28 results in English
Annotated Edition of “The Book of Documents”
Shang shu (The book of documents), also called Shu jing (The book of history), is one of the Five Classics of the Confucian canon that greatly influenced Chinese history and culture. Translations of its title into English vary and include Classic of History, Classic of Documents, Book of History, Book of Documents, or Book of Historical Documents. There are many copies and versions of Shang shu, ascribed to Confucius, but its history is obscure. The work is a compilation of speeches by major figures and records of events in ancient ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Commentary on The Analects of Confucius
Rongo (Analects) is famed as the collection of the words and deeds of Confucius. As the most cherished scripture of Confucianism, the book greatly influenced the culture of China and neighboring nations. It is said to have been introduced to Japan around the fifth century. The first published edition of Rongo in Japan was made in Sakai, a city in present-day Ōsaka Prefecture, in the 19th year of the Shōhei period (1364), and is known as the Shōhei version. The wood blocks of the first edition disappeared in early days ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Lotus Sutra
The practice of printing Buddhist scriptures on the reverse of letters from the deceased to pray for the repose of his or her soul became common from the end of the Heian period (late 12th century) onward. The scrolls shown here contain the text of a Buddhist sutra called Myōhō renge-kyō (Lotus sutra). They are printed on the reverse of letters sent from Daitō Genchi, the second abbot of Kakuon-ji Temple in Kamakura. It is believed that Hōjō Sadatoki’s wife, to whom the letters are addressed, and some others ...
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Buddhist Sutra “Jū-issai-fukutoku-zanmai-kyō”
The hand copying of Buddhist sutras was believed to confer great merit and spiritual benefit, so that from the introduction of Buddhism to Japan in the sixth century, numerous manuscripts were reproduced throughout the country. Shown here is a volume from the hand-copied Issai-kyō (a Buddhist corpus) commissioned by the Empress Kōmyō (701−60), wife of the Emperor Shōmu, to pray for the repose of her parents, Fujiwara no Fuhito and Tachibana no Michiyo. The work commissioned by the empress amounts to about 7,000 volumes, which include almost all ...
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The Completion of Mere Ideation
In Japan temples were the center of publishing until the Middle Ages. The Kasuga edition of the Buddhist scriptures was produced at the Kōfuku-ji Temple in Nara. These scrolls, from that edition, contain the text of Jōyuishikiron (The completion of mere ideation), a commentary on the work by the Indian scholar Seshin (Vasubandhu in Sanskrit) known as Yuishiki sanjūju (Triṃśikā-vijñapti-kārikā in Sanskrit, Weishi sanshi song in Chinese). The commentary was translated into Chinese during the Tang dynasty by a Chinese monk named Xuanzang. It was a canon of the ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
The Analects of Confucius
Rongo (Analects) is famed as the collection of the words and deeds of Confucius and has greatly influenced the culture of China and neighboring nations as the most cherished scripture of Confucianism. It is said to have been introduced to Japan around the fifth century. This work is called the “Tenmon version,” the second version of the published Rongo in Japan after the Rongo shikkai (known as the Shōhei version) first published in Japan in the 19th year of the Shōhei era (1364). The Tenmon Analects were published in the ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Buddhist Sutra “Bimashōkyō”
The hand copying of Buddhist sutras was believed to confer great merit and spiritual benefit, so that from the introduction of Buddhism to Japan in the sixth century numerous manuscripts were reproduced throughout the country. In the late Heian period, there arose the Mappō (age of Dharma decline) doctrine, which held that Buddhist teaching, and consequently the protection of Buddha, would decline. At a time of religious pessimism coupled with the very real decline of the aristocracy, many court nobles sought to attain the after-death passage to the Pure Land ...
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The Zhaocheng Jin Tripitaka
This edition of the Buddhist canon was printed between about the ninth year of the Huangtong era of Xizong of the Jin dynasty and sometime in the Dading era of Shizong, and for this reason is called the "Jin Tripitaka" by scholars. It is also called the “Jin Tripitaka from Tianning Temple in Xiezhou" because the woodblocks were carved at Tianning Temple on Jinglin Mountain, in Xiezhou, Shanxi (modern Xie County in the Jinnan district). In 1933, the work was rediscovered at Guangsheng Temple in Zhaocheng County, Shanxi, so its ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Twenty-One Hymns to the Rescuer Mother of Buddhas
Also known as “Twenty-One Hymns to the Rescuer Saint Tārā, Mother of Buddhas,” this item is a sutra from Tibetan esoteric Buddhism. The copyist was Yong Rong (1744–90), sixth son of the Qianlong emperor and general editor of the Siku quanshu. In addition to being a poet, calligrapher, and painter, Yong Rong had a sophisticated understanding of astronomy and mathematics. On the top protective cover of this item is written, “Imperially commissioned translation of the hymn to the rescuer mother of Buddhas," in Manchu, Tibetan, Mongolian, and Chinese scripts ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Collected Works of Han Yu
Han Yu is chief among the eight major writers of the Tang and Song dynasties. His writings are rich in content, powerful, fresh, and lively. The 40-juan (section) Collected Works of Han Yu (Changli xiansheng ji [Collected works of the Master from Changli]) was compiled by his disciple Li Han, and is the most comprehensive compendium of Han Yu’s works. The “Outer Collection” and “Omitted Writings” were added by Song dynasty scholars who recovered lost works by Han. This edition was printed in the Jianchun era (late 13th ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Su Wen of the Huangdi Neijing (Inner Classic of the Yellow Emperor)
Huangdi neijing (The inner classic of the yellow emperor) was created some time between the Warring States period and the Qin-Han period as a summation of Chinese medical knowledge up to the time of the Han dynasty. It is the earliest surviving work on Chinese medicine. The work is divided into two parts: the Su wen (Basic questions) and the Ling shu (Numinous spindle). After the Han dynasty, each part circulated separately. Su wen is written in a question-and-answer format involving the Yellow Emperor and various physicians of high antiquity ...
