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France and the Levant
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section with responsibility for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. France and the Levant is Number 66 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book is mainly an historical survey of French military, political, and cultural influence in the ...
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Persian Gulf is Number 76 in the series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Chapter I discusses physical and political geography, dividing the littoral of the Gulf (also known as the Arabian Gulf ...
Political Missions to Bootan, Comprising the Reports of the Hon'ble Ashley Eden,--1864; Capt. R.B. Pemberton, 1837, 1838, with Dr. W. Griffiths's Journal; and the Account by Baboo Kishen Kant Bose
Published in Calcutta (present-day Kolkata) in 1865, this volume contains four narratives relating to the interactions in the 19th century between British India and the Kingdom of Bhutan. The first is the report of Sir Ashley Eden (1831–87), a British administrator who, in 1863, was sent on a mission to conclude a treaty of peace and friendship with Bhutan. Eden’s mission failed and was followed by the outbreak of the Anglo-Bhutan War of 1864–65 (also known as the Dooar or Duār War), in which Bhutan was forced ...
Letter Written in Cipher on Mourning Paper by Rose Greenhow
Rose O'Neal Greenhow was a spy for the Confederacy during the American Civil War. As a young woman in Washington, she befriended many influential politicians, including President James Buchanan and South Carolina Senator John C. Calhoun, who played a role in shaping her dedication to the South. During the Civil War, Greenhow wrote ciphered (secret code) messages to the Confederates, providing information about Union military plans. Confederate President Jefferson Davis credited her with helping the South win the First Battle of Bull Run. Greenhow sent a message about Union ...
Aide-de-Camp to the Ambassador of Siam to Batavia
The young man depicted in this carte-de-visite photograph was the aide-de-camp to the ambassador of the Kingdom of Siam in the Dutch colonial capital of Batavia (present-day Jakarta). Siam established diplomatic relations with the Dutch East India Company as early as 1609, and the relationship continued after the government of the Netherlands took over governing the Dutch East Indies from the company. The photograph was taken by the studio of Woodbury & Page, which was established in 1857 by the British photographers Walter Bentley Woodbury and James Page. The photograph is ...
1914! The Murderers!
This poster, designed by the graphic artist Maurice Louis Henri Neumont (1868–1930) and produced in Paris in 1914 by Maison d’édition, depicts Kaiser Wilhelm II, emperor of Germany during World War I, and his father, Kaiser Wilhelm I, who left the throne to his son when he died in 1888, as “murderers.” Each carries a knife, and behind them is a looming image of the imperial eagle of Germany, dripping blood. The papers on the ground show the international agreements and principles of international law that the German ...
Attention! The German Viper is Taken. It is Now Necessary to Pull Out the Poisonous Teeth!
This 1919 poster, made in Italy just after the close of World War I, shows a hand strangling a snake decorated with the German Iron Cross. The text reads: “Attention! The German viper is taken! It is now necessary to pull out the poisonous teeth!” Italy and Germany were allies during World War II, but they were enemies during World War I. Italy entered the war on the side of Britain and France on May 23, 1915, by declaring war on Austria-Hungary. Under the terms of a secret treaty concluded ...
Boundary Between Turkey and Armenia: As Determined by Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of America
The disintegration of the Ottoman and Russian empires at the end of World War I gave birth to a number of new states. In May 1918, Eastern Armenia, formerly part of the Russian Empire, declared itself an independent republic. In April 1920, the victorious Allied Powers, dismantling the Ottoman Empire, directed that Western Armenia be attached to the new republic and appointed U.S. President Woodrow Wilson to arbitrate the boundary between Turkey (successor to the Ottoman Empire) and Armenia. In November 1920, Wilson set a boundary based on a ...
Perovsky’s 1839 Campaign to Khiva and the Russian Embassy to Khiva in 1842
Beginning in the early 18th century, tsarist Russia made several unsuccessful attempts to bring under its control the Khanate of Khiva, an independent state in Central Asia that had been ruled since 1511 by successive Uzbek dynasties, except for a period of indirect rule by Persia in 1740–47. By the 1830s, Khiva had become an object of the “Great Game,” the rivalry between Britain and Russia for commercial and strategic dominance in Central Asia. In November 1839, General Vasily Alexeevich Perovsky (1794–1857), commander of the army garrison at ...
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1894. Appendix 2: Affairs in Hawaii
Affairs in Hawaii, also known as the Blount Report, is a collection of documents relating to the history of Hawaii, focusing on events leading up to the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarch. The United States recognized Hawaii as an independent kingdom in 1842. In 1845, Hawaii changed its traditional system of land tenure in a way that permitted non-Hawaiians to buy property. By the 1890s foreigners owned 90 percent of the land. In January 1893, after Queen Liliuokalani (1838–1917) proposed a constitution reinstating power stripped from the monarchy by ...
Uganda’s Katikiro in England
Uganda’s Katikiro in England is the official account of the visit of the katikiro (prime minister) of Buganda, Apolo Kagwa (circa 1864–1927), in 1902 to participate in the coronation of King Edward VII, who ascended to the British throne following the death of his mother, Queen Victoria, in early 1901. The grandson of a Ugandan chief, Apolo served as a page in the court of King Mutesa I of Buganda (reigned, 1856–84) and became a Christian at a young age. He rose to become chief storekeeper and ...