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158 results
Military Map, Island of Puerto Rico
This military map of Puerto Rico was published in 1898, the year in which the United States, in the course of the Spanish-American War, seized the island from Spain. Hostilities began on May 12 with a blockade and bombardment of the city of San Juan by the U.S. Navy. This was followed with the landing off the coast of Guánica on July 12 of a force of 1,300 U.S. soldiers. In the peace treaty that was signed in Paris on December 10, 1898, the United States formally ...
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Columbus Memorial Library, Organization of American States
West Indies Showing Sovereignty of the Various Islands
This undated map of the West Indies from the first half of the 20th century was produced by the Military Intelligence Division of the General Staff of the U.S. Department of the Army. It shows U.S., British, French, and Dutch possessions in the region, along with principal trade routes, undersea telegraph cables owned by Britain and the United States, and the location of government and privately owned radio stations. Defense of the Caribbean against possible incursions by hostile European powers was a major concern of U.S. military ...
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Columbus Memorial Library, Organization of American States
All Essential Matters on Firearms
This treatise, with rich illustrations, is entitled Huo gong qie yao (All essential matters on firearms). Its alternative title is Ze ke lu (Rules for defense). The text was originally dictated by Tang Ruowang (the Chinese name of the German Jesuit missionary Johann Adam Schall von Bell, 1592–1666) in 1643 and copied by the late-Ming scholar and expert on firearms, Jiao Xu (active 1643). Jiao Xu expressed his view that the technical standards of Chinese cannons and other artillery weapons were not inferior to those of the West and ...
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National Central Library
Eleven Commentaries to The Art of War by Sunzi
Sunzi bing fa (The art of war by Sunzi) is the most important and popular military classic of ancient China. Its influence also spread to neighboring countries and beyond. Sun Wu, also known as Sunzi or Sun Tzu, lived in the State of Qi during the late Spring and Autumn period (770-476 BC). He served the State of Wu, in the southeast coastal area, from around 512 BC and presented his military strategy in a work of 13 chapters to the king of Wu. Together with Wu Zixu (died 484 ...
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National Central Library
Supplement to the “Rules of Defense, All Essential Matters on Firearms”
Shown here is a treatise on firearms with rich illustrations, originally written by the late-Ming scholar and expert on firearms, Jiao Xu, based on the dictation of Tang Ruowang (Chinese name of German Jesuit missionary Johann Adam Schall von Bell, 1592–1666), with additional commentaries by Zhao Zhong. The inside page of this work has an added title, Zeng bu Ze ke lu Huo gong qie yao (Supplement to the “Rules of defense, all essential matters on firearms”). The book, in two juan, was completed in 1643, with a supplement ...
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National Central Library
The Administrative Maps of the Ming Dynasty (Incomplete Copy)
The author of this work was Chen Zushou (died 1637), a late-Ming literary author. A native of Yanling (present-day Changzhou, Jiangsu Province), Chen Zushou received his jin shi degree in 1634 and became, in the following year, an official at the Bureau of Operations, one of the four bureaus in the Ministry of War. In 1636, while working at the ministry, he wrote this book, based on a large number of earlier works and contemporary local records, including maps. The original edition, very rich in content, had three juan in ...
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National Central Library
Ali Masjid and the British Camp, 1878
This photograph of the British camp at Ali Masjid is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Ali Masjid is located in the narrowest part of the Khyber Pass, and was the first location captured by General Sir Samuel Browne (1824–1901) on his march with the Peshawar Valley Field Force towards Kabul at the start of war. The battle took place on November 21, 1878. Browne’s victorious British and Indian troops faced the Afghan army and tribesmen led ...
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Library of Congress
Captured Guns at Ali Masjid
This photograph of artillery pieces captured by British forces in the Battle of Ali Masjid is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. In the battle, which took place in November 1878, a British and Indian force led by General Sir Samuel Browne (1824–1901) won a victory over the Afghan Army and tribesmen led by Gholam Hyder Khan. Browne captured the fort at Ali Masjid and then marched to Kabul, prompting the Afghan amir, Sher ʻAlī Khān (1825–79 ...
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Library of Congress
Landi Kotal
This photograph of Landi Kotal is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Landi Kotal is a small town at the western edge of the Khyber Pass that traditionally marks the entrance to Afghanistan. It is the highest point along the pass. Pictured here is the encampment of the 12,000-strong Peshawar Valley Field Force, under General Sir Samuel Browne (1824–1901), as it crossed the Khyber Pass on the march towards Kabul at the start of the war. The ...
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Library of Congress
Suffain Koh Panorama
This panoramic photograph of the Suffain Koh or Safed Koh (meaning White Mountain) range is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The Safed Koh range reaches up to 4,671 meters, creating a natural border between eastern Afghanistan and northwestern Pakistan. A range of smaller hills runs across the middle distance of the photograph, while the Safed Koh looms behind them. The British military camp can be seen stretching across the plain in the foreground. The Second Anglo-Afghan War ...
