39 results in English
Women's Customs among the Tajiks. Group of Young Women, Sitting Together with Their Arms around Each Other and Their Eyes Closed. One Woman Holds a Drum
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Women's Customs among the Tajiks. Social Gathering of a Group of Young Women, Two of Whom Have Musical Instruments
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Summary of the History of the Arabs
Louis-Amélie Sédillot was a French astronomer and orientalist, son of Jean-Jacques Sédillot, who influenced the boy toward pursuing these same interests. Sédillot the younger translated and published Arabic astronomical works. Khulasat Tarikh al-‘Arab (Summary of the history of the Arabs) is a translation and adaption by ‘Ali Mubārak Pasha of Louis-Amélie Sédillot’s Histoire des Arabes. Mubārak is revered as the father of modern education in Egypt. Born in a rural village in the Nile delta, he rebelled at the quality of his early schooling. After more unsuccessful years ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Garden Party at the British Club of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
In the early 20th century, the British Club was the center of the social life of the British expatriate community in Gran Canaria, one of the islands in the Canary Islands archipelago. Located next to the Metropole Hotel in Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, and close to the English (Protestant) Church, it was a place for leisure and recreation as well as for business meetings for its members. This photograph from the 1890s shows elegantly dressed men and women dancing at a garden party at the club. In the background to ...
Truthful Report of a Letter Sent by Father Prior of the Order of Santo Domingo of the City of Ubeda to the Abbot of San Salvador of Granada
Relacion verdadera de vna carta qve embio el padre prior dela orden de ʃanto Domingo, de la ciudad de Vbeda, al Abad mayor de ʃan Saluador dela Ciudad de Granada (Truthful report of a letter sent by Father Prior of the order of Santo Domingo of the city of Ubeda to the abbot of San Salvador of Granada) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1617. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Pow-Wow Princess Song
This song in the Omaha language was performed at the 1983 Omaha Tribal Pow-Wow in Macy, Nebraska, and was recorded by Carl Fleischhauer, an American folklife specialist at the Library of Congress. It was sung in honor of the 1983 Omaha Pow-Wow Princess, Melanie Parker. The song can be translated as, "I'm coming, I'm coming to you. Stand up when you see me coming, bringing something good to you." Each year a young woman is chosen as princess to serve the powwow committee and the Omaha community as ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Princess Isabel, the Baroness of Muritiba and the Baroness of Loreto on the Veranda of the Princess’s Residence
The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. The Brazilian nobility is well-represented in the collection. This 1866 photograph by Marc Ferrez, one of the most celebrated Brazilian portrait photographers, shows Princess Isabel, the daughter of Pedro II, on ...
Beggar Who Informed Passers-by of News, Current Events, and Town Gossip in Lyrical Form, for a Living. Beijing, 1874
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
A Beggar. Beijing, China, 1874
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
A Group of Beggars. Beijing, 1874
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
Arabs in Tripoli
This photograph of a street scene in Tripoli, Libya, is from the George Grantham Bain Collection at the Library of Congress. The collection contains approximately 40,000 glass plate negatives and 50,000 photographic prints, most dating from the 1900s to the mid-1920s. Bain, who was born in 1865 and died in 1944, founded the New York-based Bain News Service in 1898. Specializing in news about New York City and, to a lesser degree, the eastern United States, Bain distributed its own pictures and those purchased from other commercial agencies ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dress of a Kyrgyz Woman. Everyday Head Scarf.
This portrait of a Kyrgyz woman in traditional dress is contained in Turkestan Album, one of the richest sources of visual information on the cultural monuments of Central Asia as they appeared in the 19th century. This multi-volume work was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of Konstantin P. von Kaufman, a Russian army general and the first Governor-General of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian holdings were called. Kaufman held that position from 1867 to 1886, during which time he played a major role in establishing Russia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kyrgyz Wedding Rites. Kyrgyz Groom (groom [Turkish]), Ruzi bai.
