47 results in English
A Collection from the Archaeological Museum, Used for Teaching in the Women's Advanced Courses in Kiev
This book contains an extended essay about and eight illustrations of the clothes and decorations worn by women in ancient Russia. The information is based on archeological excavations of kurgans, or burial mounds, containing domestic objects from the ancient Slavs. The objects depicted are from the Archaeological Museum in Kiev. As indicated in the title, the book was used for teaching courses for women in Kiev. Advanced courses for women opened in Kiev and several other Ukrainian cities in 1878, and were part of a broader movement in the country ...
Kiev Brotherhood Teaching Monastery: A Historical Essay
The Kyiv-Mohyla Academy traces its origins to 1615, when the noblewoman Galshka Gulevicheva donated land and money to build the Brotherhood Monastery School in Kiev. When Metropolitan of Kyiv Petro Mohyla (circa 1597–1647) arrived in Kiev and decided to open a school at Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, the Brotherhood Monastery School appealed to Mohyla not to open a new school but to use the existing institution as the base for a new academy. Mohyla agreed, and in 1632 the Brotherhood Monastery School became the foundation of the future academy. Under Mohyla ...
Kiev with Its Oldest School, the Academy
The Kyiv-Mohyla Academy traces its origins to 1615, when the noblewoman Galshka Gulevicheva donated land and money to build the Brotherhood Monastery School in Kiev. When Metropolitan of Kyiv Petro Mohyla (circa 1597–1647) arrived in Kiev and decided to open a school at Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, the Brotherhood Monastery School appealed to Mohyla not to open a new school but to use the existing institution as the base for a new academy. Mohyla agreed, and in 1632 the Brotherhood Monastery School became the foundation of the future academy. Under Mohyla ...
A History of Kiev Academy
The Kyiv-Mohyla Academy traces its origins to 1615, when the noblewoman Galshka Gulevicheva donated land and money to build the Brotherhood Monastery School in Kiev. When Metropolitan of Kyiv Petro Mohyla (circa 1597–1647) arrived in Kiev and decided to open a school at Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, the Brotherhood Monastery School appealed to Mohyla not to open a new school but to use the existing institution as the base for a new academy. Mohyla agreed, and in 1632 the Brotherhood Monastery School became the foundation of the future academy. Under Mohyla ...
Muslim School. Punishments (Striking with Cane on Palms or Soles)
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Muslim School, or Mekteb-khane
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Muslim School. School Routine
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Muslim School. Handwriting Lessons
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Muslim School. Listening to Lessons
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zeravshan Okrug. A Jewish School in Samarkand
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zeravshan Okrug. First Lessons. A Man with a Young Boy Who is Reading a Book
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zeravshan Okrug. Handwriting Lessons
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zeravshan Okrug. Prayer Lessons at School
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zeravshan Okrug. Listening to Lessons
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pinkas of the Talmud Torah Religious School from Kopychintsy
This pinkas (record book) of the Talmud Torah religious school from the town of Kopychintsy in eastern Galicia, Ukraine, reflects the activity of a religious school in the late 19th century. It consists of the traditional components of such works: the title page, the second title, blessings, the statutes, a list of members of society, and the diaries of the activities of the Talmud Torah school. All pages of the pinkas are richly decorated in the traditional manner of this type of Jewish document. The title pages are designed as ...
Album Number 14: Drawings and Sketches by Students of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra Monastery Workshop
The collection of kuzhbushki (a corrupt form of the German, Kunstbuch, meaning “book of art”) held by the V.I. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine contains albums of drawings by teachers and students at the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra Monastery icon-painting workshop. Also included in the collection are albums containing examples of West European engravings from the 16th–18th centuries. The Kiev-Pechersk Lavra Monastery workshop was one of the oldest art schools in Eastern Europe. Among the drawings in this album are portraits of prominent church and political figures, sketches on religious ...
