61 results in English
Painting 111
Manolo Millares was a self-taught artist born in 1926 in Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, in the Canary Islands archipelago of Spain. Shown here is his Cuadro 111 (Painting 111), made some time after 1960, an abstract work in startlingly vivid tones of green, purple and black. Millares was influenced by Surrealism from the late 1940s and attracted to the works of Klee and Miró. In that period, he began making abstract pictograms inspired by the Guanches, the indigenous Canaries people, and the pre-Hispanic culture of the islands, and he was ...
Infertile Woman II
Mujer infecunda II (Infertile woman II) is a late work by the Canary Islands artist Antonio Padrón Rodríguez (1920−68). The works of this painter’s last years are characterized by intense use of color and abstract expressionism, although here he has also used some dark somber tones. The image presents a fertility ritual, perhaps being performed by a woman seeking to become pregnant. She is a metaphor for the earth and the struggle to wrest growth from the islands, with their periods of drought. It is an image of ...
The Green Lightning
El rayo verde (The green lightning) is a late work by the Canary Islands artist Antonio Padrón Rodríguez (1920−68). He was born and lived most of his life in Gáldar, Gran Canaria, and many of his works reflect a strong sense of Canary location, customs, and people. He is linked to the Luján Pérez school, named for religious sculptor José Luján Pérez (1756−1815), who inspired a tradition of artists working in various media and focused on local culture, identity, and the position of Canary people in the world ...
The Uganda Journal, Volume I, Number 1, January 1934
The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society was established at Entebbe, Uganda Protectorate, in 1923. Its main activity consisted of the reading of papers and the delivery of lectures on topics relating to Uganda. In 1933 the society moved its headquarters to Kampala and decided to issue a regular publication, The Uganda Journal. The journal’s declared aim was “to collect and publish information which may add to our knowledge of Uganda and to record that which in the course of time might be lost.” Four issues per year were published ...
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The Most Truthful Method of Distinguishing the Ibadites from the Kharijites and The Gift from Heaven on the Judgment of Shedding Blood
Sālim ibn Ḥammūd ibn Shāmis al-Siyābī (1908−93) was an Omani scholar, poet, historian, and judge. He was born in Ghāla, in the state of Bawshār in eastern Oman. A self-taught scholar, al-Siyābī memorized the Qur’an at age seven and went on to study Arabic language classics, including Ibn Malik’s Alfiyah, a 1,000-line poem about Arabic grammar rules. Al-Siyābī was also a prolific writer, and was the author of as many as 84 works, according to Sultān ibn Mubārak al-Shaybānī, who categorized al-Siyābī’s body of work ...
Florida's Canal Main Street
Interest in constructing a water route across the Florida peninsula goes back to the colonial rule of the Spanish and the British and continued when Florida became a territory of the United States in 1821. The earliest American surveys for a possible canal in Florida were undertaken in the wake of excitement surrounding the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825. President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the first significant work on a cross-Florida canal as part of New Deal public works programs in Florida. After much debate, construction on route ...
Mysterious Kasian Goleizovsky
This photograph is from a series about the choreographer Kasian Goleizovsky (1892–1970), by photographer Leonid Zhdanov (1927–2010). It was taken during the staging of the ballet Layla and Majnun to music by Sergei Balasanyan. It shows Natalia Bessmertnova (1941–2008) and Goleizovsky in the rehearsal hall of the Bolshoi Theater. Bessmertnova joined the Bolshoi in 1961, where she remained as a prima ballerina for more than three decades. Goleizovsky was inspired by the innovative ideas of two outstanding choreographers, Alexander Gorsky and Michel Fokine, and his interests expanded ...
Ekaterina Maximova's "Mazurka"
Leonid Zhdanov (1927–2010) took this photograph in 1968. It shows Ekaterina Maximova (1939–2009), a ballerina from the Bolshoi Theater, dancing Mazurka (from the ballet Skryabiniana) created by Kasian Goleizovsky (1892–1970). Choreographed specifically for Maximova, the dance was first performed in 1960 in a concert program. Maximova graduated in 1958 from the Moscow Ballet School at the Bolshoi Theater (now known as Moscow State Academy of Choreography), where she was taught by Elizaveta Gerdt. She was accepted into the Bolshoi Theater. A year later, during a tour in ...
Mikhail Baryshnikov in the Role of Vestris
This photograph from the series "Diverse Baryshnikov" was taken by photographer Leonid Zhdanov (1927–2010) in 1969 at the First International Ballet Competition in Moscow. The miniature ballet Vestris by choreographer Leonid Yakobson (1904−75) became one of the most exciting surprises at the competition. Baryshnikov (born 1948) was able to render the life story of the most famous dancer of the 18th century. A braggart and schemer, Auguste Vestris called himself the King of the Dance and used to say: "Today, Europe knows three great men—Frederick the Great ...
Like a Shot from a Bow. Nina Sorokina and Yuri Vladimirov Dancing
Leonid Zhdanov (1927–2010) took this photograph in 1965 at the Bolshoi Theater during a performance of The Rite of Spring danced by the Bolshoi Theater soloists Nina Sorokina (1942–2011) and Yuri Vladimirov (born 1942). The performances at the Bolshoi Theater that year were the first time that this ballet, choreographed by Natalia Kasatkina and Vladimir Vasiliev to Igor Stravinsky's music, was performed in the Soviet Union. Sorokina and Vladimirov, the most remarkable representatives of the Moscow school of dance during the 1960s and 1970s, danced the main ...
The Goddess of Dance. Galina Ulanova
Leonid Zhdanov (1927–2010) took this photograph of Galina Ulanova (1910–98) in the ballet Les Sylphides at the Bolshoi Theater, Moscow, in 1961. Ulanova was born in Saint Petersburg. In 1928 she graduated from the class of Agrippina Vaganova (1879–1951) at the Leningrad Choreographic School. Ulanova exuded extraordinary magnetism. Forgoing fashionable virtuosity, her dancing was characterized by nuances and half tones. Ulanova was not only a great dancer; she was also a great tragic actress, perhaps the most significant in the history of ballet. Her dance career began ...
First among Equals. Vladimir Vasiliev
Leonid Zhdanov (1927−2010) took this photograph of Vladimir Vasiliev (born 1940) in the role of Majnun in 1968 at the Bolshoi Theater during the rehearsals of the ballet Layla and Majnun choreographed by Kasian Goleizovsky (1889−1950). Vasiliev was born in Moscow and graduated from the Moscow Ballet School at the Bolshoi Theater (now known as Moscow State Academy of Choreography) in 1958 in the class of Michael Gabovich. His first main role at the Bolshoi was that of Bacchus in Walpurgis Night. This was followed by the role ...
The Archaeological Map of Iraq
The world’s first civilizations grew up in the fertile valley between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the region of the Middle East long known as Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning 'between two rivers'), that roughly corresponds to the territory of present-day Iraq. These ancient civilizations included Sumer, the Babylonian Empire, and the Assyrian Empire. This modern map produced by the Directorate General of Antiquities of Iraq shows the locations of archaeological sites and rock monuments in the country. The table at the lower left lists chronological periods from the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Independence of the Republic of Congo: Texts of the Speeches Given at the Official Session of the National Assembly and During the Public Proclamation of Independence
This booklet, issued by the Ministry of Information of the Republic of the Congo, is a collection of speeches given by high-ranking Congolese and French politicians at a special session of the Congolese National Assembly on August 14-15, 1960, convened to mark the country’s independence from France, which took effect on August 15, 1960. Included are speeches by the first president of the Republic of the Congo, Fulbert Youlou (1917-72), a speech by André Malraux, and a message from French President Charles de Gaulle read by Malraux. Youlou was ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Respect for Human Dignity: an Inaugural Address
This pamphlet contains the text of the speech given by Nigerian independence leader Nnamdi Azikiwe (1904-96) on the day he became the first indigenous governor-general of Nigeria and the first Nigerian to be named to the Privy Council of Queen Elizabeth II. Nigeria became an independent state within the British Commonwealth on October 1, 1960. In the speech, Azikiwe discusses the changed role of the governor-general as a result of independence and, as in many of his speeches and writings from the period, the importance of the rule of law ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Message from Mister Leopold Sedar Senghor, President of the Republic, to the Senegalese People
This speech to the people of Senegal by Léopold Sédar Senghor (1906-2001) was delivered the day after his election as the first president of the newly independent republic. Senghor was born in what was then French West Africa. He was sent at a young age to a Catholic mission school, where he embraced French and European culture, but also felt the loss of his mother tongue and the pain of being torn from his African roots. He won a scholarship to pursue literary studies in France, beginning in 1928. In ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Constitution of the Republic of Togo, May 5, 1963
Togo (officially known as the Togolese Republic) became a German protectorate in 1884 and a German colony in 1905. After World War I, it was made a French protectorate under a League of Nations mandate. The country gained its independence from France in 1960 under the leadership of Sylvanus Olympio (1902-63), a business leader who had studied at the London School of Economics and was employed by the United Africa Company. Olympio was assassinated on January 13, 1963, in what is considered the first coup d’état of the post-colonial ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda
This document is the first Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda, proclaimed in November 1962. From 1890 to 1916, Rwanda was part of German East Africa. In 1916, during World War I, it was occupied by Belgian troops from the neighboring Belgian Congo. After the war, it was joined with Burundi to become a Belgian League of Nations mandate, under the name Ruanda-Urundi. On July 1, 1962, the union of Ruanda-Urundi was dissolved and the Republic of Rwanda and the Republic of Burundi became separate, independent states. The leading political ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Gaucho Broiling Steak in the Open
This photograph shows a gaucho in traditional dress cooking meat over a homemade spit. Gaucho is a term used to denote descendants of the early Spanish colonizers who traditionally led a semi-nomadic life on the South American pampas. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrating life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 ...
President John F. Kennedy Greets Peace Corps Volunteers, White House, South Lawn
This photograph shows President John F. Kennedy greeting Peace Corps volunteers on the South Lawn of the White House on August 9, 1962. Kennedy first proposed what became the Peace Corps in a speech at the University of Michigan on October 14, 1960, in which he challenged students to give two years of their lives to helping people in countries of the developing world. At the time, Kennedy was a member of the U.S. Senate campaigning for the presidency. Following his election, he signed an executive order establishing the ...
Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C.: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and Mathew Ahmann, Executive Director of the National Catholic Conference for Interracial Justice, in a Crowd
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom took place in August 1963 and was the setting for the celebrated “I Have a Dream” speech by the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. A. Philip Randolph, a labor leader and founder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, proposed a large march on the capital as a way of prodding Congress and the administration of President John F. Kennedy to act on civil rights. Others involved in its planning included King himself, National ...
Festival in Oruro (Bolivia)
This photograph shows a group of dancers in elaborate costumes in a band at the Carnival of Oruro in Bolivia. The carnival, which takes place every year, lasts ten days and features examples of popular arts in such forms as masks, textiles, and embroidery. The main event is the procession or entrada, in which the dancers walk the four-kilometer processional route repeatedly for a full 20 hours without interruption. In 2001, UNESCO proclaimed the Carnival of Oruro a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. The photograph is ...
Candomblé in Bahía (Brazil) Ritual Dance
This photograph from Brazil shows a group of women in traditional dress of African origin performing a ritual dance. The dance and dress are associated with Candomblé, a religion based on African traditions, with elements borrowed from Christianity, that is practiced chiefly in Brazil. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas, many taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established ...
Candomblé in Bahia (Brazil) Omolú Daughter
This photograph from Brazil shows a woman performing a dance wearing an elaborate costume made of grass and shells, with a portion of it covering her face, and holding a broom, the handle of which is also decorated with shells and grass. The dance and the costume are associated with Candomblé, a religion based on African traditions, with elements borrowed from Christianity, that is practiced chiefly in Brazil. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 ...
Pilgrims at Cartago
This photograph from Costa Rica shows pilgrims in traditional dress and head wraps, some with blackened faces. Every year, thousands of devotees from across Costa Rica make a pilgrimage on foot to the Basilica of Our Lady of the Angels, the national religious shrine, to honor the Virgin Mary and pay homage for favors granted. The pilgrimage coincides with the feast day of the Virgin of the Angels, held on August 2, to commemorate the miraculous appearance (and subsequent reappearance) of a small, carved image of Mary to a young ...
Fiesta in a Village Near Quito
This photograph shows indigenous peoples in a village near Quito, Ecuador, performing a traditional dance in costumes with feathered headdresses. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the western hemisphere adopted the OAS Charter, in which they reaffirmed their commitment ...
Easter Parade, Sawdust Carpets
This photograph from El Salvador shows an Easter parade that features decorative, carpet-like coverings made from sawdust on the streets. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the western hemisphere adopted the OAS Charter, in which they reaffirmed their commitment ...
Sugar Cane Queen
This photograph from El Salvador shows the sugar cane queen of a local festival and her retinue, elegantly gowned in dresses with billowing skirts, on a float decorated with sugar cane stalks. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the ...