This portrait of a Kyrgyz bridegroom, Ruzi-bai, is from Turkestan Album, one of the richest sources of visual information on the cultural monuments of Central Asia as they appeared in the 19th century. This multi-volume work was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of Konstantin P. Von Kaufman, a Russian army general and the first Governor-General of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian holdings were called. Kaufman held that position from 1867 to 1886, during which time he played a major role in establishing Russia's dominant position ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Religious Ceremonies and Customs of Tajiks. Mosque Interior of the Holy Sheik Maslakhatdin in Khodzhend.
This photograph of Tajiks at prayer in the mosque of Sheik Maslakhatdin in the ancient city of Khodzhent (Khujand, in Tajik) is from Turkestan Album, one of the richest sources of visual information on the cultural monuments of Central Asia as they appeared in the 19th century. This multi-volume work was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of Konstantin P. von Kaufman, a Russian army general and the first governor-general of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian holdings were called. Kaufman held that position from 1867 to 1886 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Women's Customs Among the Tajiks. Women's Tuesday, Bibi Seshambe
This photograph of a gathering of Tajik women ("Women's Tuesday" or "Bibi-Seshambe") is from Turkestan Album, one of the richest sources of visual information on the cultural monuments of Central Asia as they appeared in the 19th century. This multi-volume work was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of Konstantin P. von Kaufman, a Russian army general and the first governor-general of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian holdings were called. Kaufman held that position from 1867 to 1886, during which time he played a major role ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Women's Customs Among the Tajiks: Fortune-Telling
This photograph of Tajik women engaged in fortune telling (vorozhba, in Russian; fal'bin in Central Asian languages) is from Turkestan Album, one of the richest sources of visual information on the cultural monuments of Central Asia as they appeared in the 19th century. This multi-volume work was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of Konstantin P. von Kaufman, a Russian army general and the first governor-general of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian holdings were called. Kaufman held that position from 1867 to 1886, during which time ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Studio Portrait of Models Wearing Traditional Clothing from the Province of Selanik (Salonica), Ottoman Empire
Pascal Sébah was a prolific and well-known Ottoman photographer who worked for both Ottoman and Western clients. Sébah’s studio produced a number of collections of ethnographic and costume photos, some in collaborations with the painter and archaeologist Osman Hamdi Bey. This photomechanical print is drawn from one such collaboration, a book entitled Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873 (Folk [or Traditional] costumes of Turkey in 1873). This album depicting ethnic costumes from throughout the Ottoman Empire was commissioned by the Ottoman government for the 1873 International Fair ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Girl of Sarajevo, Bosnia, Austro-Hungary
This photochrome print is from “Views of the Austro-Hungarian Empire,” a selection of photographs of late-19th century tourist sites in Eastern and Central Europe (formerly known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire) that was part of the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It depicts a girl from the Bosnian city of Sarajevo in the last decade of the century, wearing the traditional baggy trousers, or dimije, worn by women in Bosnia.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Hitchhiker with His Dog "Tripper" on U.S. 66, where U.S. 66 Crosses the Colorado River at Topock
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established in 1970 at a time of rising public concern in the United States about pollution and its effects on human health. In 1972-77 the EPA sponsored the Documerica program to photographically document subjects of environmental concern in America. The images were made by approximately 70 well-known photographers contracted by the EPA for the project. Photographers included Denny Lyon, Gene Daniels, Marc St. Gill, Bill Strode, Charles O'Rear, Jack Corn, Tomas Sennett, Yoichi Okamote, and Ken Hayman. This photograph of a ...
Natives Enjoy Dancing
This photograph from Bolivia shows indigenous peoples dressed in traditional costume playing musical instruments. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the western hemisphere adopted the OAS Charter, in which they reaffirmed their commitment to the pursuit of common goals ...
Tenants on Ranch
This photograph, taken in Chile, some time in the first quarter of the 20th century, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Various Types of Surinamese
This watercolor by Arnold Borret (1848-88) consists of small sketches of different members of society and their various ethnic backgrounds in the Dutch colony of Suriname in the late 1880s. Borret was an accomplished amateur artist who was also a lawyer and a Roman Catholic priest. He studied law at the University of Leiden and practiced in Rotterdam before becoming a clerk, in 1878, to the Supreme Court in Paramaribo. He became a priest in 1883, with the intention of working with lepers in Suriname. He died of typhus in ...
Chinese Bride in Batavia
This photograph shows a Chinese bride in Batavia (present-day Jakarta) in her wedding dress. The commercial development of Batavia under the Dutch created numerous opportunities for immigrants from China, who became a favored minority and helped to support Dutch colonial rule. While many Chinese immigrants and their descendants adopted Dutch lifestyles by the late 19th century, others continued to identify with China and maintained Chinese customs and traditional dress. The photograph was taken by the studio of Woodbury & Page, which was established in 1857 by the British photographers Walter Bentley ...
Arab Hajji, Probably in Batavia
This carte-de-visite photograph depicts an Arab in the Dutch colonial capital of Batavia (present-day Jakarta) preparing for the hajj. The Arabs in Southeast Asia generally were from the area of Hadramaut in the southern part of Arabia. During the 19th century, the number of Arabs immigrating to Asia increased, but they remained tied to their homeland and often used the wealth acquired in their new homes to finance projects in Arabia. Despite sharing their Muslim faith with native Indonesians, Arabs maintained separate communities, particularly during the colonial period. The photograph ...
An Album of the Miao Minority
This book contains 41 illustrations, with texts on the left and illustrations on the right. The painting is meticulous, the engraving and drawing lively, the people lifelike, and the colors rich, retaining their freshness after more than 200 years. The illustrations show that in the region depicted, the Miao, Lao, and Han Chinese lived in mixed communities and had customs that were quite different from those in other places in China. The illustrations, organized by category, give a picture of the area and the people's way of life in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Seventy-two Specimens of Castes in India: "All people, nations and languages shall serve Him." ... Presented to the Reverend William Twining as a Token of Obligation by His...Friend Daniel Poor...
This illustrated manuscript made in southern India in 1837 consists of 72 full-color hand-painted images of men and women of the various castes and religious and ethnic groups found in Madura, India, at that time. As indicated on the presentation page, the album was compiled by the Indian writing master at an English school established by American missionaries in Madura, and given to the Reverend William Twining. The manuscript shows the Madura region's Indian dress and jewelry adornment, as they appeared before the onset of Western influences on South ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Nomadic Kirghiz. Golodnaia Steppe
This remarkable photograph shows a nomadic Kyrgyz family resting in the steppe grasslands. The Kyrgyz are a Turkic ethnic group widely spread over the area of eastern Turkestan. The man, with weathered face, is dressed in a skullcap and a frayed traditional striped coat. He is burdened with padded blankets and probably a small tent. The woman, with brilliant white turban, wears a tattered cloak and carries smaller bundles of blankets and clothes. Their small boy wears a colorful skullcap and a sparkling green silk jacket in the Chinese style ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Migrant Farmstead in the Settlement of Nadezhdinsk with a Group of Peasants. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of development in Russian Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who moved to Tashkent in 1881. There he initiated a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) a productive area for cotton and wheat. A related goal was to provide arable land to attract settlers from European Russia. Seen here at the settlement of Nadezhdinsk (from the Russian for “hope”) is a group of settlers in front of a stuccoed brick house with a thatched roof. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
German Women Protest the Colored Occupation of the Rhine
This poster, showing an enormous African soldier seated on the bank of the Rhine River opposite a castle on a cliff, was part of the German propaganda campaign in the early 1920s against foreign military occupation of the Rhineland. Under the November 11, 1918 armistice that ended World War I and the subsequent Treaty of Versailles, Belgium, Britain, France, and the United States were granted the right to occupy German territory along the Rhine. The Germans bitterly resented the occupation and nationalist circles used all manner of propaganda to agitate ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Wealthy Malays
