12 results in English
Primer with Various Instructions
Beron’s Primer with Various Instructions is the first modern Bulgarian primer. Used by children throughout the 19th century, it contained, in addition to the rules of grammar, general information about nature and basic arithmetic. The book is better known as the “Fish Primer” for the picture of the whale at the end. Beron is considered the father of modern Bulgarian.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Correct Words and Variations in the Persian Language
This 16th-century manuscript is a Persian dictionary, written at the time of the Mongol expansion into Persia (present-day Iran). The format of the dictionary follows that of older Arabic dictionaries, in which words were arranged according to the last consonant. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870-1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet, journalist, and museum director who assembled a collection of 284 manuscript ...
On the Art of al-Aroodh
This manuscript book from 1554 is in two sections. The first section is a grammatical work by an unknown author that compares the conjugation of verbs in Arabic and in Farsi, indicating changes in the forms each time a different tense is used, and that also contains a list of the singular and plural forms of many Arabic nouns. The second section of the book is a brief article, in Ottoman Turkish, by an unknown author, on the metrics of Arabic poetry. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of ...
Bulgarian Grammar
Notable as the first Bulgarian grammar, this book is also culturally significant because of the role that its author, Neofit Rilski (1793–1881), played in the promotion of secular education in Bulgaria and in the establishment of a modern Bulgarian literary language. Neofit, a priest associated with the Rila Monastery, was a leading figure in the 19th-century Bulgarian National Revival and its concomitant education reform. He was the first headmaster of the Gabrovo School, the first secular school in Bulgaria. In the midst of a national debate in the 1830s ...
Grammar of the Slavic Language
Ivan N. Momchilov was a noted teacher and textbook writer during the 19th-century era of the Bulgarian National Revival. As a teacher, he recognized the need for a basic primer for his pupils on Church Slavic, and set about writing such a work. His 1847 Grammar of the Slavic Language was Momchilov’s first textbook and the first Church Slavic grammar to be published in Bulgarian and by a Bulgarian. It was compiled using several other grammars as its foundation, namely those by the Russian Ivan Stepanovich Peninskii, by the ...
Writing Manual
Sava Dobroplodni (1820–94) was a noted educator, dramatist, and literary figure during the era of the National Revival in Bulgaria. In his role as an educator, he wrote many textbooks, including this pismennik (writing manual). Published in 1853, Dobroplodni’s guide was one of the earliest Bulgarian manuals of writing, or orthography, as well as the first to provide definitions of such literary terms as metaphor, synonym, and allegory. The book showed the Slavic, Greek, German, and French alphabets, offered rules for writing, and gave examples of good writing ...
Civil Alphabet with Moral Teachings
Civil Alphabet with Moral Teachings, published in 1710, is the first official Russian civil alphabet. Also known as the “ABC book of Peter the Great,” it was aimed at simplifying the Russian alphabet and was produced after many years of experiments conducted by Dutch and Russian experts under the guidance and with the direct participation of Tsar Peter the Great (reigned, 1682–1725). This copy of the alphabet is of particular interest, as it contains corrections to the composition and form of the letters, handwritten by the tsar. The back ...
Alphabet Book for Primary Schools in the Bosnian Vilayet
The first printing house in Bosnia and Herzegovina was founded in 1519 by Božidar Goraždanin, in the city of Goražde, in eastern Bosnia. Two years later, in 1521, the establishment closed and was moved to Romania. Subsequently, a small number of books written in Bosnia and Herzegovina were sent outside the country to be printed, in Venice, Vienna, Rome, and elsewhere, but books were not produced in the country. In the second half of the 19th century, there was a revival of interest in printing and publishing in Bosnia and ...
Bosnian Grammar for High Schools. Parts 1 and 2, Study of Voice and Form
The first printing house in Bosnia and Herzegovina was founded in 1519 by Božidar Goraždanin, in the city of Goražde, in eastern Bosnia. Two years later, in 1521, the establishment closed and was moved to Romania. Subsequently, a small number of books written in Bosnia and Herzegovina were sent outside the country to be printed, in Venice, Vienna, Rome, and elsewhere, but books were not produced in the country. In the second half of the 19th century, there was a revival of interest in printing and publishing in Bosnia and ...
The History of the Urdu Language
This work, published in Delhi in 1920, is a history of the Urdu language from its origins to the development of an Urdu literature. Urdu and Hindi share an Indo-Aryan base, but Urdu is associated with the Nastaliq script style of Persian calligraphy and reads right-to-left, whereas Hindi resembles Sanskrit and reads left-to-right. The earliest linguistic influences in the development of Urdu probably began with the Muslim conquest of Sindh in 711. The language started evolving from Farsi and Arabic contacts during the invasions of the Indian subcontinent by Persian ...
Dictionary of Urdu Terms Used in Newspapers
Ziauddin Ahmad Barni (1890–1969) was born and educated in Delhi, where his father and one of his brothers were instrumental in the development of Urdu newspapers and several members of the family were renowned calligraphers. Proficient in Farsi and English, he worked in the Oriental Translator’s Office in Bombay (present-day Mumbai), until his retirement in 1948. He also wrote for the Bombay Chronicle in both English and Urdu. In 1915 he published this dictionary of terminology in common usage in the Urdu newspapers of the day. Entries are ...
Panjabi Grammar: A Brief Grammar of Panjabi As Spoken in the Wazirabad District
Thomas Grahame Bailey (1872–1942) was a Church of Scotland missionary in India who made extensive studies of northern Indian languages. After studying Hindi and Urdu at the London University School of Oriental Studies, he went on to publish books on Panjabi (now usually called Punjabi), Himalayan dialects, Urdu, Kanauri, Kashmiri, Shina, and other languages. Panjabi Grammar: A Brief Grammar of Panjabi As Spoken in the Wazirabad District was written at the request of an official of the government of Punjab, in what was then a part of British India ...