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This work is a printed edition of *Kita**̄b taḥri**̄r uṣu**̄l li-Uqli**̄dus* (The recension of Euclid's *Elements*) by one of the intellectual luminaries of the Islamic world, the Persian polymath Naṣīr al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ṭūsī (1201–74). After his death al-Ṭūsī was referred to as *al-muʿallim al-thālith* (the third teacher, with Aristotle and Fārābī referred to as the first and second teachers, respectively). An extraordinarily prolific author, al-Ṭūsī made notable contributions to most of the intellectual fields of his era, writing on theology, mysticism, logic ...

Johannes Huswirth (Sanensis) was a German arithmetician who flourished around 1500. Nothing is known of his life. That he is sometimes referred to as Sanensis suggests that he may have come from Sayn, Germany. *Arithmetice Lilium Triplicis Practice* (The threefold lily of practical arithmetic) presents basic arithmetic operations such as addition and multiplication for whole numbers and fractions. It treats much of the same material that Huswirth had covered in an earlier work, *Enchirdion Algorismi* (Handbook of algorithms). The work includes two woodcut illustrations; one of God the Father and ...

Timbuktu, founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries of Timbuktu contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. This work (date unknown) explains mathematical calculations and their use in astronomy and astrology. The final portion of the manuscript is missing.

The original author of this work was Zhu Shijie (1249–1314) of the Yuan dynasty, one of the early Song and Yuan mathematicians, who wrote an elementary textbook entitled *Suan xue qi meng* (Primer of mathematics), which was printed in 1299. The work was said to have reached as far as Japan and Korea. After the 19th-century Chinese mathematician Luo Shilin (died 1853) acquired a copy of a Korean edition, which was printed based on the original Yuan edition, he reproduced it in or after 1839, and included it in ...

This landscape-shaped printed work is the first treatise on tailoring published in Spain. It paved the way for other such works in the late 16th century and early 17th century. The author was Juan de Alcega, born in Guipuzcoa, in the Basque region of northern Spain, and a tailor by trade. In his dedication, to a theologian called Tejada, he describes "this, my small work, something brand new, never seen so far in our Spain." The usefulness of the work was confirmed by Hernan Gutierrez, tailor to the princess of ...