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Type of Item
The Encyclopedia of Medicaments
This book is a printed edition of the Pandectarum Medicinae (Encyclopedia of medicaments) by Matthaeus Sylvaticus (died circa 1342), consisting of an alphabetized list of medications (primarily of herbal origin). Sylvaticus relies on the work of Simon of Genoa (flourished end of 13th century), who provided a lexicon of Latin, Greek, and Arabic medical terms in his dictionary, Clavis Sanationis. Sylvaticus also draws upon works by Greco-Roman authorities such as Galen, Dioscorides, and Paulus Aegineta (seventh century). Among his other sources were the writings of important scientists from the Islamic ...
Of Medical Substances
The precious codex known as the Dioscurides Neapolitanus contains the work of Pedanius Dioscorides, the Greek physician who was born at Anazarbus near Tarsus in Cilicia (present-day Turkey) and lived in the first century AD during the reign of the Emperor Nero. Dioscorides wrote the treatise Perì üles iatrichès, commonly known in Latin as De materia medica (Of medical substances), in five books. It is considered the most important medical manual and pharmacopeia of ancient Greece and Rome and was highly regarded in the Middle Ages in both the Western ...
On Keeping Shop: A Guidebook for Preparing Orders
This highly informative work, compiled by a Jewish apothecary in 13th century Cairo, provides a wealth of information on his craft as practiced at the time. The author, Abu al-Munā Ibn Abī Nasr Ibn Hafāż, known as Cohen al-Isra’ī'lī al-Hārūnī, completed the work in 1260 (AH 658), shortly after the Mongol sacking of Baghdad in 1258, an event that reverberated throughout the Arab world. The manuscript contains notes by the author, to be passed to his son and descendents, who would be taking over the apothecary shop after ...
The Book of the New Chemical Medicine
This important text presents a detailed exposition of the harmony-based non-Galenic medicinal system of Paracelsus, i.e., Phillip von Hohenheim (1493-1541), the famous Renaissance author who advocated a new approach to the use of chemicals and minerals in medicine. The treatise, comprising more than 100 folio sheets, is divided into an introduction and several chapters. In the introduction, the author derives the word kīmīyā from the Greek χημεία. He attributes the foundation of the discipline to Hermes, but credits Paracelsus with shifting the discipline toward the art of medicine and ...
The Breakthrough in Remedying all Ailments and Complaints
This important work is a long but well-organized and clearly-written treatise on medicine, hygiene, diet, and the art of preserving good health. It focuses on simple and composite medicinal remedies. With the aid of tables, diagrams, and numerous examples, it presents a comprehensive, but accessible, synopsis of medical knowledge and medicinal treatments known at the time of its composition. The work is by the son of the well-known man of letters Nūr al-Dīn Ibrāhīm Ibn Sa‘īd al-Maghribī al-Gharnātī (1214-86 [610-85 AH]), and is dedicated to Shams al-Dīn Abū ‘Abd-Allāh ...
Crowning Arts for the Treatment of the Eyes
This manuscript, containing more than 350 folios, dates from the 19th or possibly even the early 20th century. The main body of the work deals with a range of treatments for medical conditions, especially and most extensively ophthalmological treatments and procedures. Miscellaneous notes appear on some folios. One page, for example, lists inauspicious days. Also included are several pages of information about spices and an explanation of abbreviations and units of measurement. Additional information about laxatives and infusions as well as treatments for foot ailments, skin disease, and epilepsy also ...
The Exquisite Book on Effective Spices
This 17th-century manuscript by Zawraq al-Maghribī is a treatise on the uses of herbs and animal body parts. Based on the teaching legacy of his father, Ḥafṣ Īsā ibn Husayn, the author states that he personally has tested all the information contained in the book. The work is divided into 12 sections, methodically arranged with reference to the human body, literally from head to toe. Chapter 1 covers headaches; Chapter 2, the digestive tract and the chest; Chapter 3, the stomach, liver, pancreas, kidneys, and bladder; Chapter 4, the stomach ...
The Book of Medicinal and Nutritional Terms
This manuscript is a copy of Kitab Al-jami li-mufradat al-adwiya wa al-aghdhiya (The book of medicinal and nutritional terms), an alphabetical encyclopedia by the Andalusian author, ‘Abd Allāh ibn Aḥmad ibn al-Bayṭār al-Mālaqī (circa 1197–1248), containing the names and properties of more than 1,000 plants and substances of medicinal value. The author quotes many earlier scientists, including Dioscorides, Galen, and Avicenna. Ibn al-Bayṭār was born in Malaga, hence the reference al-Mālaqī in his name, and the text contains numerous references to Andalusia and to Andalusian place-names such as ...
The Medical Formulary of Al-Samarqandī
Little is known about the author of this treatise on medical remedies, Nağīb al-Dīn Al-Samarqandī, apart from the fact that he was killed during the pillage of Herat (present-day Afghanistan) by the Mongols in 1222. His premature death notwithstanding, al-Samarqandī composed an impressive number of medical treatises dealing with pharmacology, dietetics, toxicology, and ophthalmology, and books on medicine in general. Al-Samarqandī showed a degree of modernity and independent thinking in his treatment of pathology. He appeared to set aside the theory of the four humors of the body dating back ...
The Savior from Demise: A Book on Withstanding the Harms of Deadly Poisons
The study of poisons and their remedies has played an important role in the Islamic medical tradition since the first century of the Hijra, and mention of the treatment of poisoning is already found in the hadith. The major Arabic medical encyclopedias—al-Rāzī's Kitāb Al-Manṣūrī and Al-Ḥāwī fī al-Ṭibb and Avicenna's Canon—included chapters on poisons in the early tenth and early 11th centuries. Famous authors such as Jābir ibn Ḥayyān (circa 721–815) and Moses Maimonides (the Jewish philosopher, theologian, and physician whose medical ...
The Richness of the Meanings in the Medical Art
As the poem preserved in the present manuscript clearly shows, the tradition of didactic poetry never really died out in the Islamic world, at least until the end of the 19th century. Muġnīya al-Maʻānī Ṣināʻat al-Ṭibb (The richness of the meanings in the medical art) is a metrical compendium of medicine written in the second half of the 19th century by the erudite Ibrāhīm ibn Aḥmad al-Šhīwī al-Dasūqī al-Šhāfiʻī. The more than 1,000 verses of the Muġnīya are composed in a strict metrical form. The rhyming ...
Illustrated Primer to the Materia Medica
This book, compiled by Chen Jiamo in 12 juan, edited by Ye Fei and Hu Yiguan, and supplemented by Liu Kongdun, was published in the first year of the Chongzheng reign (1628). The title on the cover, A New Expanded Edition of Primer to the Materia Medica, with illustrations, printed by Zhou Ruquan in his workshop, Wan juan lou (the Ten-Thousand-Volume Pavilion), indicates that the original work, published in 1565, did not have illustrations. In this new edition, each entry is illustrated. Also included and placed in front of the ...
Treatise on Material Medica
Zheng zhi ben cao (Treatise on materia medica) was compiled by Lu Zhizhu, a native of Tongcheng, Anhui Province, and edited and printed by Ruan Zisong. According to the compiler’s preface and a postscript in the work, Lu Zhizhu, although clever and versatile, was unsuccessful as a candidate for the imperial examinations. He gave up his previous studies, devoted himself to medicine, and became known for his deep knowledge and effective treatments. He eventually became a famed court physician. This work in 14 juan was compiled by Lu, based ...
Compendium of Materia Medica
Printed during the Wanli period, Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of materia medica) is a work on an encyclopedic scale, in 52 juan of text with two juan of illustrations, in 25 volumes. It was compiled by Li Shizhen (circa 1518–93), a native of Sichuan, who was one of the greatest physicians, pharmacologists, and naturalists in Chinese history. After serving for only one year in the prestigious Imperial Medical Institute, Li returned home to work as a doctor and to begin writing this book. The work and its three ...
Supplement to Compendium of Materia Medica
This work is a supplement to the 16th-century Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of materia medica) in manuscript form, of 11 juan, in 20 volumes, compiled by Zhao Xuemin (circa 1719–1805), a native of Qiantang (present-day Hangzhou), Zhejiang Province. The book is considered the most important medical work of the Qing dynasty. Zhao Xuemin was the son of a renowned physician, and both he and his brother followed in their father’s footsteps. Zhao was known as an avid collector of medical, pharmacological, and astrological works. He cultivated an ...
Depictions of Metals, Minerals, Insects and Plants
Jin shi kun chong cao mu zhuang (Depictions of metals, minerals, insects, and plants) was painted by Wen Shu (1594–1634), a great-great-granddaughter of Wen Zhengming (1470–1559), one of the greatest Ming dynasty painters, calligraphers, and scholars. Married to Zhang Jun, also a painter, and residing in Hanshan, Wen Shu was surrounded by nature and excelled in painting birds, flowers, plants, insects, and butterflies. She spent a number of years copying thousands of illustrations from books of traditional Chinese medicine in the imperial collection. Zhang Jun’s handwritten preface ...
Four Books on the Nature and Virtues of Plants and Animals for Medicinal Purposes in New Spain
Francisco Hernández de Toledo (1514–87) was a court physician, who in 1570 was ordered by King Philip II of Spain to embark on a scientific mission to New Spain (as Mexico was then called) to study the medicinal plants of the New World. For seven years Hernández traveled throughout the country, collecting specimens and gathering information on how plants were used by indigenous physicians. He returned to Spain in 1577 with 16 volumes of notes and with numerous illustrations made by three indigenous painters who assisted him in his ...
Chapter Nine of the Book of Medicine Dedicated to Mansur, with the Commentary of Sillanus de Nigris
Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (also known by Latinized versions of his name, Rhazes or Rasis, 865–925 AD) was a Persian polymath, physician, and philosopher. He was born in Rayy, south of present-day Tehran, Iran. After studying philosophy, at around the age of 30 he began studying medicine under the supervision of Abu Al-Hassan al-Tabari. He became the head of a Rayy hospital and later headed a hospital in Baghdad. Al-Razi was known in the fields of medicine and chemistry, which he combined to prescribe medications for numerous ...
Book of Simplification Concerning Therapeutics and Diet
Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik Ibn Zuhr (also known by the Latinized version of his name, Avenzoar, circa 1090–1162), was the leading medical doctor in Islamic Spain. A native of Seville, he studied medicine under his father, and later went into the service of the Almoravids and Almohads. He was a friend and near contemporary of the great Arabic physician Ibn Rushd, or Averroes (1126–98). Ibn Zuhr is said to have written his most famous work, Al-Teisir Fil-Mudawat Wal-Tadbeer (Book of simplification concerning therapeutics and diet), at the suggestion ...
Works of Medical Science
Opera medicinalia (Works of medical science) is a collection of pharmacological treatises by several authors. The main work, Canones (Canons), was attributed to an Arab physician in the 11th century and was later published in Europe under the name Johannese Mesue of Damascus. Also known as Mesue the Younger, the Pseudo-Mesue, and Yahya Ibn Masawayh, he was a monophysite Christian who died in Cairo in 1015, and who is said to have written pharmacological works. The first part of this book, Canones universalis (Universal canons), deals with treatment regimens. The ...
The Book of Medicinal and Nutritional Terms
Abu Muhammad Abdallah Ibn Ahmad Ibn al-Baitar Dhiya al-Din al-Malaqi (known as Ibn al-Baitar, circa 1197–1248 AD) was an Andalusian Arab scientist, botanist, pharmacist, and physician. He was born in Malaga, Spain, and died in Damascus, Syria. He is considered one of the major scientists of Muslim Spain. His father was a veterinarian, which earned him the nickname al-Baitar, Arabic for veterinarian. Ibn al-Baitar was also trained by a pioneering Andalusian botanist called Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati. Kitab Al-jami li-mufradat al-adwiya wa al-aghdhiya (The book of medicinal and nutritional terms ...