From a Father to his Son: Letters on Education, Schooling, and the Arts
Min wālid ilā waladihi: wa-hiyya rasā'il fī al-tarbiyya wa-al-ta‛līm wa-al-ādāb (From a father to his son: Letters on education, schooling, and the arts) is a collection of the letters that the author wrote to his son, Jamāl al-Dīn Aḥmad Ḥāfiz ‛Awwaḍ, during the latter's student years at the American University in Beirut. The book was published in Cairo in 1923. The first six letters are mostly devoted to the expression of the father's love for his son and to general themes of education and schooling. The ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Victorius of Aquitaine. Martianus Capella. Remigius of Auxerre. Gregory the Great
This manuscript opens with a one-page text by Victorius of Aquitaine (fifth century). The rest of the work consists of two distinct parts. The first part, written in the second half of the 11th century, presents a work of Martianus Capella (fifth century) on the Seven Liberal Arts, followed by an important commentary on this text by Remigius of Auxerre (circa 841−908). A full-page pen drawing, which depicts numerous gods and demons of the ancient world, is situated between the text and the commentary. Because of its stylistic features ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Statutes and Ordinances of the University, and General Study of the Ciudad de Los Reyes in Peru
Constitvciones y ordenanças de la Vniversidad, y stvdio general de la ciudad de los Reyes del Piru (Statutes and ordinances of the university, and general study of Ciudad de los Reyes in Peru) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1602. Lima was founded in 1535 by the Spanish explorer and conquistador Francisco Pizarro, and was originally called Ciudad de los Reyes (City of Kings). The university in Lima was founded in 1551. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Workbook Exercises in English
Martin Kukučín, pseudonym of Matej Bencúr (1860−1928), was an important representative of Slovak literary realism. He worked as a physician in Prague, Croatia, and later in South America. Presented here is a workbook of exercises in English from the time of his studies at the gymnasium in the Hungarian town of Sopron. The workbook is now preserved in Kukučín’s literary estate, held at the Slovak National Library. Biographers and critics have inferred from the fact that Kukučín began learning English already during his time at the gymnasium, prior ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Lectures Notes on Natural Law, International Law, Constitutional Law, Political Economy, and Statistics
In 1853, after the arrival of Commodore Matthew C. Perry (1794–1858), there was an urgent need to introduce Western learning and technology in Japan. The Bakufu (shogunate) therefore devised a plan to acquire Western ships and to send Japanese to study abroad. At first Japan considered the United States as the best country from which to order warships and to send students, but it was unable to do so because of the American Civil War. The Bakufu therefore approached Holland and negotiated and finalized with the Dutch an order ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Garvin Papers. Bound Notebook
In April 1915 Second Lieutenant Roland Gerard Garvin of the British Army enrolled in a course of instruction at Staff College in Camberley, Surrey, England. There he attended lectures on tactical instruction, topography, field engineering, administration, organization, military law, and hygiene. One of his lecturers was Major Hubert Conway Rees, who had commanded a battalion during the retreat from Mons in 1914. These notes and drawings by Garvin are from a tour of field works that he made as part of the course and that was led by Major Rees ...
Contributed by The British Library
Imperial Military Middle School, Ṣanʻāʾ
This photograph from the Abdul-Hamid Collection in the Library of Congress shows the Imperial Military Middle School in Ṣan'ā', Yemen. Sultan Abdul-Hamid II (1842-1918) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1876 to 1909. The Abdul-Hamid Collection consists of 1,819 photographs in 51 large-format albums dating from about 1880 to 1893. An avid collector and promoter of photography, the sultan appears to have conceived the work as a portrait of his empire for a Western audience, intended to highlight the empire's modernization. Well-known Ottoman commercial photographers such as Abdullah ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
High School, Monastir
This photograph from the Abdul-Hamid Collection in the Library of Congress shows a high school in Bitola, Macedonia, a city known in the Ottoman Empire as Monastir. Sultan Abdul-Hamid II (1842-1918) ruled the empire from 1876 to 1909. The Abdul-Hamid Collection consists of 1,819 photographs in 51 large-format albums dating from about 1880 to 1893. An avid collector and promoter of photography, the sultan appears to have conceived the work as a portrait of his empire for a Western audience, intended to highlight the empire's modernization. Well-known Ottoman ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Imperial Military Middle School, Monastir
This photograph from the Abdul-Hamid Collection in the Library of Congress shows the Imperial Military Middle School in Bitola, Macedonia, a city known in the Ottoman Empire as Monastir. Sultan Abdul-Hamid II (1842-1918) ruled the empire from 1876 to 1909. The Abdul-Hamid Collection consists of 1,819 photographs in 51 large-format albums dating from about 1880 to 1893. An avid collector and promoter of photography, the sultan appears to have conceived the work as a portrait of his empire for a Western audience, intended to highlight the empire's modernization ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Wills Concerning the School in Gabrovo
The Gabrovo School was the first secular school in Bulgaria. Founded in 1835, it trained Bulgarian teachers and employed such notable Bulgarian scholars as Neofit Rilski. This work contains the wills of several men associated with the Gabrovo School, including one of its co-founders, V. E. Aprilov. The wills appear in Bulgarian with the corresponding Greek translation on opposite pages. Printed at the end of the book are illustrations of the grave monuments of Aprilov and the school's other co-founder, N.S. Palauzov.
