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Marie Curie, neé Manya Sklodowska (1867–1934), was born in Warsaw. She immigrated to France in 1891 and studied at the Sorbonne. She worked with her husband, Pierre Curie (1859–1906), also a student and later professor at the Sorbonne, on magnetism and radioactivity. The Curies and French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852–1908) shared the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics for their discovery of radioactivity. After her husband’s death, Marie succeeded to his university chair. In 1911 she won a second Nobel, the prize for chemistry, for her ...
Declaration of Intention for Albert Einstein
In 1936, German-born physicist Albert Einstein filed this Declaration of Intention to become an American citizen. Following the Nazi takeover of political power in Germany in 1933 and the onset of persecution of the German Jews, Einstein renounced his German citizenship and immigrated to the United States to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton. On the basis of this declaration, the man who had first proposed the theory of relativity in 1905 became a U.S. citizen in 1940.
Arithmetic Conventions for Conversion Between Roman [i.e. Ottoman] and Egyptian Measurement
This treatise, written on ten folio pages for an Ottoman official and patron of books known as Ismā‘īl Afandī, is on the inter-conversion of units of measurement. It is a useful guide for merchants and others engaged in the measurement of quantities. It provides instructions for converting arṭāl (plural of raṭl) into uqaq (plural of auqiya), and back; darāhim (plural of dirham) into mathāqīl (plural of mithqāl) and back; and converting the number of Ottoman (referred to as Roman, rūmī) loading bags into the number of Egyptian loading bags ...
The Precious Necklace Regarding Weigh Scales
This treatise on scales, measures, and weighing instruments is by a prominent member of the Jabartī family, a distinguished clan of Somali-Egyptian Ḥanafī ‘ulamā’ in Ottoman-ruled Egypt. The author, Ḥasan al-Jabartī, was the father of the famous historian ‘Abd al-Rahmān al-Jabarti (1753-1826 [1167-1241 AH]). Ḥasan al-Jabartī married into wealthy military families and also inherited substantial wealth. His relatives included merchants and ship owners, and he spent part of his life in business. He had a reputation for deep learning and was credited with restoring Egypt’s prestige as a center ...
Collection of the Treatises of al-Ṭūsī
Naseer al-Din (or al-Naseer) al-Tusi (1201–74 AD, 597–672 AH) was a Muslim Persian polymath. He was born in Tus, Khorasan, in present-day Iran. Al-Tusi witnessed the great invasion of the Islamic world by the Mongols, whom he later joined. He was said to have been in the company of Hulegu Khan when the latter destroyed the Abbasid capital of Baghdad in 1258 AD. Al-Tusi, already a well-known scientist, later convinced Hulegu Khan to construct an observatory to facilitate the establishment of accurate astronomical tables for better astrological predictions ...