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Manolo Millares was a self-taught artist born in 1926 in Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, in the Canary Islands archipelago of Spain. Shown here is his Cuadro 111 (Painting 111), made some time after 1960, an abstract work in startlingly vivid tones of green, purple and black. Millares was influenced by Surrealism from the late 1940s and attracted to the works of Klee and Miró. In that period, he began making abstract pictograms inspired by the Guanches, the indigenous Canaries people, and the pre-Hispanic culture of the islands, and he was ...
Infertile Woman II
Mujer infecunda II (Infertile woman II) is a late work by the Canary Islands artist Antonio Padrón Rodríguez (1920−68). The works of this painter’s last years are characterized by intense use of color and abstract expressionism, although here he has also used some dark somber tones. The image presents a fertility ritual, perhaps being performed by a woman seeking to become pregnant. She is a metaphor for the earth and the struggle to wrest growth from the islands, with their periods of drought. It is an image of ...
The Green Lightning
El rayo verde (The green lightning) is a late work by the Canary Islands artist Antonio Padrón Rodríguez (1920−68). He was born and lived most of his life in Gáldar, Gran Canaria, and many of his works reflect a strong sense of Canary location, customs, and people. He is linked to the Luján Pérez school, named for religious sculptor José Luján Pérez (1756−1815), who inspired a tradition of artists working in various media and focused on local culture, identity, and the position of Canary people in the world ...
The Uganda Journal, Volume I, Number 1, January 1934
The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society was established at Entebbe, Uganda Protectorate, in 1923. Its main activity consisted of the reading of papers and the delivery of lectures on topics relating to Uganda. In 1933 the society moved its headquarters to Kampala and decided to issue a regular publication, The Uganda Journal. The journal’s declared aim was “to collect and publish information which may add to our knowledge of Uganda and to record that which in the course of time might be lost.” Four issues per year were published ...
The Most Truthful Method of Distinguishing the Ibadites from the Kharijites and The Gift from Heaven on the Judgment of Shedding Blood
Sālim ibn Ḥammūd ibn Shāmis al-Siyābī (1908−93) was an Omani scholar, poet, historian, and judge. He was born in Ghāla, in the state of Bawshār in eastern Oman. A self-taught scholar, al-Siyābī memorized the Qur’an at age seven and went on to study Arabic language classics, including Ibn Malik’s Alfiyah, a 1,000-line poem about Arabic grammar rules. Al-Siyābī was also a prolific writer, and was the author of as many as 84 works, according to Sultān ibn Mubārak al-Shaybānī, who categorized al-Siyābī’s body of work ...
Florida's Canal Main Street
Interest in constructing a water route across the Florida peninsula goes back to the colonial rule of the Spanish and the British and continued when Florida became a territory of the United States in 1821. The earliest American surveys for a possible canal in Florida were undertaken in the wake of excitement surrounding the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825. President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the first significant work on a cross-Florida canal as part of New Deal public works programs in Florida. After much debate, construction on route ...
The Archaeological Map of Iraq
The world’s first civilizations grew up in the fertile valley between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the region of the Middle East long known as Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning 'between two rivers'), that roughly corresponds to the territory of present-day Iraq. These ancient civilizations included Sumer, the Babylonian Empire, and the Assyrian Empire. This modern map produced by the Directorate General of Antiquities of Iraq shows the locations of archaeological sites and rock monuments in the country. The table at the lower left lists chronological periods from the ...
The Independence of the Republic of Congo: Texts of the Speeches Given at the Official Session of the National Assembly and During the Public Proclamation of Independence
This booklet, issued by the Ministry of Information of the Republic of the Congo, is a collection of speeches given by high-ranking Congolese and French politicians at a special session of the Congolese National Assembly on August 14-15, 1960, convened to mark the country’s independence from France, which took effect on August 15, 1960. Included are speeches by the first president of the Republic of the Congo, Fulbert Youlou (1917-72), a speech by André Malraux, and a message from French President Charles de Gaulle read by Malraux. Youlou was ...
Respect for Human Dignity: an Inaugural Address
This pamphlet contains the text of the speech given by Nigerian independence leader Nnamdi Azikiwe (1904-96) on the day he became the first indigenous governor-general of Nigeria and the first Nigerian to be named to the Privy Council of Queen Elizabeth II. Nigeria became an independent state within the British Commonwealth on October 1, 1960. In the speech, Azikiwe discusses the changed role of the governor-general as a result of independence and, as in many of his speeches and writings from the period, the importance of the rule of law ...
