111 results in English
“De Materia Medica” by Dioscorides
This book exemplifies the transfer of knowledge across the centuries. During the first century, the Greek doctor and apothecary Dioscorides, who is considered the father of pharmacology, wrote a very important document on botany and pharmaceuticals. In the 10th century, during the times of ʻAbd al-Rahman III (891−961), caliph of Cordova, the work was translated into Arabic. In 1518 at the Escuela de Traductores de Toledo (the School of Translators of Toledo), Antonio de Nebrija made the first translation of the work in Spain into Latin. In 1555 in ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Of Medical Substances
The precious codex known as the Dioscurides Neapolitanus contains the work of Pedanius Dioscorides, the Greek physician who was born at Anazarbus near Tarsus in Cilicia (present-day Turkey) and lived in the first century AD during the reign of the Emperor Nero. Dioscorides wrote the treatise Perì üles iatrichès, commonly known in Latin as De materia medica (Of medical substances), in five books. It is considered the most important medical manual and pharmacopeia of ancient Greece and Rome and was highly regarded in the Middle Ages in both the Western ...
Araucaria angustifolia, a Paraná or Brazilian Pine
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Picture Book of Chrysanthemums
The chrysanthemum, the flower loved by Tao Yuan-ming (365−427), a distinguished Chinese poet of the Eastern Jin dynasty, was brought to Japan around the beginning of the Heian period (794−1185). The plant took root on Japanese soil and by the Edo period (1600−1868) several hundred different types of chrysanthemum were being cultivated in the country. Gakiku is the first picture book of chrysanthemums published in Japan. Its beautiful illustrations and Chinese-style poems introduced readers to 100 different varieties of the flower. The text and lines are printed ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
A Sketch Book of Sakura (Cherry Blossoms)
The sakura (cherry blossom) is the most famous flower of Japan, the beauty of which has long inspired artists in Japan. Created in the middle of the 19th century, Ōka-fu (A sketch book of cherry blossoms) contains the names and illustrations of 29 varieties of sakura, which are painted on silk with delicate brushwork. The artist, Sakamoto Kōnen (1800−53), studied herbal medicine under his father, Sakamoto Jun'an, physician-in-ordinary to the sovereign lord of Kishū Domain (present-day Wakayama Prefecture). Sakamoto Kōnen also worked in Kishū Domain as a ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Illustrated Manual of Medical Plants
This book is considered the first full-scale botanical art book in Japan. It was published in the late Edo period and comprises 92 volumes (volumes 1−4 remain incomplete), including more than 1,900 varieties of plants. The author, Iwasaki Kan’en (1786−1842), was a shogunate vassal. The work contains colored illustrations of wild species, garden species, and imported species, captioned with taxonomic names, and includes biological explanations and other information. The plants are classified and arranged according to the 16th-century Honzō kōmoku (Bencao gangmu in Chinese), a Chinese ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
A Summary of the Structure of Plant Parts and Their Functions
The work presented here is Kitāb mukhtaṣar tarkīb a‘ḍā al-nabāt wa waẓāifihā (A summary of the structure of plant parts and their functions) by ‘Uthmān Ghālib (1845−1920), an Egyptian physician and botanist. In a brief preface, he states that his aim is “to write concise books on the (various) branches of natural history so that they could be used in elementary schools.” He explains that “since botany, as the other branches of the natural sciences, requires ‘visualization’ for its apprehension, I strove to produce the necessary figures ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Plants with Parasites
The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. Biology and botany are well represented in the collection, reflecting the emperor’s personal interest in both science and the rich variety of plant life in Brazil, where some 50,000 ...
Plants with Parasites
The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. Biology and botany are well represented in the collection, reflecting the emperor’s personal interest in both science and the rich variety of plant life in Brazil, where some 50,000 ...
Alley of Chamaerops Excelsus, Windmill Palm
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Johnson Papyrus
Herbals are directories of plants, their properties, and their medicinal uses. Herbals most likely were at first not illustrated, but in late antiquity they acquired illustrations. This fragment of a leaf from an illustrated herbal from Hellenistic Egypt shows a plant that is possibly Symphytum officinale, or comfrey. The herbal is made of papyrus, a plant that flourished in the valley of the Nile, and the text is in Greek, the language of science throughout the eastern Mediterranean at this time. The fragment is probably from a copy of the ...
Contributed by Wellcome Library
Atlas of the Physical and Political History of Chile [Plates, Volume 1]
Claudio Gay was born in Provence, southern France, in 1800.  In childhood he developed a deep fascination with the natural sciences. In his youth, he traveled extensively in parts of Europe under the direction of the Italian botanist Juan Bautista Balbis, visiting the French Alps, northern Italy, Greece, Asia Minor, and several Mediterranean islands. In 1828 the adventurer Pedro Chapuis invited him to come to Chile to teach geography. Gay accepted the offer, and lived in Chile until 1842, working as a teacher and participating in scientific expeditions. Under ...
Contributed by National Library of Chile
The Book of Elegance in the Science of Agriculture
The author of this work, Abd al-Gani ibn Isma’il al-Nabulusi (1641–1731), is considered one of the most influential and prolific Syrian writers of his time. He was affiliated with the Sufi orders of the Naqšbandiyya and the Qādirīyya and produced an impressive number of works in the fields of mysticism, theology, and poetry. He traveled extensively in the Islamic world and recorded his adventures in narratives that touch upon his private mystical experiences and the intellectual milieu of the 18th-century Islamic centers. This manuscript contains a copy of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Botanical Description of Chiranthodendron
Little is known of José Dionisio Larreátegui other than that he was active in Mexico circa 1795, the date he published his work on the Mexican hand plant for which he is remembered. The late 1700s was a time of intense scientific activity in Mexico, then part of the Spanish Empire. In 1787, King Carlos III authorized a major botanical expedition, the establishment of a botanical garden, and a scientific course of study at the university in Mexico City. Larreátegui, a medical student at the Real y Pontífica Universidad de ...
Contributed by Smithsonian Institution
Water Lilies. Study. Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cornflowers in a Field of Rye. Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cornflowers in a Field of Rye. Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lilies. Study. Water Lilies. Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bluebells. Study. Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Flowers in a Vase
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Forest Road
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Double Poppies
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Double Poppies
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Field of Poppies
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Field Poppies
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
On the River
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pile of Willow Bark, Ready for Transportation. Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bird Cherry Tree
This view is taken from a bridge at the village of Kokovkino near where a stream enters Lake Sterzh in the Ostashkov Region of Tver Oblast. Lake Sterzh is the first of a series of lakes through which the Volga River flows on the first part of its long course to the south. The ancient village of Kokovkino is the largest settlement on Lake Sterzh. This beautifully composed bucolic scene includes birch trees, a grassy meadow, and a flowering bird cherry, on the right. A man, standing in the middle ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lilacs
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lilacs in a Park in Gatchina
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Peonies
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Peonies
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mugan. Nikolaevka. In the Garden of a Settler. Pomegranates.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Inside the Conservatory. Yellow Plums. Blizhniaia Dacha, Kyshtym
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. Among the towns Prokudin-Gorskii visited in 1909 was Kyshtym (in present-day Chelyabinsk Oblast), a settlement linked to an ironworking factory founded in 1757 by Nikita Demidov. Harsh working conditions at this factory contributed to periodic outbreaks of violence that swept over the region, most notably the Pugachev Rebellion (1774–76). When Prokudin-Gorskii visited in 1909, the Upper Kyshtym ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sunflowers. A Study
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. In the summer of 1910 Prokudin-Gorskii traveled along the Samara-Zlatoust Railway (built in 1885–90; now the Ufa-Chelyabinsk line), through territory in what is now the Republic of Bashkortostan. Seen here is a field of sunflowers near the rail line, probably located to the east of Ufa on the way to the Sim River basin. The field is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mountain Ash
In 1909 and 1910, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) traveled extensively in the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural landscapes. In the summer of 1910 he traveled along the Samara-Zlatoust Railroad (built in 1885–90; now the Ufa-Chelyabinsk line), subsequently a link in the Trans-Siberian Railway through the southern Urals. On the basis of its location in the contact albums, this photograph was presumably taken in this area, even though the precise location is not identified. At the center ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mountain Ash
In 1909 and 1910, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) traveled extensively in the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural landscapes. In the summer of 1910 he traveled along the Samara-Zlatoust Railroad (built in 1885–90; now the Ufa-Chelyabinsk line), subsequently a link in the Trans-Siberian Railway through the southern Urals. On the basis of its location in the contact albums, this photograph was presumably taken in this area, even though the precise location is not identified. The view, taken ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cedars
In 1909 and 1910, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) traveled extensively in the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural landscapes. His visit to the northern Urals (apparently in 1912) included the remote settlement of Nyrob, located 40 kilometers north of the regional center of Cherdyn. Judging from its position in the contact albums of the photographer, this view of a farmstead was likely taken on the road back to Cherdyn. The title for the photograph is simply “kedry,” a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cedars
In 1909 and 1910, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) traveled extensively in the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural landscapes. His visit to the northern Urals (apparently in 1912) included the remote settlement of Nyrob, located 40 kilometers north of the regional center of Cherdyn. Judging from its position in the contact albums of the photographer, this view of a farmstead was likely taken on the road back to Cherdyn. The title for the photograph is simply “kedry,” a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Quince in Bloom. Artvin
This 1905 photograph was taken in the mountain town of Artvin, located in the Caucasus in what is today Turkey. It features a lush quince tree in bloom within the fenced yard of a house. In the background is a steep ravine typical of the terrain of the region. Part of different Georgian kingdoms since the 10th century, the Artvin territory, along with much of the southern Caucasus, was taken by the Ottoman Empire in the early 16th century. Following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, the territory was transferred ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Japanese Maples. Batumi
In 1905 and again in 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) traveled and photographed extensively in the Caucasus region. He was particularly interested in exploring the southern part of Georgia near the Turkish border. Much of the southern Caucasus was absorbed into the Ottoman Empire in the early 16th century, and some local groups, including the Adjars, converted to Islam. In the 19th century this semitropical area witnessed expansion by the Russian Empire, which took the territory of Ach’ara from the Ottomans in 1878. By the 20th ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cape Zelenyi. Cluster of Japanese Maples. Orange Trees in the Foreground. Batumi
In 1905 and again in 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) traveled and photographed extensively in the Caucasus region. He was particularly interested in exploring the southern part of Georgia near the Turkish border. Much of the southern Caucasus was absorbed into the Ottoman Empire in the early 16th century. In the 19th century this semitropical area witnessed expansion by the Russian Empire, which took the territory of Ach’ara from the Ottomans in 1878. By the 20th century the region near the major port of Batumi became ...
Contributed by Library of Congress