43 results in English
The Book of Horses
This work is an undated manuscript copy of the Faras-nāma (The book of horses) of ʻAbd Allāh Khān Bahādur Fīrūz. It apparently was written during the reign of Shah Jahan (reigned 1628–58) and based in part on a versified source in Sanskrit of 16,000 shloka (couplets), the Shalihotra, dating from 2500–1500 BC. Among the topics treated are the color of a horse's coat and its significance (chapter 2), the horse's mane (chapter 3), signs indicating the agility of a horse on the battlefield (chapter ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Syr Darya Oblast. Kyrgyz Summer Camp near Chimkent
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Yaks in the Pasture
This photograph, showing domesticated yaks in a Tibetan pasture with people nearby, is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In his 1891 edition of The Land of Lamas, W.W. Rockhill writes of the Tibetans: "They are shrewd and enterprising traders, and able to hold their own even with the Chinese, to whom they sell large quantities of lambskins, wool, yak-hides, musk, furs (principally lynx and fox skins), rhubarb and ...
Selected Techniques in the Art of Agriculture
The author of this book, Bishārah ibn Salwān Naḥūl al-Lubnānī, explains in the introduction how he had long desired to write an Arabic text on the agricultural sciences but was only able to do so after he obtained a series of agricultural texts that had been translated from French into Turkish. The book is arranged in two parts, the first on horticulture, and the second on animal husbandry. The part on horticulture opens with general topics, such as water, soil, and plant diseases. This is followed by sections on grains ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The True Account of Veterinary Medicine
Kitāb ṣidq al-bayān fī ṭibb al-ḥayawān (The true account of veterinary medicine) is a late 19th century veterinary science manual by Lebanese author Jirjīs Ṭannūs ʻAwn. It is divided into two main parts, of which the first deals with common domesticated animals such as horses, cows, and pigs, and the second with diseases. The fourth section of the second part, “On Common Diseases,” comprises the bulk of the book and includes 24 chapters on diseases of the chest, the liver, the pancreas, and so forth. For each disease, the species ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Seminoles with Irons During Round-up and Branding at the Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation
The cattle industry in Florida began soon after the nation’s oldest city, Saint Augustine, was established in 1565. Spaniards imported livestock to meet the needs of the small but critical colony. By the dawn of the 18th century, Spanish, African, and Native American cattlemen worked cows on the vast wet prairies and scrublands found throughout northern and central Florida. La Chula, the largest ranch in Spanish Florida, boasted thousands of head of cattle in the late 1600s. Seminole migrants took up cattle herding in northern Florida following the destruction ...
Portrait of Seminole Indian Cowboy Charlie Micco at the Brighton Indian Reservation
Seminole Indians dominated Florida’s cattle industry during the early 19th century. The Seminoles themselves, not originally cattle people, inherited abandoned Spanish livestock in the 18th century and adopted herding into their own culture. Seminole cattle all but vanished as a result of fighting during the Seminole Wars (1817−18, 1835−42, and 1855−58). Following the removal of the vast majority of the Seminoles and the seizure of their cattle, the remaining Florida Indians adapted their herding culture to the abundant supply of wild hogs found in central and ...
Treatise on Cats
This manuscript containing fine paintings of cats is in the format of a samut khoi (Thai folding book) with 12 folios, which open from top to bottom. It was produced in the 19th century in central Thailand. Folding books were usually made from the bark of mulberry trees; minerals, plant liquids, and occasionally materials imported from China and Europe were used as paints. Sometimes the paper was blackened with lampblack or lacquer to make the paper stronger and more resistant to damage by insects or humidity. Such books were mainly ...
Contributed by The British Library
Sheep at Sheep Station; Houses and Woods in Background, Australia
This photograph, taken in Australia some time in the first quarter of the 20th century, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Turkmen Man Posing with Camel Loaded with Sacks, Probably of Grain or Cotton, Central Asia
The resting camel seen here bears large sacks of cotton grown in the irrigated fields of the extensive Murgab estate near the town of Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan). Camels were the primary beast of burden for heavy work in this hot, arid climate. The youth next to the camel wears a bright robe and a shaggy sheepskin hat. Visible in the background are hundreds of other sacks awaiting delivery to the cotton gin. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944), who used a special color photography process ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Girl Shepherdess with Sheep, Bulgaria
This photograph of a young shepherd girl in Bulgaria is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Goat Racing
This photograph from Trinidad and Tobago shows goats outfitted for racing being led by their handlers. In the sport of goat racing, the jockeys run behind the goats to urge them on, making the race a test of both human and animal endurance and speed. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member ...
Cattle and Cowboys on Horses, Chile
This photograph, taken in Chile in the late 19th or early 20th century, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Raising Ducks in Taipei Province
Traditionally, raising ducks has been an important enterprise in Taiwan, especially in the northern region. Wherever there is water, families have raised ducks for food.