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The Xiping Stone Classics
These engravings of the seven Confucian classics were set up outside the National University Gate, located on the south side of Loyang, the capital city, in the Eastern Han dynasty. They were created between 175 and 183, after Cai Yong and a group of scholars successfully petitioned the emperor to have the Confucian classics carved in stone in order to prevent their being altered to support particular points of view. They are also called the “Han Stone Classics” and the “Single-Script Stone Classics." The seven classics -- The Book of Changes ...
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Diamond Prajna Paramita Sutra
This complete scroll from the first year of the Yifeng era (676) of the Tang dynasty was unearthed in Dunhuang, China. The scroll contains the Diamond Prajna pāramitā sutra, a work that is an important sacred text in the prajñā line of Mahayana Buddhism as well as a foundational text in Chinese Chan (Japanese Zen) Buddhism. The text was transmitted to China in the Period of Southern and Northern Courts in many translations, but the translation by Kumārajīva is the most respected. For generations, it was felt that reciting the ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Four Books in Chapter and Verse with Collected Commentaries
The Analects is one of the important classics for Ruist (Confucian) scholars. It was compiled by the disciples of Confucius and their disciples. It mostly records conversations and dialogs relating to Confucius and his disciples that reflect the views and principles of Confucius as applied to administration, ethics, morality, and education. The generally accepted version of The Analects has 20 sections. Zhu Xi (1130-1200) of the Song dynasty took “The Great Learning” and “The Doctrine of the Mean” from The Book of Rites and combined these extracts with The Mencius ...
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Illustrated Stories Exemplifying the Five Confucian Virtues
By order of King Jeongjo, the 21st king of the Joseon Dynasty (reigned 1724–76), Oryun haengsildo (Illustrated stories exemplifying the five Confucian virtues) was made by binding together two books of ethics drawn from the Chinese classics. These were Samgang haengsildo (Illustrated conduct of the three bonds) and Iryun hangsildo (Illustrated stories exemplifying the two Confucian virtues). The book describes the achievements of 150 models extracted from ancient Korean and Chinese literature. Topics covered include relationships between the king and his servants, fathers and sons, husbands and wives ...
Contributed by National Library of Korea
Biography of the Dragon-like Heavenly Sovereign and Emperor of High Virtue
The original edition of this work was described in the annotated catalog Dao zang mu lu xiang zhu (Catalog of the Daoist canon with detailed annotations) as consisting of six juan. The work is a biography of Laozi, who was traditionally regarded as the author of Dao de jing and the founder of Daoism. The earliest reference to Laozi is found in Shi ji (The records of the grand historian), by Chinese historian Sima Qian (circa 145–86 BC). Laozi was often said to be a contemporary of Confucius (551 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Book of Rites as Arranged by Subject
This work was compiled by Li Jinglun (1507–57), a scholar with a first-rank degree at the county-level civil examination, who later devoted himself to writing and prided himself on his knowledge of li xue (rationalistic philosophy influenced by Confucianism). Based on Li jing (Book of rites), one of five classics of the Confucian canon, and on all traditional forms that provide a standard of either ceremonial conduct or rules of conduct, Li here expounded his theory that there were three principles, yi, qu and guan. Yi means the rituals ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Teachings of the Confucian School in Shanxi Province
This work was written by Wen Xiangfeng (1577–1642), an official in the late Ming period. He received his jin shi degree in 1610 and held many positions, among them assistant commissioner of Shanxi Province, vice commissioner of the Court of the Imperial Stud, and secretary of the Bureau of Ceremonies in the Bureau of Rites in Nanjing. However, Wen Xiangfeng devoted most of his time to teaching and lecturing and was known locally as a Confucian thinker. In 1621 he became the provincial literary chancellor of Shanxi, where he ...
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Miscellaneous Works of Zou Deyong
The author of this work was Zou Deyong, a native of Anfu, Jiangxi Province, grandson of Zou Shouyi (1491–1562). The elder Zou was one of the exponents of the school of Wang Yangming, the Neo-Confucian philosopher, who was a leading figure in Ming Neo-Confucianism and a proponent of education. After receiving his jin shi degree in 1616, Zou Deyong served as a censor and later as supervisor of censors at the Bureau of Revenue and the Bureau of Rites. He later was removed from office for displeasing the emperor ...