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Gabrovo School and Its First Trustees
The Gabrovo School was the first secular school in Bulgaria. Founded in 1835, it trained Bulgarian teachers and employed such notable Bulgarian scholars as Neofit Rilski. The Gabrovo School and Its First Trustees is a history of the school’s early years, edited by Petko Slaveikov, one of Bulgaria’s most renowned 19th-century writers.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mary McLeod Bethune with a Line of Girls from the School
Mary McLeod Bethune was a pioneering American educator and civil rights leader. Born Mary Jane McLeod on July 10, 1875, in Mayesville, South Carolina, the daughter of former slaves, Bethune won scholarships to attend Scotia Seminary in Concord, North Carolina (now Barber-Scotia College), and the Institute for Home and Foreign Missions in Chicago (now the Moody Bible Institute). In 1904, she moved to Daytona Beach, Florida, to found her own school. Her one-room school house became the Daytona Normal and Industrial School for Negro Girls before merging with Cookman Institute ...
A History of the University of the Panjab
The University of the Punjab (as it is now spelled) was formally established in Lahore, in present-day Pakistan, in 1882. It was the fourth university founded by the British colonial authorities on the Indian subcontinent, the first three being at the initial British strongholds of Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta. The University of the Punjab was from the beginning both a teaching and an examining body, and it was the first higher education institution in India in a majority Muslim area. J.F. Bruce (1867–1933), who published this work in ...
Opening Proclamation from University Authorities Prior to an Academic Term
The University of Vienna was founded by Duke Rudolph IV of Austria in 1365 and is the oldest university in the German-speaking world. As at other European universities, the primary language of scholarship was Latin. This proclamation in Latin is by Petrus Muchitsch, a classical philologist and theologian who twice served as rector of the university, in 1577–78 and again in 1578. In this greeting, Petrus invites the students of the university to resume their studies following the end of the 1578 epidemic of plague in Vienna. Printed in ...
Contributed by Austrian National Library
The Young Girl Gyokkashi Eimo
The term ukiyo-e, literally “pictures of the floating world,” refers to a genre of Japanese artwork that flourished in the Edo period (1600–1868). As the phrase “floating world” suggests, with its roots in the ephemeral worldview of Buddhism, ukiyo-e captured the fleeting dynamics of contemporary urban life. While being accessible and catering to “common” tastes, the artistic and technical details of these prints show remarkable sophistication, their subjects ranging from portraits of courtesans and actors to classical literature. This nishiki-e (full-color print) shows Gyokkashi Eimo, a young girl with ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Education, Training
This 1919 poster shows education and training being conducted at the ordnance operations, maintenance, and repair schools at the Raritan Arsenal in Metuchen, New Jersey. Photographs show classes receiving instruction in ten different skills or trades necessary to the U.S. Army at that time: machinist, blacksmith, welding, automobile mechanic, tractor mechanic, small arms and machine guns, explosives, artillery mechanic, saddler, and woodworking. The arsenal was part of the U.S. Army Ordnance Department, which traced its origins to the Board of War and Ordnance established in 1776 to supply ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mullah with His Female Students near the Artomelinskaia Mosque in Artvin
In 1905 and again in 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) traveled and photographed extensively in the Caucasus region. This photograph was taken in the town of Artvin, which is nestled in the Kackar Mountains near the Coruh River, some 30 kilometers from the Black Sea (now the extreme northeastern corner of Turkey). The site of Artvin has been settled for millennia and was often fought over due to its strategic position. For the past several centuries the area has generally been under the control of various Turkish ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Group of Jewish Children with a Teacher. Samarkand
This photograph shows five Jewish schoolboys in Samarkand being instructed by their rebbe, or teacher. Most of the boys are wearing colorful traditional robes and skullcaps. The teacher, whose dignified face is framed by a silver beard, is dressed in a simple dark robe and a fur hat. The school table is placed in a well-kept courtyard, which improved the lighting for the photograph. The Jewish diaspora in Central Asia is thought to date at least from the Babylonian Captivity (6th–7th centuries BCE), and perhaps even earlier. By the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Students in Mudaris. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasahs (religious schools). The third of these, the Tillia Kari Madrasah, was built in 1646–60. Its basic plan is formed by a rectangular courtyard, bounded by arcades that contain rooms for scholars. Shown in this courtyard view are students reading texts with a mudaris (teacher), who is wearing dark glasses. The man seated on the red carpet next to the teacher is apparently his assistant. All the men wear white turbans, and the students are dressed in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Students. Samarkand
Shown here are two students in Samarkand, probably at the Tillia Kari Madrasah, one of three religious schools bordering Registan Square. Built in 1646–60, Tillia Kari is shaped by a rectangular courtyard bounded by arcades that contained rooms for scholars. The students in this courtyard view are seated on a brick ledge that has been partially cleared of snow. They are wearing white turbans and long-sleeved padded robes against the cold. Both have carefully trimmed beards and moustaches. They gaze intently toward the camera. At the top are remnants ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Duan-Beggi Medrese (in Labikhauz). Bukhara
The Astrakhanid dynasty in Bukhara (in present-day Uzbekistan) during the 17th century was adept in its organization of urban space. One example is the Lab-i-Hauz complex, a trading area containing a square reservoir that provided water and served as a reflecting pool for three buildings. Among them is the khanaka, or hostel for pilgrims and travelers, built in 1619–20 by Nadir Divan-Begi, a vizier (high official) and uncle of the Bukhara ruler Imam Kuli Khan. (The madrasah mentioned in the caption is in fact an adjacent structure.) Although severely ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Above Entrance to Gauk Man Medrese. Bukhara
The Gaukushon complex in Buhkara (present-day Uzbekistan) consists of a religious school (madrasah), a mosque, and a minaret. Shown here is the upper part of the iwan (main entrance arch) of the two-story Gaukushon, or Hodja, Mosque. The structure was built in 1598, the final year of the reign of Abdulla-khan II (1534–98), the last effective ruler of the Sheibanid dynasty. (The Gaukushon madrasah had been built in 1570.) Although severely damaged over time, the mosque facade shows remnants of the once-brilliant surface of ceramic tiles in elaborate geometric ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kush-Medrese. Outer Entrance. Bukhara
A distinctive feature of the Islamic architecture of Bukhara (in present-day Uzbekistan) is the kosh madrasah, consisting of two religious schools facing each other. Shown here is the Madori-khan Madrasah, built in 1566–67 to honor the mother of Abdulla-khan II (1534–98), the last effective ruler of the Sheibanid dynasty. Despite significant losses, the facade and iwan (main arch) show an elaborate array of ceramic work, including intricate geometric and floral patterns with intertwining tendrils. On the sides and top are remnants of large Perso-Arabic inscription bands in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kush-Medrese (Interior from the Right Side). Bukhara
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Students Studying in the Netherlands at the End of the Edo Period
This photograph of Japanese students in the Netherlands was taken in 1865. After the arrival in Japan of Commodore Mathew C. Perry and the opening of Japanese ports to international trade, the acquisition of Western science and technology became an urgent priority for Japan. The shogunate government drew up a plan to dispatch students to Western countries. The government initially planned to purchase its first warship from the United States and send its first students there, but the outbreak of the U.S. Civil War forced it to drop those ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Alphabet Book for Primary Schools in the Bosnian Vilayet
The first printing house in Bosnia and Herzegovina was founded in 1519 by Božidar Goraždanin, in the city of Goražde, in eastern Bosnia. Two years later, in 1521, the establishment closed and was moved to Romania. Subsequently, a small number of books written in Bosnia and Herzegovina were sent outside the country to be printed, in Venice, Vienna, Rome, and elsewhere, but books were not produced in the country. In the second half of the 19th century, there was a revival of interest in printing and publishing in Bosnia and ...