Contributed by National Central Library
Let's Take Care of the Poultry. I am a Fine War Hen. I Eat Little and Produce a Lot
This small poster, produced in France in 1918, features a hen sitting atop a pile of eggs beneath the caption, "Let's take care of the poultry," and above the main caption which reads: "I am a fine war hen. I eat little and produce a lot." The aim of the poster was to encourage the French population to conserve food and other scarce goods in order to support the war effort. Unlike many posters, which were produced by professional artists, this work was designed by a 16-year-old student, who ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Camel Caravan Carrying Thorns for Fodder. Golodnaia Steppe
The Russians developed an irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) in Turkestan a productive area for raising cotton and wheat. Despite such projects, life adhered to ancient traditions for most of the local ethnic groups. This photograph shows a camel driver in a tattered cloak leading a small caravan in the midst of the vast steppe grasslands. The camels are carrying cut thorn bushes for fodder. The severe continental climate—cold in the winter and extreme arid heat in the summer—made camels the primary beast of burden ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Commentary on the Comprehensive Book on the Management of Horses
The legal scholar ‘Umar ibn Raslān al-Bulqīnī  was from a renowned family of Egyptian scholars of Palestinian origin. In his Muqaddima (Introduction), the great Arab historian and historiographer Ibn Khaldūn (1332–1406) praised al-Bulqīnī as the most celebrated jurist of his era, even though Al-Bulqīnī did not gain the prestigious title of Šayh al-Islām until later in life. Al-Bulqīnī's erudition and deep knowledge of Islamic tradition are reflected in this work, Qaṭr al-Sayl fi Amr al-Hayl (Commentary on the comprehensive book on the management of horses), which is an ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Camel Grazing in the Steppe. Golodnaia Steppe
Located to the southeast of the Kyzyl Kum Desert, Golodnaia Steppe is composed of the loess variety of soil suitable for growing grass and small shrubs in semi-arid conditions. This photograph shows a dromedary camel (with a single hump) grazing in the midst of the steppe grasslands. The harsh continental climate of Golodnaia Steppe—cold in the winter and extreme heat in the summer—made camels the primary beast of burden in this area. In the background is a cow. In the hazy distance is the Turkestan Range. The image ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Canada's Egg Opportunity
This World War I poster, issued by the Canada Food Board, promotes increased production of eggs as a contribution to the war effort. The poster shows a large chicken, two figures representing Great Britain and Canada, and four eggs, representing the size of the egg shortage in Britain, the number of eggs Britain normally imported, and Canadian egg sales to Britain in two different years. The statistics highlight the egg shortage in Britain, owing to decreased wartime production, but note that Canada’s egg sales to Britain were lower than ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Canada's Pork Opportunity
This World War I poster, issued by the Canada Food Board, promotes increased production of pork as a contribution to the war effort. The poster shows two figures, representing Great Britain and Canada, exchanging money for a small pig. A large hog is pictured below; it indicates how many pounds of pork Britain buys. The smaller pig being exchanged represents how much Canada sells. The text on the poster proclaims: “We're glad to have it, Canada, but we need ten times more.” Canada was a major food producer during ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Abstracts on the Physiognomy of Horses
This is a two-volume manuscript, by an unknown author. The material originated from a wide range of works on horses dating from earlier times. It records in great detail the shapes of horses, which were often used to judge the quality of a horse. The work also contains about 100 verses on the treatment of horses, written in a folk-song style, listing the equine diseases that were prevalent at the time and the remedies. The illustrations are included at the end of the second volume. The manuscript dates from the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
In the Monastery's Garden
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
In the Monastery's Garden
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Burmah: Elephant Working
This photograph of an elephant at work in the logging industry of Burma is from the George Grantham Bain Collection at the Library of Congress. The collection contains approximately 40,000 glass plate negatives and 50,000 photographic prints, most dating from the 1900s to the mid-1920s. Bain, who was born in 1865 and died in 1944, founded the New York-based Bain News Service in 1898. Specializing in news about New York City and to a lesser degree the eastern United States, Bain distributed its own pictures, and those purchased ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
At the Saliuktin Mines. On the Outskirts of Samarkand
This unusual photograph shows camels and their drivers on the way to the Saliutkin Mines in the Tian-Shan Mountains. They are laden with equipment for a Russian group sent to observe a total solar eclipse on January 1 (14 on the Gregorian calendar), 1907, at the Cherniaevo Station settlement near the mines. Located in Central Asia near the border between present-day Kyrgyzstan and China, the Tian-Shan range derives its name from the Chinese for “celestial mountains.” The first Russian to study the mountains was the geographer Peter Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, who explored ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
On the Sim River. Shepherd Boy
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bashkir Dog. Ekhia
This photograph, taken in 1910, shows a Bashkir sheep dog on the porch of a log house. The name of the village where the image was made is not recorded, but evidence suggests that it is Iakhino (present-day Bashkortostan), located not far from the railroad between Sim and Ust-Katav on the western slopes of the southern Ural Mountains. The photograph is part of a series with the same setting: a high porch with a ledge on which the dog is resting. Also visible is a spindly plant growing from the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Guard Dogs
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dairy in Dagomys
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Africa—Cape of Good Hope, Ostrich Farm
This photograph of an ostrich farm in South Africa is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Camel Grazing in the Steppe. Golodnaia Steppe
Located to the southeast of the Kyzyl Kum Desert, Golodnaia Steppe is composed of the loess variety of soil suitable for growing grass and small shrubs in semi-arid conditions. Shown here is a dromedary camel (with a single hump) grazing in the midst of the steppe grasslands. The harsh continental climate of Golodnaia Steppe—cold in the winter and extreme heat in the summer—made camels the primary beast of burden in this area. Central Asia is more commonly associated with the Bactrian camel (with two humps). In the hazy ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Fat Sheep. Golodnaia Steppe
Located to the southeast of the Kyzyl Kum Desert, Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) is composed of the loess variety of soil suitable for grass and small shrubs under semi-arid conditions. The region, some 10,000 square kilometers in size, has a harsh continental climate: cold in the winter and extreme heat in the summer. Shown here are fat-tailed sheep, which were well-adapted to the local conditions. They could be bred both for meat and for wool used in carpets and blankets. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Fat Sheep. Golodnaia Steppe
Located to the southeast of the Kyzyl Kum Desert, Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) is composed of the loess variety of soil suitable for growing grass and small shrubs in semi-arid conditions. The region, some 10,000 square kilometers in size, has a harsh continental climate: cold in the winter and extremely hot in the summer. Shown at this steppe farmstead are fat-tailed sheep, which adapted well to the local conditions and were a source of meat as well as wool. The shepherd is protected against the winter cold by a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cows in a Field
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cows in a Field
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Shepherd. Samarkand
Seen here is a chaban (shepherd) in the hilly country near Samarkand (present-day Uzbekistan). Leaning on a long staff, he is protected from the cold by a turban, scarf, and a heavy overcoat, beneath which is a striped, brightly-colored cloak. The sun picks out details of the pockmarked terrain, with grass patches that have been closely cropped by grazing sheep—a common characteristic of the region. The pattern of stones in the left foreground suggests a seasonal rivulet. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944), who ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Piglets
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Camel, Loaded with Sacks, Lying in Field of Sacks
In the late 19th century, the Russian Empire acquired large territories in Central Asia that became known as Russian Turkestan (present-day Uzbekistan and neighboring states). Many parts of Turkestan were suitable for raising high quality cotton, and cotton production rapidly became a priority in the Russian development of this area. Camels were the primary beast of burden for heavy work in this hot, arid climate. This scene from the extensive Murgab estate near the town of Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan) shows a camel at rest with large sacks of cotton grown ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Man with Camel Loaded with Packs
Camels were the primary beast of burden for heavy work in the hot, arid climate of Turkestan. The resting camel seen here bears large sacks of cotton, grown in the irrigated fields of the extensive Murgab estate near the town of Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan). The youth next to the camel wears a bright robe and a shaggy sheepskin hat. Visible in the background are hundreds of other sacks awaiting delivery to the cotton gin. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944), who used a special color ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Group of Camels and Four Men Posed in Front of Piles of Sacks, Logs in Foreground
This photograph shows camels and drivers transporting large sacks of cotton at the estate of Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich (1850-1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, in Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”), located in present-day Uzbekistan. The drivers wear high sheepskin hats and colorful padded robes. The camels rest next to a small-railed track. Visible in the background are piles of sacks awaiting delivery to the cotton gin. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944), who used a special color photography process to create a visual record of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Man on Camel, Buildings in Background
Shown here is a village road near Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan). A man of the Teke ethnic group is seated on a camel, resting in the shade of a large tree. The man wears a shaggy sheepskin hat and padded red coat. Next to the man is a bundle of twigs and grass, most likely for fodder. In the background are sheds and other buildings constructed in the Russian manner. The building on the left is surrounded by tables, with rugs and cloth spread about and a large tea urn. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Colombian Cattle Herders Branding Livestock by Cutting Their Ears, Province of Casanare
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820–1902) shows cattlemen branding calves, employing a method commonly used at the time. The scene is from Casanare Province (present-day Casanare Department), Colombia, which is located in Los Llanos (The Plains), a region of eastern Colombia characterized by vast grasslands crossed by the Orinoco River and its tributaries. Paz was born in Almaguer in the province of Cauca. He joined the Colombian army at a young age and showed exceptional skills as a cartographer and painter. In 1853 he took over the role ...