Message from Mister Leopold Sedar Senghor, President of the Republic, to the Senegalese People
This speech to the people of Senegal by Léopold Sédar Senghor (1906-2001) was delivered the day after his election as the first president of the newly independent republic. Senghor was born in what was then French West Africa. He was sent at a young age to a Catholic mission school, where he embraced French and European culture, but also felt the loss of his mother tongue and the pain of being torn from his African roots. He won a scholarship to pursue literary studies in France, beginning in 1928. In ...
Constitution of the Republic of Togo, May 5, 1963
Togo (officially known as the Togolese Republic) became a German protectorate in 1884 and a German colony in 1905. After World War I, it was made a French protectorate under a League of Nations mandate. The country gained its independence from France in 1960 under the leadership of Sylvanus Olympio (1902-63), a business leader who had studied at the London School of Economics and was employed by the United Africa Company. Olympio was assassinated on January 13, 1963, in what is considered the first coup d’état of the post-colonial ...
Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda
This document is the first Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda, proclaimed in November 1962. From 1890 to 1916, Rwanda was part of German East Africa. In 1916, during World War I, it was occupied by Belgian troops from the neighboring Belgian Congo. After the war, it was joined with Burundi to become a Belgian League of Nations mandate, under the name Ruanda-Urundi. On July 1, 1962, the union of Ruanda-Urundi was dissolved and the Republic of Rwanda and the Republic of Burundi became separate, independent states. The leading political ...
Gaucho Broiling Steak in the Open
This photograph shows a gaucho in traditional dress cooking meat over a homemade spit. Gaucho is a term used to denote descendants of the early Spanish colonizers who traditionally led a semi-nomadic life on the South American pampas. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrating life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 ...
President John F. Kennedy Greets Peace Corps Volunteers, White House, South Lawn
This photograph shows President John F. Kennedy greeting Peace Corps volunteers on the South Lawn of the White House on August 9, 1962. Kennedy first proposed what became the Peace Corps in a speech at the University of Michigan on October 14, 1960, in which he challenged students to give two years of their lives to helping people in countries of the developing world. At the time, Kennedy was a member of the U.S. Senate campaigning for the presidency. Following his election, he signed an executive order establishing the ...
Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C.: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and Mathew Ahmann, Executive Director of the National Catholic Conference for Interracial Justice, in a Crowd
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom took place in August 1963 and was the setting for the celebrated “I Have a Dream” speech by the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. A. Philip Randolph, a labor leader and founder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, proposed a large march on the capital as a way of prodding Congress and the administration of President John F. Kennedy to act on civil rights. Others involved in its planning included King himself, National ...
Festival in Oruro (Bolivia)
This photograph shows a group of dancers in elaborate costumes in a band at the Carnival of Oruro in Bolivia. The carnival, which takes place every year, lasts ten days and features examples of popular arts in such forms as masks, textiles, and embroidery. The main event is the procession or entrada, in which the dancers walk the four-kilometer processional route repeatedly for a full 20 hours without interruption. In 2001, UNESCO proclaimed the Carnival of Oruro a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. The photograph is ...
Candomblé in Bahía (Brazil) Ritual Dance
This photograph from Brazil shows a group of women in traditional dress of African origin performing a ritual dance. The dance and dress are associated with Candomblé, a religion based on African traditions, with elements borrowed from Christianity, that is practiced chiefly in Brazil. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas, many taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established ...
Candomblé in Bahia (Brazil) Omolú Daughter
This photograph from Brazil shows a woman performing a dance wearing an elaborate costume made of grass and shells, with a portion of it covering her face, and holding a broom, the handle of which is also decorated with shells and grass. The dance and the costume are associated with Candomblé, a religion based on African traditions, with elements borrowed from Christianity, that is practiced chiefly in Brazil. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 ...
Pilgrims at Cartago
This photograph from Costa Rica shows pilgrims in traditional dress and head wraps, some with blackened faces. Every year, thousands of devotees from across Costa Rica make a pilgrimage on foot to the Basilica of Our Lady of the Angels, the national religious shrine, to honor the Virgin Mary and pay homage for favors granted. The pilgrimage coincides with the feast day of the Virgin of the Angels, held on August 2, to commemorate the miraculous appearance (and subsequent reappearance) of a small, carved image of Mary to a young ...
Fiesta in a Village Near Quito
This photograph shows indigenous peoples in a village near Quito, Ecuador, performing a traditional dance in costumes with feathered headdresses. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the western hemisphere adopted the OAS Charter, in which they reaffirmed their commitment ...
Easter Parade, Sawdust Carpets
This photograph from El Salvador shows an Easter parade that features decorative, carpet-like coverings made from sawdust on the streets. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the western hemisphere adopted the OAS Charter, in which they reaffirmed their commitment ...