s, 1720s), with Bell Tower (1720s), Northwest View, Velikii Ustiug, Russia
This northwest view of the bell tower and Church of Saint Nicholas Gostunskii at Velikii Ustiug (Vologda Oblast) was taken in 1996 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. During the medieval period, Ustiug became an important center not only for trade, but also for missionary activity by the Orthodox Church. Commerce and faith are combined in the Church of Saint Nicholas Gostunskii, which was built in the 1680s on a bluff above ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Ascension (1648-49, 1670s, 1742), East View, Velikii Ustiug, Russia
This east view of the Church of the Ascension in Velikii Ustiug (Vologda Oblast) was taken in 1996 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Of the town's many remarkable churches, the most intricately decorated is the Church of the Ascension, endowed by the merchant Nikifor Reviakin. Built in 1648-49 in a florid, 17th-century Muscovite style, it is the town’s oldest extant structure, although with additions from the 1670s and 1742 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Kazan Icon of the Virgin (1694), West Facade, Ustiuzhna, Russia
This west view of the Church of the Kazan Icon of the Virgin in Ustiuzhna (Vologda Oblast) was taken in 2001 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located on the Mologa River (a tributary of the Volga River), Ustiuzhna was known already in the mid-13th century for its rich deposits of iron ore. It rapidly became one of the earliest Russian centers of metalworking and achieved special prominence in the 16th century ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Kazan Icon of the Virgin (1694), South Facade, Ustiuzhna, Russia
This south view of the Church of the Kazan Icon of the Virgin in Ustiuzhna (Vologda Oblast) was taken in 2001 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located on the Mologa River (a tributary of the Volga River), Ustiuzhna was known already in the mid-13th century for its rich deposits of iron ore. It rapidly became one of the earliest Russian centers of metalworking and achieved special prominence in the 16th century ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Kazan Icon of the Virgin (1694), Southeast View, Ustiuzhna, Russia
This southeast view of the Church of the Kazan Icon of the Virgin in Ustiuzhna (Vologda Oblast) was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located on the Mologa River (a tributary of the Volga River), Ustiuzhna was known already in the mid-13th century for its rich deposits of iron ore. It became one of the earliest Russian centers of metalworking and achieved special prominence in the 16th century. Ustiuzhna ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Kazan Icon of the Virgin (1694), Southwest View, Ustiuzhna, Russia
This southwest view of the Church of the Kazan Icon of the Virgin in Ustiuzhna (Vologda Oblast) was taken in 2001 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located on the Mologa River (a tributary of the Volga River), Ustiuzhna was known already in the mid-13th century for its rich deposits of iron ore. It rapidly became one of the earliest Russian centers of metalworking and achieved special prominence in the 16th century ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Transfiguration (1714), Southwest View, Cupolas with Aspen, Kizhi Island, Russia
This view of cupolas at the top of the Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior on Kizhi Island (Karelia) was taken in 1991 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located within an archipelago in the southwestern part of Lake Onega, Kizhi Island is one of the most revered sites in the Russian north, with a pogost, or enclosed cemetery, containing two wooden churches. The site’s dominant feature is the Church ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Dormition (1774), East Facade, Detail, Kondopoga, Russia
This detailed view of the east facade of the Church of the Dormition in Kondopoga (Karelia) was taken in 2000 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located on an inlet of Lake Onega, Kondopoga existed as a settlement by the late 15th century. In the mid-18th century its significance increased with the discovery in two nearby villages of sources of marble, used for the construction of some of Saint Petersburg's notable ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). One of the Doors
This sketch of a door at the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for “tomb of the ruler”). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Syr-Darya Oblast. City of Turkestan. External Door Leading to the Mausoleum of Saint Sultan Akhmed Iassavi
This photograph of the mausoleum of Khodzha Akhmed Iassavi in Yasi (present-day Turkestan, Kazakhstan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. Yasi is associated with the Sufi mystic, Khodzha Akhmed Iassavi (1103-66), whose great reputation led Timur (Tamerlane) to construct a memorial shrine (khanaka) at his grave site. Built in 1396-98, the mausoleum displays features of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress