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Report on the Different Masses of Iron, Found in the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes
Mariano Eduardo de Rivero y Ustáriz (1798–1857) was a Peruvian scientist, geologist, mineralogist, chemist, archaeologist, politician, and diplomat. After schooling in Arequipa, he was sent in 1810 at age 12 to London to study mathematics, physics, and languages. In 1817 he traveled to France to the École royale des mines de Paris to study mineralogy and chemistry. In France he met Joseph Louis Proust, Gay-Lussac, and Alexander von Humboldt. The latter became his mentor and, during the course of his travels in Europe, Rivero discovered a new iron-oxalate that ...
Map of the Investigation of the Asiatic Part of the USSR for Hydrogeological Purposes in 1932
This map was created for use by a Soviet government research institute. By means of the color coding, it shows regions in Siberia where hydrogeological investigations had been carried out and divides those regions into three categories: detailed and special hydrogeological investigations from prospectors' experience…on a scale of two versts per inch; general hydrogeological investigations…more than two versts per inch; and geological, hydrogeological, soil, and other investigations eliciting the presence of underground water. The white areas, occupying by far the largest part of the map, indicate where neither ...
Map of the Southern Half of Eastern Siberia and Parts of Mongolia, Manchuria, and Sakhalin: For a General Sketch of the Orography of Eastern Siberia
Orography is a branch of the science of geomorphology that deals with the disposition and character of hills and mountains. The orography of a region concerns its elevated terrain. This general sketch of the orography of eastern Siberia and adjacent areas shows hills, plateaus, lowlands, mountain ranges, and other features. Also shown are provincial and district centers, fortresses, Cossack villages, guard posts, factories and plants, mines, gold fields, monasteries, and postal and country roads.
A Chart of the Gulf Stream
This map, from the Peter Force Map Collection at the Library of Congress, was created by the Philadelphia engraver James Poupard. It was the third in a series featuring a chart of the Gulf Stream. The latter was well known to Spanish ship captains, who relied on it to sail from the Americas to the Iberian Peninsula, but there were no universal charts or maps due to Spanish secrecy. This map originally was sketched by Timothy Folger, a Nantucket fisherman and a cousin of Benjamin Franklin, who conceived the map ...
The Zhemini Gorge in the Vicinity of the Zaysan Post, Kazakhstan, 1875
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
Contributions to the Geography of South-West Africa
Fritz Jaeger and Leo Waibel were professors of geography in Germany who, in late 1913, were commissioned by the German colonial office to explore the northern part of German South-West Africa (present-day Namibia). They arrived in the colony in mid-1914 and soon were caught up in the events of World War I, which broke out in August of that year. Both men were drafted into the German Protection Force and fought in engagements with the South African forces entering German South-West Africa from the south. They were released from military ...
The Volcano Smeroe (View from the Passaroeng Residence)
This colored lithograph shows Smeroe (Semeru), the largest volcano on the island of Java. Also known as Mahameru, or the Great Mountain, the volcano erupted at least once a year during the 19th century, and since 1967 has been in a state of near-constant activity. This view from the town of Pasuruan shows a plume of smoke coming from the top of mountain. The Dutch painter Abraham Salm (1801-76) spent 29 years in Indonesia, where he produced many dramatic landscape paintings. This lithograph is one of 15 views of Java ...
A New Chart of Part of the North Pacific Ocean Exhibiting the Various Straits, Islands and Dangers
This map of the Pacific Ocean north of the equator is by Edmund March Blunt, the publisher and main author of the American Coastal Pilot. This work first appeared in 1796 and, in successive editions over the years, established Blunt as the premier publisher of nautical books in the United States. At the lower left of the map are shown the Caroline Islands, including the “Pelew Isles” (Palau Islands) as well as Yap and other islands that now make up the Federated States of Micronesia. The first Europeans to reach ...
View of the Damage from the Hurricane of 1906
The sixth hurricane of 1906 was one of 11 hurricanes or tropical cyclones that Atlantic hurricane season. The storm made landfall on September 27, 1906, west of Biloxi, Mississippi, but wreaked its greatest damage from Mobile, Alabama to Pensacola, Florida. The Category 4 hurricane was the most destructive storm to strike the Pensacola area in 170 years. Winds in excess of 105 miles (170 kilometers) per hour stretched past the city and port of Pensacola, and Escambia Bay in the Gulf of Mexico saw a storm surge as high as ...
After Great Hurricane of 1896
This image shows the devastation caused by the Great Hurricane of 1896 that struck the Gulf and Atlantic coasts of Florida. With its 2,200-kilometer coastline, Florida is the U.S. state most vulnerable to these storms. More than 450 recorded tropical storms and hurricanes have reached its shores since European exploration began. The hurricane of September 1896 destroyed most of the residential area of the town of Cedar Key on the upper west coast of the Florida peninsula, killing dozens of residents and destroying most of Cedar Key’s ...
Waves Hit Navarre Pier Hard During Hurricane Ivan's Approach
Hurricane Ivan was the strongest hurricane of the 2004 Atlantic storm season. It made landfall on the U.S. mainland in Gulf Shores, Alabama, on September 16 as a Category 3 storm. The 2004 storm season was especially active, with six landfalls, including four in Florida alone. Ivan greatly affected the coastal cities and smaller communities of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama, and Mississippi. This dynamic image of Ivan’s landfall in Navarre Beach, Florida, illustrates the force of the tidal surge and winds that destroyed miles of roads and highways ...
In the Urals
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
German South-West Africa
German South-West Africa, or present-day Namibia, was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 until 1915, when it was occupied by South African forces fighting on the side of Great Britain in World War I. The brief history of the colony was marked by a series of insurrections by the Khoekhoe and Hereros against German rule, insurrections that the authorities suppressed with extraordinary harshness. The German ambition was to populate the colony with large numbers of settlers from Germany, much as the British had done in other parts of ...
Report of the Expedition in 1892 to the Trans-Ural Steppe of the Urals Region and to Ust-Urt
In 1892, the shareholders of the Ryazan–Uralsk Railroad Company sponsored an expedition to the Trans-Ural steppe region of the Urals and to Ust-Urt for the purpose of determining the type and volume of cargo that could be carried on a projected rail route from Ryazan to Uralsk. The engineer and geologist S.N. Nikitin directed the expedition and prepared this report. Nikitin also investigated the deposits of oil, common salt, and other minerals found along the route. When completed in 1894, the Ryazan–Uralsk Railroad linked the center of ...
Earthquakes of India: Volume I
This work describes the events before, during, and after a massive earthquake that struck early in the morning of April 4, 1905, at Kangra, a town in the Himalayan foothills in the northern region of India historically known as Punjab (in the present-day state of Himachal Pradesh). Before the quake, seismic activity had extinguished the flames of combustible gas that usually jetted out at the nearby Hindu temple of Jawala Mukhi, and worshippers thought the gods displeased. The earthquake and its aftershocks killed between 20,000 and 25,000 people ...