18 results in English
Treatise on Holy War
The first Persian printing press in Iran was established in 1816 in Tabriz, and the first book published by the press was Jihādīyyah (Treatise on holy war), written by Abu al-Qasim ibn 'Isá Qa'im'maqam Farahani (circa 1779–1835), the prime minister of Persia at that time. During the reign of King Fath Ali Shah (1772–1834, reigned 1797–1834), while the Qajar government was absorbed with managing domestic turmoil, rival European colonial powers sought to establish themselves in the region. The British competed for influence in the south ...
Fundamentals and Rules by Imam al-Nawawi
This short manuscript, Usul wa Dawabit lil-Imam al-Nawawi (Fundamentals and rules by Imam al-Nawawi), by the leading Shafi’i jurist known as al-Nawawi (1233−77), outlines the principles to be applied and the procedures to be used in personal conduct and ritual. The tract is divided into several parts. The first defines the limits of human action and argues against the “exaggerations” of the Mu’tazalite school of philosophy and its deviance from text-based orthodoxy. The work then covers rules for everyday living, including business transactions, marriage contracts, and gender ...
Correction of “The Method,” i.e., “Minhaj al-talibin” by al-Nawawi
This manuscript comprises five volumes of a six-volume work (volume two is missing) on Islamic law. It is a practical manual for judges of the Shafi’i legal tradition. It offers principles and precedents, with few of the linguistic and other digressions often found in legal writing. The work covers many topics including treatment of prisoners of war, alcoholic drinks, and chess. The manuscript is ascribed to jurist ‘Umar ibn Raslan al-Bulqini (1324−1403), but it may have been written by another of the several scholars of his family, there ...
The Shares According to Siraj
Sirāj al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad 'Sajāwandī was a 12th-century Hanafi jurist whose treatise on the laws of inheritance is regarded as the most important work in this field. This edition of his influential work was published in Lahore, Pakistan (then a part of British India), in 1886 or 1887. The English philologist and jurist Sir William Jones (1746-94) published the first English translation of this work in Kolkata (Calcutta), in 1792. Islamic inheritance law is a complex and refined system of rules that developed over several centuries, and that is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
On Explaining the Wiqaya Book
This book by Ubaydullah ibni Masood Taj ush-Shari’a (also known as Taj ush-Shari’a the younger, died 1346 [747 AH]) was written to explain an earlier work by the author’s grandfather and mentor, Mahmoud ibni Sadr ash-Shari’a (the elder), the monumental Wiqayat ar-Riwaya min Masa’il al-Hidaya (The trusted narrative on issues of guidance), which is often shortened to al-Wiqaya (Book). Both works are about Islamic fiqh (jurisprudence) in the Hanafi school of thought. The work was transcribed by Hassan b. Mahmood in 1588 (996 AH). The ...
A Summary Explanation of the Pronouncements of the Scholars and Theologians
Timbuktu, founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries of Timbuktu contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. In this work, the author examines theologians' and scholars' approaches to various issues in Islamic law and society and offers an explanation ...
Askiyah's Questions and al-Maghili's Answers [al-Maghili's Tract on Politics]
Timbuktu, founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries of Timbuktu contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. This treatise is about the Songhai Empire, which flourished in West Africa during the 14th and 15th centuries. It consists of the ...
A Sketch of the Islamic Law
This manuscript work in two volumes was translated and edited by Ma Boliang (1640–1711), an influential Islamic scholar from Jining, Shandong Province. It deals with the basics of Islam and instructs readers on how to identify unorthodox ideas and deeds. To accommodate some readers, Ma also provided Arabic letters for a few of the most important expressions and terms as well as Chinese characters. The work became very popular in the Muslim community, which constituted a large minority population in China. It has a preface and a postscript, but ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Collection of Symbols: Explanation on Prevention in Matters of Guidance
Jāmi’ al-Rumūz: Sharh Mukhtaṣar al-Wiqāya (The collection of symbols: explanation on prevention in matters of guidance) by Shams al-Dīn Muhammad al-Quhustānī (died circa 1546) is a commentary on Mukhtaṣar al-Wiqāya fi Masa‘il al-Hidaya (Brief explanation of the book on prevention in matters of guidance to the true path) by Ubayd Allāh ibn Masūd Mahbūbī, who died in 1346–47. Al-Quhustānī was a scholar of the Hanafi Madhab (one of the four Sunni schools of fiqh, or religious jurisprudence) and a mufti in Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan). The work ...