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Occasional Notes by Lü Wancun Printed at the Tian Gai Lou Workshop
The commentator of this civil-examination records collection, Lü Liuliang (formal name of Lü Wancun, 1629–83), was a native of Chongde, Zhejiang Province, who lived at the end of the Ming and the beginning of the Qing dynasty. His grandmother was a member of the Ming imperial family. At the age of eight he already wrote essays in the approved style. He achieved the ju ren degree but withdrew because of his opposition to the Manchu regime. He became a teacher and often added his comments to his students’ essays ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Occasional Notes by Lü Wancun Printed at the Tian Gai Lou Workshop
The commentator of this collection, Lü Liuliang (formal name of Lü Wancun, 1629–83), was a native of Chongde, Zhejiang Province, who lived at the end of the Ming and the beginning of the Qing dynasty. His grandmother was a member of the Ming imperial family. At the age of eight he already wrote essays in the approved style. He achieved the ju ren degree but withdrew because of his opposition to the Manchu regime. He became a teacher, and often added his comments to his students’ essays. His works ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Random Notes from the Xiaoxin Pavilion
The author of this work was Gu Xiancheng (1550–1612), a late-Ming grand secretary and renowned educator. In 1604, together with his brother and a friend Gao Panlong, Gu revived a defunct Song institution named Donglin Academy at his native Wuxi, which became a locally based educational institution that held lectures attended by thousands. Later it extended to loosely associated groups in other cities. The Donglin’s opposition to the powerful eunuch Wei Zhongxian resulted in the closure of the academy in 1622, but it reopened during the early Qing ...
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Teachings of Li Jianluo
This work is a collection of writings by Li Cai (1529–1606), a native of Fengcheng, Jiangxi Province. Li Cai, also called Jianluo xian sheng (Master Jianluo), received his jin shi degree in 1562. He worked in various positions, including in a military post during the campaign against Burma in the Wanli reign. He enjoyed a series of promotions, but also suffered imprisonment. He was chiefly known as a philosopher, a Neo-Confucian, and a teacher. His biography is recorded in the 227th juan of Ming shi (The history of Ming ...
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Thesis on the Mirror of the Hearts
Khodzha Akhmed Iassavi (died 1166) was a philosopher, Sufi mystic, and the earliest known poet to write in a Turkic dialect. He was born in the city of Isfijab (present-day Sayram, in Kazakhstan) but lived most of his life in Turkestan (also in southern Kazakhstan). He was a student of Arslan Baba, a well-known preacher of Islam. At a time when Farsi dominated literature and public life, Iassavi wrote in his native Old Turkic (Chagatai) language. He was known during his lifetime as a holy person and people from all ...
The Philosophy of ibn Tufail and His Treatise the Self-Taught Philosopher
Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Tufail (also known by a Latinized version of his name, Abubacer Aben Tofail, 1105–85 AD) was an Andalusian Muslim polymath who was born near Granada, Spain, and died in Morocco. Apart from fragments of poetry, Hayy ibn Yaqzan (Alive, son of awake), also called Philosophus Autodidactus (The self-taught philosopher), is his only surviving work. Considered the first philosophical novel, it is often seen as an earlier Arabic version of Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe. The book had much influence in the West. It takes place ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
The History of Muslim Philosophers in the East and the West
Muhammad Lutfi Jumaa (1886–1953) was an Egyptian-born lawyer, political activist, linguist, translator, and novelist. The History of Muslim Philosophers in the East and the West is a compilation of biographies of some of the most famous Muslim scholars. It analyzes the life history, upbringing, doctrinal leanings, and views of many leading Muslim thinkers, philosophers, and scholars. Figures covered in the work include Al-Farabi, Al-Kindi, Ibn Sina, Ibn Bajah, Ibn Tufail, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Khaldoun, Ibn Al-Haytham, Ibn Arabi, and others.
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
The Grand Sheikh Ibn Sina's Collection of Treatises
Al Hussein ibn Abdullah Ibn Sina (also known by the Latinized version of his name, Avicenna, 980–1037 AD; 370–428 AH) was a Muslim Persian polymath and the foremost physician and philosopher of his time. In his Introduction to the History of Science, the eminent historian of science George Sarton (1884–1956) characterized Ibn Sina as “one of the most famous exponents of Muslim universalism and an eminent figure in Islamic learning,” noting that “for a thousand years he has retained his original renown as one of the greatest ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Razi's Philosophical Treatises with Surviving Pieces from His Lost Books
One of the earliest pioneers in the history of medicine, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (also known by the Latinized version of his name, Rhazes or Rasis, 865–925 AD, 251–313 AH) was a Muslim Persian polymath, physician, and philosopher. He was born in the city of Rayy, near present-day Tehran, Iran, and spent most of his life between his birthplace and Baghdad, the capital city of the Abbasid caliphate. He taught medicine and was the chief physician in both cities. He made major and lasting contributions to the fields ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina