43 results in English
Cotton. In Sukhumi Botanical Garden
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sart Fields. Samarkand
Seen here are fields carefully cultivated by local inhabitants identified in the caption as Sarts. Sart was a term used in the early 1900s to refer not only to town dwellers but also to people who inhabited this area before the coming of Uzbek tribes in the 16th century. These fields were used for grains such as wheat, which flourished in the oasis setting of Samarkand, fed by the Zeravshan River that flows from the Pamir Mountains of Tajikistan. The terrain reflects ancient erosion patterns. The image is by Russian ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Harvested Field
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Imperial Comments Concerning Illustrations of the Cotton Industry
This book is comprised of paintings by Fang Guancheng, with illustrations and text facing each other. The text is the same as in Fang’s memorial (on the cotton industry); the illustrations are slightly different. The first volume contains eight pictures, from “Planting” to “Ginning;” the second volume contains another eight pictures, from “Fluffing the Cotton” to “Bleaching and Dyeing.”
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mugan. Cotton
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tea Plantations. Chakva
By the beginning of the 20th century, the plantation and processing plants at Chakva, Georgia, north of the port of Batumi, had become one of the main suppliers of tea to the Russian Empire and an alternative to imports from China. Seen here is a hillside planted with rows of young tea bushes. The natural amphitheater formed by the terrain was well suited for cultivation of the plants, which required careful tending. In the 19th century the Russian Empire expanded into the southern Caucasus, particularly after the conclusion of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Man in Field with Bundles of Grain, Hungary
This photograph of an agricultural scene in Hungary is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
People Working in Vineyard, Hungary
This photograph of an agricultural scene in Hungary is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Stone Mound with a Spring Post, Serving as Beacon during Floods. Oleni Roga. Russian Empire
A major component of the Volga-Baltic Waterway (formerly called the Mariinsk Canal System), linking Saint Petersburg with the Volga River basin, is the Sheksna River, which drains the southeastern part of White Lake (Beloe ozero). The original length of the Sheksna was 395 kilometers, from White Lake to the Sheksna’s confluence with the Volga at the town of Rybinsk. Much of that length is now submerged by two large reservoirs created in the mid 20th century as a part of Soviet navigation and hydroelectric policy. Seen in this 1909 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Haying at the Leushinskii Monastery. Russian Empire
A major component of the Volga-Baltic Waterway (formerly called the Mariinsk Canal System), linking Saint Petersburg with the Volga River basin, is the Sheksna River, which drains the southeastern part of White Lake (Beloe ozero). The original length of the Sheksna was 395 kilometers, from White Lake to the Sheksna’s confluence with the Volga at the town of Rybinsk. A notable landmark was the John the Baptist Convent at the village of Leushino, on the left bank of the Sheksna between Cherepovets and Rybinsk. Founded in 1875, the Leushinskii ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Haystacks. Russian Empire
A major component of the Volga-Baltic Waterway (formerly called the Mariinsk Canal System), linking Saint Petersburg with the Volga River basin, is the Sheksna River, which drains the southeastern part of White Lake (Beloe ozero). The original length of the Sheksna was 395 kilometers, from White Lake to the Sheksna’s confluence with the Volga at the town of Rybinsk. Much of that length, and the villages along it, were submerged by two large reservoirs created in the mid 20th century as a part of Soviet navigation and hydroelectric policy ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Haying. Russian Empire
A major component of the Volga-Baltic Waterway (formerly called the Mariinsk Canal System), linking Saint Petersburg with the Volga River basin, is the Sheksna River, which drains the southeastern part of White Lake (Beloe ozero). The original length of the Sheksna was 395 kilometers, from White Lake to the Sheksna’s confluence with the Volga at the town of Rybinsk. Much of that length, and the villages along it, were submerged by two large reservoirs created in the mid 20th century as a part of Soviet navigation and hydroelectric policy ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Haystack. Russian Empire
A major component of the Volga-Baltic Waterway (formerly called the Mariinsk Canal System), linking Saint Petersburg with the Volga River basin, is the Sheksna River, which drains the southeastern part of White Lake (Beloe ozero). The original length of the Sheksna was 395 kilometers, from White Lake to the Sheksna’s confluence with the Volga at the town of Rybinsk. Seen in this 1909 photograph is a haystack in a field near the river. The archaic visual appeal of the haystack is frequently evident in the history of art, most ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Haying, near Rest Time. Russian Empire