This photograph, taken in Singapore in the late 19th or early 20th century, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Portrait of Girl and Woman, Samoan Princesses in Native Dress, Full-Length, Facing Front
This full-length portrait of a Samoan woman and girl was taken by an unknown photographer around the turn of the 20th century. The heavy ornamentation and wedding ring suggest that they are the wife and child of a prominent person. The shape of the fan (ili aupolapola) indicates that they may not be royalty. Both are wearing skirts made of ti leaves known as titi and shirts made of decorated tapa (bark cloth) known in Samoa as siapo.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Beggars. Samarkand
Seen here are three beggars in Samarkand, huddled in the sun for warmth against a massive stone wall. The two men wear turbans and colorful padded robes, while the woman is in a tattered robe, with a well-worn cloak over her head and shoulders. Each has a simple wooden staff. As an important trading and religious center, Samarkand would have offered ample opportunities for begging. However, the gnarled faces and tense expressions of the beggars suggest anything but a secure existence. The large granite blocks and the remnants of ceramic ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Group of Eleven Adults and Children, Seated on a Rug, in Front of a Yurt
This remarkable portrait shows a family of the Teke ethnic group near the Murgab Oasis in the region of Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan). The oasis takes its name from the Murgab River, which flows from Afghanistan into Turkmenistan and forms part of the border between the two countries.  Seated on the far right is the family patriarch, whose tunic displays three Russian medals. His wife is seated in the center. On the far left are his married son and daughter-in-law. The adults and children are dressed in colorful festive attire. Behind ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Girl in Native Costume, Carniola, Austro-Hungary
This photochrome print is from “Views of the Austro-Hungarian Empire,” a selection of photographs of late-19th century tourist sites in Eastern and Central Europe (formerly known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire) that was part of the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. The portrait, of Berta Lergetporer wearing the Slovenian national costume, was taken by her father, the cartographer and photographer Benedikt Lergetporer of Bled, Slovenia, in 1897. The Duchy of Carniola was a crown land of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until 1918. Carniola (Vojvodina Krjanska in Slovenian) is the traditional heartland ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Samoans Posed in Front of a Hut with Palm Fronds and Thatched Roof
This early-20th century photograph shows a group of people on one of the islands in the Samoan archipelago, which is located south of the equator between Hawaii and New Zealand. The Samoans are a Polynesian people, famous for their seafaring skills. The photograph is by A.J. Tattersall, who wrote on its reverse side: “I warn anyone against using this copy without my permission. A.T., Photo, Samoa.” Tattersall was born in Auckland, New Zealand, in 1861, and worked for photographic firms in Auckland before going to Apia, Samoa, to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Typical Inhabitants of the Province of Medellín
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) portrays five people of the province of Medellín (present-day Antioquia Department), Colombia. The dress and facial characteristics of the individuals shown are intended to represent the main ethnic and racial groups among the inhabitants of the province, which included people of indigenous, Spanish colonial, mestizo, and Afro-Colombian origin. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of ...
Inhabitants of Medellín, Capital of the Province of Antioquia
This watercolor of a domestic scene by Henry Price (1819–63) portrays an elegant upper-class couple in Medellín, the provincial capital of Antioquia, Colombia. The couple are clearly of European descent, and their stylish attire and the furnishings in their home reflect their high social status. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama ...
Road to Philadelphy
This circa 1830 print by Edward Williams Clay (1799–1857) caricatures the pretentiousness and prejudice of early 19th-century Philadelphia Quakers toward people they regarded as their social inferiors, but it also mocks those seeking to imitate the Quaker elite. On a Philadelphia road in front of a small house with an open picket fence and a visitor arriving on horseback, a raggedly dressed, dark-skinned traveler with buck teeth, possibly an Irishman or African American, asks a rotund Quaker man and his daughter, "I say, this isn't the road to ...
The Desire of the Aspirant
Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. In Munyat al-murīd (The desire of the aspirant), Baba ibn Ahmad al-Alawi al-Maliki al-Maghribi al-Shingiti presents an explanation of ...