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Library of Congress
Captured Guns, Kabul
This photograph of Afghan artillery captured during the British occupation of Kabul in October–December 1879 is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Sir Frederick Roberts (1832–1914), the commander of the Kabul Field Force, brought at least 20 field guns (usually horse-drawn mobile cannons) with his army during the conquest and occupation of Kabul during the second phase of the war. His move against Kabul was sparked by the assassination in September 1879 of Sir Pierre Louis Napoleon ...
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Library of Congress
Camp on Shagai Heights
This photograph of the British camp on the Shagai Plateau is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The ascent to the Shagai Plateau begins shortly after the entrance to the Khyber Pass from the southeast (at Peshawar, in present-day Pakistan). The encampment of the conical tents of the Peshawar Valley Field Force stretches off into the horizon. The camels seen among the tents were used by the British and Indian troops to transport supplies and equipment. Smaller hills in ...
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Library of Congress
Guns Captured at the Peiwar Kotal. Parked at Kohat
This photograph of captured Afghan artillery pieces at Peiwar Kotal is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Mobile field guns of various sizes are arrayed in front of a line of British tents. In the foreground is a row of trees, probably watered from the irrigation ditch alongside. Peiwar Kotal was the site of a battle in late November 1878 between British forces under Sir Frederick Roberts (1832–1914), who outmaneuvered Afghan forces under an unknown commander. The result ...
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Library of Congress
Means of Carrying the Wounded
This photograph of a makeshift transport for a wounded British (Indian) soldier is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Two soldiers wearing sun-shielding pith helmets stand at the front of the photograph. They flank two Afghan camel drivers who likely are escorting the wounded soldier. The soldier’s head is swathed in bandages and he lies on a platform atop another dromedary camel. Because of their greater endurance in the harsh Afghan climate, camels were generally preferable to horses ...
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Library of Congress
Engagement in the Khost Country from a Drawing
This photograph of a drawing of a military engagement near Khost (now Khowst), Afghanistan, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The identity of the artist is unknown. The image appears to show a skirmish in late 1878–January 1879 that involved the Kurram Valley Field Force fighting against unidentified Afghan adversaries. In the foreground are massed British cavalry and dragoons (mounted infantry), while ahead of them infantrymen fire upon the enemy in the distance. A section of the ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Mule Battery
This photograph of a battery of mules is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Mules historically were used by armies to transport supplies in difficult terrain and, occasionally, as mobile firing platforms for smaller cannons. Mules were also used to tow heavier wheeled field guns through treacherous mountain trails in Afghanistan. One of these slightly larger field guns sits in the left foreground of the photograph, surrounded by sepoys (Indian soldiers in the British Army). The Second Anglo-Afghan War ...
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Library of Congress
Elephant and Mule Battery ("Dignity & Impudence")
This photograph of an elephant and mule battery is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The mule team on the left side of the photograph would have hauled supplies or towed the small field gun, while the elephants towed the larger gun. The men in the photograph are a mix of British soldiers and Indian sepoys. The group kneeling around the smaller, muzzle-loaded field gun is preparing to fire after the soldier at front left has used the ramrod ...
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Library of Congress
Elephant Battery on the March
This photograph is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Elephants were commonly used as shock cavalry in the front lines of military campaigns throughout South and Southeast Asia until the end of the 19th century, when the introduction of advanced artillery and Gatling guns made them vulnerable to enemy fire. The British Indian Army, like their Mughal imperial predecessors, used war elephants to transport large quantities of cargo, but the main advantage of the elephant in late-19th-century military tactics ...
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Library of Congress
Mule Battery on the March
This photograph of a mule battery on the march is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The British soldiers facing the camera are wearing pith helmets, which were made of spongy plant tissues, or occasionally of cork, and provided light-weight protection from the sun. The mules are carrying dissembled field guns, including wheels, barrels, and other parts. Mules had considerable advantages as pack animals in the rough terrain, being hardy, sure footed, and habituated to the altitude. The Second ...
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Library of Congress
Gatling Guns in Action
This photograph of two British Army Gatling guns is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The Gatling gun, an American invention of the early 1860s, was among the first rapid-fire weapons. Used by European powers in colonial warfare as a means of countering attacks by numerically superior infantry, the guns were capable of inflicting massive casualties. The first use of the Gatling by the British Army was in the Afghan war, at the Battle of Charasia in October 1879 ...
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Library of Congress
Group of Afghans
This photograph of a group of Afghan men is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Most of the men are armed with rifles or jezails (heavy Afghan muskets) and wear distinctive turbans. Pashtuns generally leave a length of turban cloth hanging down, so these men are probably from a smaller ethnic group. One lone exception has no head covering at all, and there is a Sikh soldier sitting on a chair in the center of the photograph. He wears ...
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Library of Congress