Local Rodeo
This photograph from El Salvador shows a rodeo in an open field, with a horseback rider performing while spectators, some on horseback, some standing, and some in trucks, look on. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the western hemisphere ...
Carnival
This photograph from Grenada shows a young girl in a shiny costume and crown, in a carnival band. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the western hemisphere adopted the OAS Charter, in which they reaffirmed their commitment to the ...
Mazatlán Carnival
This photograph of a carnival parade in Mexico shows elaborately decorated floats on a street crowded with onlookers. The Coca Cola logo is displayed on the first float; the Coca Cola bottle is the subject of the float behind it. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established ...
Indian Style Ferris Wheel
This photograph from Mexico shows a type of indigenous Ferris wheel: there are no seats, and the bodies of the individuals are held against the length of the poles as they revolve around the wheel in the middle. Each individual on the wheel wears a large, circular, decorated headdress that is itself like a wheel. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs ...
Cart Ride Ocean-Front
This photograph of a woman and her children in Nicaragua is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the western hemisphere adopted the OAS Charter, in which they reaffirmed their commitment to the pursuit of common goals and respect for each other’s ...
“Bury dance” Carnival, Peru
This photograph of a carnival scene in Cuzco, Peru, shows a group of indigenous men, women, and children in ethnic costume performing a dance. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the western hemisphere adopted the OAS Charter, in which ...
Fiesta “Huayno,” a Folk Dance
This photograph shows a group of indigenous dancers in Peru performing a folk dance. The huayno is the most representative folk dance of the Andes. It combines pre-Colombian origins with later European influences, and encompasses dozens of regional variations. The dance is performed by couples who perform turns and movements featuring hops and a tap-like zapateo to mark time. The instruments used to accompany the huayno include the quena, charango, harp, and violin. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States ...
Parade, the Three Kings Celebration
This photograph from Uruguay shows men dressed as kings, with crowns, flowing capes, and long beards, mounted on horses to greet their "subjects." Tres Reyes, or Three Kings Day, celebrated on January 6, is traditionally when Uruguayan children receive their Christmas gifts. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS ...
Devil Dancer
This photograph from Venezuela shows a masquerading dancer wearing a large grotesque mask with two huge horns tied together with tasseled rope and representing the devil. The Diablos Danzantes del Yare (Dancing Devils of Yare) is a religious festival celebrated in San Francisco de Yare in the state of Miranda on the feast of Corpus Christi. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the ...
Fiesta Dance Chichamaya in Zulia
This photograph shows indigenous people in the state of Zulia, Venezuela, performing a traditional dance. The northwestern part of Zulia is inhabited by the Guajiro Indians, the largest indigenous group in Venezuela. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the ...
The Curiepe Drum Dance
This photograph from Venezuela shows men and women dancing in the town of Curiepe. Founded in the early 1700s by liberated slaves, Curiepe is known for its annual San Juan Festival and its famous drums. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 ...
The Tamunangue Folk Dance
This photograph from Venezuela shows a group of men and women dancing the tamunangue, a folk dance that is performed as part of the festival of San Antonio de Padua, held on June 13 every year, in the state of Lara. The word tamunangue is derived from the name of the drum used to give the dance its characteristic beat, known as the tamunango. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life ...
Rock Painting S00501, Bethlehem, Dihlabeng District Municipality, Free State
This San rock painting depicts red-colored rain-animals. Among all San groups, the most important ritual is the Great Dance in which, through trances, the San say that they harness a kind of spiritual power. They use this power for healing, hunting, removing societal tensions, making rain, and other tasks. Aspects of the Great Dance are pervasive in San rock art, in part because this dance was of such great significance to the San, but more importantly because the act of making rock art seems to have been part of the ...
Clarence Earl Gideon, Petitioner, vs. Louis L. Wainwright, Director, Department of Corrections, Respondent
In the landmark case of Gideon v. Wainwright, the U.S. Supreme Court confirmed the right of an individual to legal counsel, even in cases not involving capital offenses. Clarence Earl Gideon was convicted of burglary and sentenced to five years imprisonment in a case in which the trial judge had refused his request for counsel. As an inmate, Gideon wrote and filed a lawsuit against the secretary of the Florida Department of Corrections, asking for a writ of habeas corpus on the grounds that he had been denied legal ...