A major component of the Volga-Baltic Waterway (formerly called the Mariinsk Canal System), linking Saint Petersburg with the Volga River basin, is the Sheksna River, which drains the southeastern part of White Lake (Beloe ozero). The original length of the Sheksna was 395 kilometers, from White Lake to the Sheksna’s confluence with the Volga at the town of Rybinsk. Seen in this 1909 photograph is a group of peasants at a camp for rest during haymaking. Some figures are holding large wooden rakes used to gather the hay for ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Haying. Russian Empire
A major component of the Volga-Baltic Waterway (formerly called the Mariinsk Canal System), linking Saint Petersburg with the Volga River basin, is the Sheksna River, which drains the southeastern part of White Lake (Beloe ozero). The original length of the Sheksna was 395 kilometers, from White Lake to the Sheksna’s confluence with the Volga at the town of Rybinsk. Seen here is a large group of peasants (some of whom are visible in other photographs in this collection) engaged in the strenuous labor of cutting hay. Children pose in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Haystack. Russian Empire
A major component of the Volga-Baltic Waterway (formerly called the Mariinsk Canal System), linking Saint Petersburg with the Volga River basin, is the Sheksna River, which drains the southeastern part of White Lake (Beloe ozero). The original length of the Sheksna was 395 kilometers, from White Lake to the Sheksna’s confluence with the Volga at the town of Rybinsk. The row of large haystacks shown here would suffice for an entire village commune. In the limited growing season of the Russian north, hay was essential to sustain livestock, which ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
At Harvest Time. Russian Empire
Shown here is a peasant family in the rich light of the setting sun at the end of a harvest day. The sheaves of rye have been bound at the bottom and arranged with the grain head downward. The “tent” shape of the sheaves rests on short columns of grain stalks. This intricate and visually appealing method allowed the grain to dry before threshing. The married couple,with wizened faces and work-hardened hands, are flanked by three girls—presumably their daughters. In the background is a fence with slanted pine ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
At Harvest Time. Russian Empire
Shown here is a peasant couple cutting and tying sheaves of grain in the light of the setting sun. The sheaves of rye are bound at the bottom and arranged with the grain head downward. The “tent” shape of the sheaves rests on short columns of grain stalks. This intricate method allowed the grain to dry before threshing. The background reveals an expansive field that remains to be harvested. The gathering of grain has been an appealing subject in art history, seen most notably in The Gleaners by Jean-François Millet ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mugan. Good Cotton, but in the Central Part Empty Spaces, Due to Solonetz, Can Be Seen. Nikolaevka
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mugan. Solonetz. Cotton, Sparse and Poor Quality. In the Background, It Is Either Drying or Gone. Nikolaevka
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mugan. On the Left Good Cotton. There Is None on the Right. And Even Though the Second Side Has Been Manured, Solonetz Is Spreading, since Last Year Was the Reverse. Nikolaevka
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mugan. Cotton in Bloom. White the First Day, Red the Second Day
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mugan. Strip of Cotton, Destroyed by Locusts. Settlement of Grafovka
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dzhugara (near Samarkand)
In Russian Turkestan, large irrigation projects, such as those sponsored by Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850-1918; grandson of Nicholas I), were intended to provide arable land to Russian settlers. Shown here is a field of dzhugara (white durra, or Sorghum cernuum) near Samarkand. This drought-resistant species of grass can be used both as edible grain and as feed for livestock. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944), who used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire in the early ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Hay Stack near the Shakshi Station
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Hemp Field
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Corn. Chakva
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tea Bush in Bloom. Chakva
By the beginning of the 20th century, the plantation and processing plants at Chakva, Georgia, north of the port of Batumi, had become one of the main suppliers of tea to the Russian Empire and an alternative to imports from China. In the 19th century the Russian Empire expanded into the southern Caucasus, particularly after the conclusion of the Caucasus War in 1864. Previously, this area was dominated by the Ottoman Empire, which subjugated the different kingdoms of the southern Caucasus in the first half of the 16th century. With ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Hauling Wheat on Two Wagons Drawn by Pairs of Oxen, Rhodesia
This photograph of a scene in Rhodesia (present-day Zimbabwe) is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Coffee Plantation
This photograph, taken in Singapore in the late 19th or early 20th century, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Nikolaevka. Unusual Example of Two Adjacent Planned Lots. Solonetz Dark Alkaline Soil Has Been Sown Three Times. Only Separate Bushes of Cotton Can Be Seen. Mugan Steppe