Spirit of the Laws
Published in 1748, condemned by the Catholic Church in 1751, Montesquieu's masterpiece, De l'Esprit des lois (Spirit of the laws) marked a turning point in the European Age of Enlightenment. It announced the new critical understanding of acquired knowledge that was also reflected in Buffon's Histoire naturelle (Natural history) and Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie (Encyclopedia). The depth of the analysis and the skill of presentation resulted in Montesquieu’s work having considerable influence on political thought in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is divided ...
Commentary on "The Intersections of the Seas", Volume 2
Majma` al-Anhur fī Sharh Multaqā al-Abḥur (Commentary on "The intersections of the seas") is a commentary by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad Shaikh-Zādeh (died 1667) on Multaqā al-Abḥur (The intersections of the seas) by Muhammad bin Ibrahim al-Halabi al-Hanafi (died 1549), an important Islamic jurist who was born in Syria and studied and worked in Cairo and Istanbul. The work deals with issues of jurisprudence disputed among scholars of the Hanafi Mahdab (one of the four schools of law within Sunni Islam). The commentary analyzes the terms and concepts, explains their ...
The Keys to the Heavens: An Explanation of “Islamic Law”
Mafâtîh al-Jinân: Šharh Šhir’at al-Islam (The keys to the heavens: An explanation of “Islamic law”) is a commentary on the work Šhir’at al-Islam (Islamic law) by Mohammad ibn Abu Bakr al-Jughi (1098–1177). Al-Jughi was known as Imam Zadeh, a scholar and an imam in Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan). The commentary, by Ya’kub ibn Sayyid ali al-Burssawi (died circa 1524), is an extensive book that discusses belief, manners, and daily practices in an Islamic framework. The work consists of 61 sections, called books. Special attention is paid ...
Two Works on Islamic Beliefs and Practices
This codex comprises two works on Islamic beliefs and practices by the Ottoman writer Aḥmet bin Muḥammed Şemsī Pāşā, who died in 990 AH (1580 AD). These works are entitled Tercümet ül-Viḳāye (The translation of “Wiqāyat al-Riwāyah”) and I’tiḳādiyāt (Beliefs), as inscribed in the headings on folios 2b and 29b, respectively. Both texts were copied in black Nasta’līq script in the 10th century AH (16th century AD). On folio 2a is a note of approval by the famous Ottoman jurist Abū al-Su’ūd (Ebussuud) Efendi (died 982 AH ...
Contributed by Walters Art Museum
The Beginning for the Studious and the End for the Selective
Muhammad ibn Ahmed ibn Rushd (also known by the Latinized version of his name, Averroes, 1126–98 AD; 520–95AH) was a Muslim polymath and the preeminent philosopher of Arab Spain. He was born in Cordoba to a well-respected family that was known for its public service. Although best known in the West for his commentaries on Aristotelian philosophy, Ibn Rushd wrote works on a wide range of subjects, from astronomy to Islamic jurisprudence to music theory. He defended reason and philosophy against disparaging religious scholars such as Al-Ghazali, arguing ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Poem
Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. In Qasīdah (Poem), Sayyid al-Mukhtār ibn Aḥmad ibn Abī Bakr al-Kuntī al-Kabīr instructs students of Islamic law about ...
Commentary on the Work “Examples of Legal Hypotheses”
Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. Islamic inheritance law is a highly regulated system in which individuals receive legacies depending upon their degree of relationship ...
A Reminder to the Incognizant on the Ugliness of Discord Among the Faithful
Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. Kitāb Tadhkirat al-Ghāfilīn ‘an Qubḥi Ikhtilāf al-Mu’minīn – aw al-nuṣaḥ al-mubīn ‘an qubḥi ikhtilāf al-mu’minīn ...
The Healing Gifts: Commentary on a Poem Explaining the Terminology of the Hanbali Mathhab
Al-minah al-shaafiyah bi sharh nazm al-mufradat al-waafiyah (The healing gifts: commentary on a poem explaining the terminology of the Hanbali mathhab) is an exposition on the mathhab (school of religious and juridical doctrine) of Imam Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad Ibn Ḥanbal (780–855). The title refers to the gifts that cure the thirst for knowledge, and the commentary expounds on the 1,000-line poem by Shams ad-Din Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Ahmed ibn Abdul Hadi al-Maqdisi (died circa 1343). The work presented here is by Mansoor ibn Yousuf ibn Salahuddeen ibn ...