11 results in English
Marie Curie
Marie Curie, neé Manya Sklodowska (1867–1934), was born in Warsaw. She immigrated to France in 1891 and studied at the Sorbonne. She worked with her husband, Pierre Curie (1859–1906), also a student and later professor at the Sorbonne, on magnetism and radioactivity. The Curies and French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852–1908) shared the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics for their discovery of radioactivity. After her husband’s death, Marie succeeded to his university chair. In 1911 she won a second Nobel, the prize for chemistry, for her ...
Declaration of Intention for Albert Einstein
In 1936, German-born physicist Albert Einstein filed this Declaration of Intention to become an American citizen. Following the Nazi takeover of political power in Germany in 1933 and the onset of persecution of the German Jews, Einstein renounced his German citizenship and immigrated to the United States to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton. On the basis of this declaration, the man who had first proposed the theory of relativity in 1905 became a U.S. citizen in 1940.
Arithmetic Conventions for Conversion Between Roman [i.e. Ottoman] and Egyptian Measurement
This treatise, written on ten folio pages for an Ottoman official and patron of books known as Ismā‘īl Afandī, is on the inter-conversion of units of measurement. It is a useful guide for merchants and others engaged in the measurement of quantities. It provides instructions for converting arṭāl (plural of raṭl) into uqaq (plural of auqiya), and back; darāhim (plural of dirham) into mathāqīl (plural of mithqāl) and back; and converting the number of Ottoman (referred to as Roman, rūmī) loading bags into the number of Egyptian loading bags ...
The Light of the Eyes and the Enlightened Landscape of Vision
This work is a noteworthy treatise on optics that covers such basic topics as direct vision, reflection and refraction, and the length of shadows. It discusses convex and concave mirrors and the physiology of vision, and has a section on optical illusions. It is a cogent work on geometrical optics. It is particularly significant because it was written under the Ottoman sulṭān, Murāt ibn Selīm (reigned 1574-95 [982-1003 A.H.]). The name of the author is illegible on the front page, and seems to have been deliberately wiped off for ...
The Precious Necklace Regarding Weigh Scales
This treatise on scales, measures, and weighing instruments is by a prominent member of the Jabartī family, a distinguished clan of Somali-Egyptian Ḥanafī ‘ulamā’ in Ottoman-ruled Egypt. The author, Ḥasan al-Jabartī, was the father of the famous historian ‘Abd al-Rahmān al-Jabarti (1753-1826 [1167-1241 AH]). Ḥasan al-Jabartī married into wealthy military families and also inherited substantial wealth. His relatives included merchants and ship owners, and he spent part of his life in business. He had a reputation for deep learning and was credited with restoring Egypt’s prestige as a center ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Descartes’s "Principles of Philosophy"
René Descartes (1596–1650) was a French mathematician, scientific thinker, and philosopher who made important contributions to mathematics, optics, epistemology, and other fields that helped to shape how the modern world came to see nature and the human mind. The son of a lawyer, he was educated at the Jesuit College of La Flèche and in Poitiers, where he studied law. He became a soldier and served in the armies of Maurice, Prince of Orange, and Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria. He wrote numerous books, in Latin and in French ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Guide to Geometry, Surveying, the Launching of Missiles, and the Planting of Mines
This work, primarily intended for the training of military men, is a translation from a number of sources originally written in German and French. It was presented to the Bureau of Warfare and Jihād (Dār al-naṣr wa al-jihād) in Muḥarram, AH 1193 (early winter, 1779), or nearly two decades before Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt in 1798. The work’s compiler, ʻUthman ibn ʻAbd al-Mannān, a translator at the Ottoman court in Belgrade, had converted to Islam from Christianity. The title of the work hints at his sincere effort to ...
Works of Galileo Galilei, Part 2, Volume 13, Floats: Fragments and First Drafts Related to the Treatise "Of Things that Float on Water"
This fragmentary work elaborates on earlier studies undertaken by the Italian scientist, philosopher, and mathematician Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) on the Greek mathematician and physicist Archimedes of Syracuse (circa 287 BCE–circa 212 BCE). This study contains notes about the theories of buoyancy and floatation, which Galileo later gathered in a more coherent form in his treatise Discorso… intorno alle cose che stanno in sù l’acqua (Discourse on floating bodies), published in Florence in 1612. As with his more prominent work of astronomy, Sidereus Nuncius (Starry messenger), Galileo’s ...
Smoothing the Basis for the Investigation of the Meaning of Transits
Abu al-Rayhan al-Biruni (also known by the Latinized version of his name, Alberonius, 973–1048 AD; 362–440 AH) was an 11th-century Muslim polymath whose works and scholarly interests spanned the physical and natural sciences, mathematics, astronomy, geography, history, chronology, and linguistics. Al-Biruni was born in Kath, Khuwarazm, in present-day Uzbekistan, and died in Ghazni, in what is today east-central Afghanistan. He wrote more than 120 works and is considered the founder of Indology for his detailed description of 11th-century India. The crater Al-Biruni on the moon is named after ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Collection of the Treatises of al-Ṭūsī
Naseer al-Din (or al-Naseer) al-Tusi (1201–74 AD, 597–672 AH) was a Muslim Persian polymath. He was born in Tus, Khorasan, in present-day Iran. Al-Tusi witnessed the great invasion of the Islamic world by the Mongols, whom he later joined. He was said to have been in the company of Hulegu Khan when the latter destroyed the Abbasid capital of Baghdad in 1258 AD. Al-Tusi, already a well-known scientist, later convinced Hulegu Khan to construct an observatory to facilitate the establishment of accurate astronomical tables for better astrological predictions ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
A Guide to Geometry, Surveying, the Launching of Missiles, and the Planting of Mines
Hadiyat Al-Muhtadi fil Al-Handassa (A guide to geometry, surveying, the launching of missiles, and the planting of mines) is a technical manual on geometry and surveying, as well as on the motion of projectiles and the construction of missiles. The pages have a number of tables and illustrations set in the text area, and the book has many diagrams and drawings in its wide margins. The work consists of an introduction, two chapters, and a conclusion. The author describes the first chapter as being on the figures of plane geometry ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library