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cotton Blossom. Mugan Steppe
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cotton. The Foreground Is Light and Rows of Solonetz Soil Can Be Seen. In the Distance Good Soil. Mugan Steppe
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Rice Field. Samarkand
Irrigated rice fields thrived in the oasis setting of Samarkand, fed by the Zeravshan River, which has its origins in the Pamir Mountains of Tajikistan.  Seen here is an irrigated field with rectangular plots, bordered in the distance with plane trees. The flooding of the fields reduced weeds and pests. Rice was an important part of the local diet in dishes such as pilaf. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944), who used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cotton Picking in Begavat. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of Russian development projects in Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who in 1881 moved to Tashkent. There he sponsored a number of ventures, including a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe,” present-day Uzbekistan) a productive area for raising cotton and wheat. This photograph shows workers picking cotton at a large field near Begavat village. Behind the field are mounds of earth that form the levee for one of the canals. In the background are barns ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dzhugara. Golodnaia Steppe
In Russian Turkestan, large irrigation projects, such as those sponsored by Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850-1918; grandson of Nicholas I), were intended to provide arable land to Russian settlers. Shown here is a field of dzhugara (white durra, or Sorghum cernuum) in Golodnaya Steppe, or “Hungry Steppe.” Dzhugara is a drought-resistant species of grass that can be used both as edible grain and as feed for livestock. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944), who used a special color photography process to create a visual record ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cotton Plants, Probably in Golodnaia Steppe or Mugan Steppe
This is not an image from the Mugan Steppe. The original caption is incorrect. Seen here is a mature cotton plant with bolls on the Murgab estate near the town of Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan). The Murgab Oasis and the city of Merv (now Mary) were acquired by the Russian Empire through negotiations in 1884. Irrigation was essential for agriculature in this semi-arid region. One such irrigation project was at the Murgab estate, whose main source of water was the Murgab (Morghab) River, which flows from Afghanistan into Turkmenistan and forms ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cotton Plants, Probably in Golodnaia Steppe or Mugan Steppe
This is not an image from the Mugan Steppe. The original caption is incorrect. These cotton plants in bloom were photographed on the estate of Murgab near the town of Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan). The Murgab Oasis and the city of Merv (now Mary) were acquired by the Russian Empire through negotiations in 1884. Irrigation was essential for agriculture in this semi-arid region. One such irrigation project was at the Murgab estate, whose main source of water was the Murgab (Morghab) River, which flows from Afghanistan into Turkmenistan and forms part ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cotton Field, Probably Golodnaia Steppe or Mugan Steppe
Cotton was an essential raw material for the large textile mills of the Russian Empire, which underwent rapid industrialization in the late 19th-early 20th century. Russian authorities made concerted efforts to find areas in the empire that were warm enough for the cultivation of this crop. Shown here is a cotton field, probably located on the Mugan Steppe in present-day Azerbaijan. This area of the eastern Caucasus was acquired by Russia from Persia in 1813 under the terms of the Treaty of Gulistan. Bounded on the east by the Caspian ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cotton Field, Probably in Golodnaia Steppe or Mugan Steppe
This is not an image from the Mugan Steppe. The original caption is incorrect. This view shows a cotton field on the estate of Murgab near the town of Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan).  The Murgab Oasis and the city of Merv (now Mary) were acquired by the Russian Empire through negotiations in 1884. Irrigation was essential for agriculture in this semi-arid region. One such irrigation project was at the Murgab estate, whose main source of water was the Murgab (Morghab) River, which flows from Afghanistan into Turkmenistan and forms part of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Vineyards and Gazebo
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Converted Andaqui People, Producing Pita Fiber in Descansé, Caquetá Territory
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows three Andaqui people in Caquetá Territory (present-day Cauca Department), engaged in obtaining pita fiber from the plant Agave Americana. The material was used to make cordage, matting, and rough cloth. The Andaqui lived at the southern end of the Cordillera Oriental. Paz characterizes the people as reducidos, which meant that they lived in a reduction, or mission town, and had become Catholics under the influence of Spanish missionaries. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of ...