52 results in English
Middle East Countries: Syria, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Jordan, Saudi-Arabia
This map of the Middle East, originally published in August 1950 and revised in February 1955, was issued by the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center, Air Photographic and Charting Service, Military Air Transportation Service (MATS), of the United States Air Force. In addition to Syria, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia, it shows the eastern parts of Egypt and the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium of Sudan as well as parts of Eritrea and Ethiopia. Many borders on the map, particularly on the Arabian Peninsula, are shown as still undetermined. Territories shown ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Painting 111
Manolo Millares was a self-taught artist born in 1926 in Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, in the Canary Islands archipelago of Spain. Shown here is his Cuadro 111 (Painting 111), made some time after 1960, an abstract work in startlingly vivid tones of green, purple and black. Millares was influenced by Surrealism from the late 1940s and attracted to the works of Klee and Miró. In that period, he began making abstract pictograms inspired by the Guanches, the indigenous Canaries people, and the pre-Hispanic culture of the islands, and he was ...
The Uganda Journal, Volume 21, Number 1, March 1957
The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society was established at Entebbe, Uganda Protectorate, in 1923. Its main activity consisted of the reading of papers and the delivery of lectures on topics relating to Uganda. In 1933 the society moved its headquarters to Kampala and decided to issue a regular publication, The Uganda Journal. The journal’s declared aim was “to collect and publish information which may add to our knowledge of Uganda and to record that which in the course of time might be lost.” Four issues per year were published ...
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Interposition Resolution by the Florida Legislature in Response to Brown v. Board of Education, 1957, with Handwritten Note by Florida Governor LeRoy Collins
In 1957, the Florida State Legislature passed a resolution in opposition to the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education, the Topeka, Kansas, case that ended legal segregation in public education. Racial segregation was originally found to be constitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in the landmark Plessy v. Ferguson case in 1896. The decision laid the foundation for what became known as Jim Crow laws by declaring segregation legal if the facilities were “separate but equal.” The Brown decision removed that foundation, and many ...
Waters of Destiny
The systematic drainage of the Florida Everglades began in earnest in 1905. Napoleon Bonaparte Broward, then Florida’s governor, committed significant state funds and solicited federal assistance in order to reclaim from underutilization the vast swamplands south of Lake Okeechobee. The ultimate goal of the Everglades reclamation was to access rich “muck” soil, covered in many areas by a thin layer of freshwater. Muck soil consisted of thousands of years of organic material accumulated on top of limestone bedrock. The muck made for ready and productive topsoil, but was quickly ...
Whip Cracking Demonstration—L.K. Edwards, Junior
Fredric Remington introduced Americans to the “Florida Cracker” cowboy in the August 1895 issue of Harper’s Magazine. Remington sketched and wrote about the fiercely independent breed of Florida cattlemen, who herded cattle and battled rustlers along the frontier. For Remington and many of his contemporaries, the Florida they knew resembled a frontier as much as any region of the United States in the late 19th century. The term “cracker” derives from the sound created by the popping of a bull whip. Florida crackers carried whips and used them, along ...
Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda
This map of Murchison Falls National Park, the largest national park in Uganda, was issued in 1956 by the Lands and Surveys Department of the Uganda Protectorate. Shown are the park boundaries, roads and tracks, ranger stations, control points, and the park headquarters and safari lodge. The scale of the map is 1:250,000. The park is bisected by the Victoria Nile, which flows westward from Lake Victoria toward Lake Albert, which it enters in a swampy estuary at the western edge of the park. At Murchison Falls, the ...
Explosion Crater Area, Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda Protectorate
This map of the Explosion Crater Area of Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda was issued in 1955 by the Survey, Land and Mines Department of the Uganda Protectorate. Shown are main roads, “existing motorable roads,” proposed tracks, water courses, ranger posts, and the locations of numbered signboards. Shading is used to indicate different types of terrain, including open grassland, scattered bushes, forest, and water. The site of a pavilion, built to commemorate the visit to the park on April 30, 1954, of Queen Elizabeth II and her husband, the ...
Bubeke, Uganda
This map of Bubeke, Kalangala District, Uganda Protectorate (present-day Uganda) was compiled and drawn by the Directorate of Overseas Surveys, Department of Technical Cooperation in the British government and issued in 1960 by the Uganda Department of Lands and Surveys. It is based on aerial photography and field survey data. Bubeke Island is located in the western part of Lake Victoria, south of Entebbe. Nearby islands, also shown on the map, include Bunjazi, Buyange, Bukasa, and Nkese. The map shows rocks, piers, landings, and other features important for navigation on ...
Masaka, Uganda
This map of Masaka District, Buganda Province in the Uganda Protectorate (present-day Uganda) was issued by the Uganda Department of Lands and Surveys in 1959. It was compiled by the department from earlier maps and from aerial photography carried out in 1950. The area depicted on the map includes the region west of Lake Victoria and north of the border with Tanganyika Territory (present-day Tanzania), including the northwestern part of Lake Victoria containing the Sese Islands (also seen as Ssese) and Kome Island. The northern edge of the map is ...
Mulabana, Uganda
This map of Mulabana, Sese County, Masaka District, Buganda Province in Uganda Protectorate (present-day Uganda) was issued in 1961 by the Uganda Lands and Surveys Department. It was compiled and drawn by the Directorate of Overseas Surveys, Department of Technical Cooperation in the British government based on field survey data and on aerial photography conducted by the British Royal Air Force in 1950. Mulabana is an island in the Sese Islands archipelago (also seen as Ssese) in the northwestern part of Lake Victoria, and most of the map is taken ...
Damba, Uganda
This map of Damba Island, Kyagwe County, Mengo District, Buganda Province in Uganda Protectorate (present-day Uganda) was issued in 1961 by the Uganda Lands and Surveys Department. It was compiled and drawn by the Directorate of Overseas Surveys, Department of Technical Cooperation in the British government, based on field survey data and on aerial photography carried out in 1955. Damba is located in the northwestern corner of Lake Victoria, south of Kampala and east of Entebbe. It is bisected by the equator, which defines the northern edge of the map ...
Street Plan of the Centre of Kampala
This map shows the center of Kampala, today the capital and largest city of Uganda, as it appeared in 1956 during the late colonial period. Depicted on the map are roads and streets; government and commercial buildings; schools; churches and mosques; the headquarters of the Uganda Society; and other buildings and sites. Kampala lies just north of Mengo, the capital of the Kingdom of Buganda in the 19th century, and it was selected by British colonial administrator Captain Frederick Lugard in 1890 as the headquarters of the Imperial British East ...
The Incomparable Marina Semenova
Leonid Zhdanov (1927–2010) took this photograph in 1958 during a lesson given by Marina Semenova (1908−2010) at the Bolshoi Theater, Moscow. Semenova was born in Saint Petersburg and graduated from the Leningrad Choreographic School, from the class of Agrippina Vaganova (1879−1951). Her talent manifested itself early. She became well known at the age of 13 after performing in the school production of The Magic Flute. In 1925 she was accepted into the Leningrad Opera and Ballet Theater (before 1919 and after 1991 the Mariinsky Theater). Despite the ...
The Goddess of Dance. Galina Ulanova
Leonid Zhdanov (1927–2010) took this photograph of Galina Ulanova (1910–98) in the ballet Les Sylphides at the Bolshoi Theater, Moscow, in 1961. Ulanova was born in Saint Petersburg. In 1928 she graduated from the class of Agrippina Vaganova (1879–1951) at the Leningrad Choreographic School. Ulanova exuded extraordinary magnetism. Forgoing fashionable virtuosity, her dancing was characterized by nuances and half tones. Ulanova was not only a great dancer; she was also a great tragic actress, perhaps the most significant in the history of ballet. Her dance career began ...
Dragonfly. Olga Lepeshinskaia
Leonid Zhdanov (1927–2010) took this picture of Olga Lepeshinskaia (1916–2008) in 1959. Lepeshinskaia, a star of the Bolshoi Theater, Moscow, from the 1930s through the 1950s, graduated from the Moscow Ballet School at the Bolshoi Theater (now known as Moscow State Academy of Choreography) in 1933 and immediately became a soloist, dancing lyrical roles in The Nutcracker, Coppelia, Sleeping Beauty, and Red Poppy. In 1940 she successfully danced the part of Kitri in Don Quixote, which became her signature role. Lepeshinskaia was not ideally built for classical ballet ...
Maple Sugar and Cooperation
Produced by the Producteurs de sucre d'érable du Québec (Maple Sugar Producers of Quebec) and directed by Father Maurice Proulx (1902–88), this 1955 film features the history of the organization and its new techniques for maple syrup production, from scientific standardization in laboratories to advanced wrapping and packaging. Proulx, trained in agronomy before becoming a filmmaker, made 36 films for industry and the provincial government between 1934 and 1961. The film begins with the tapping and collecting of the maple sap in the springtime. It explains how Quebec ...
The Independence of the Republic of Congo: Texts of the Speeches Given at the Official Session of the National Assembly and During the Public Proclamation of Independence
This booklet, issued by the Ministry of Information of the Republic of the Congo, is a collection of speeches given by high-ranking Congolese and French politicians at a special session of the Congolese National Assembly on August 14-15, 1960, convened to mark the country’s independence from France, which took effect on August 15, 1960. Included are speeches by the first president of the Republic of the Congo, Fulbert Youlou (1917-72), a speech by André Malraux, and a message from French President Charles de Gaulle read by Malraux. Youlou was ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Respect for Human Dignity: an Inaugural Address
This pamphlet contains the text of the speech given by Nigerian independence leader Nnamdi Azikiwe (1904-96) on the day he became the first indigenous governor-general of Nigeria and the first Nigerian to be named to the Privy Council of Queen Elizabeth II. Nigeria became an independent state within the British Commonwealth on October 1, 1960. In the speech, Azikiwe discusses the changed role of the governor-general as a result of independence and, as in many of his speeches and writings from the period, the importance of the rule of law ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Message from Mister Leopold Sedar Senghor, President of the Republic, to the Senegalese People
This speech to the people of Senegal by Léopold Sédar Senghor (1906-2001) was delivered the day after his election as the first president of the newly independent republic. Senghor was born in what was then French West Africa. He was sent at a young age to a Catholic mission school, where he embraced French and European culture, but also felt the loss of his mother tongue and the pain of being torn from his African roots. He won a scholarship to pursue literary studies in France, beginning in 1928. In ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Speech Delivered by Mister Houphouet-Boigny, Minister of State at the Geo-Andre Stadium in Abidjan on September 7, 1958
Félix Houphouët-Boigny (1905-93) was the first president of Côte d’Ivoire. He gave this speech shortly before a September 1958 referendum on the future of French West Africa. Houphouët-Boigny outlined the country's path to independence, but also called for the preservation of strong ties with France, within a new French Community. Côte d’Ivoire became a de facto French protectorate under a series of treaties concluded in 1843-44, and a French colony in 1893. From 1904 to 1958, Côte d’Ivoire was part of the federation of French West ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ghana, One Year Old: a First Independence Anniversary Review
This pamphlet recaptures the main events of the first year of Ghana’s history as an independent country. It features texts on politics by the prime minister and the leader of the opposition, a political year in review, and greetings from foreign leaders. Also included are articles on the arts, sports, education, science, and agriculture of the country, as well as stories about Ghana’s role in the world and its plans for the future. Moses Danquah, a long-time columnist for the Daily Graphic and one of Ghana’s most ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Letter from Linda Kelly, Sherry Bane, and Mickie Mattson to President Dwight D. Eisenhower Regarding Elvis Presley
Until the abolition of conscription in the 1970s, all American men were required to register for the draft. Celebrities were drafted alongside ordinary citizens, and the rock-and-roll idol Elvis Presley was no exception. Presley was inducted into the Army in 1958. He took the required haircut in stride, coining the phrase, “Hair today, gone tomorrow.” This letter to President Dwight D. Eisenhower, signed by three girls from Noxon, Montana, identifying themselves as “Elvis Presley Lovers,” asks that the president not cut off Elvis’s sideburns. “If you do we will ...
Conga Drums at Carnival Time
This photograph from Cuba shows a group of male revelers in traditional costumes and large sombreros, with various types of drums and other musical instruments, in a Conga line. The conga is a dance that originated in Cuba, and in which the participants form a winding line, take three steps forwards or backwards, and then kick. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the ...
Conga Dancers
This photograph from Cuba shows dancers and drummers similarly adorned in costumes of balloon-like trousers, long coats, and head wraps made of the same shiny fabric, moving in a long conga line. The conga is a dance that originated in Cuba, and in which the participants form a winding line, take three steps forwards or backwards, and then kick. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas ...
Sugar Cane Queen
This photograph from El Salvador shows the sugar cane queen of a local festival and her retinue, elegantly gowned in dresses with billowing skirts, on a float decorated with sugar cane stalks. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the ...
Native Drummers
This photograph from Haiti shows two drummers playing on elaborately-decorated drums. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the western hemisphere adopted the OAS Charter, in which they reaffirmed their commitment to the pursuit of common goals and respect for ...
Indian Style Ferris Wheel
This photograph from Mexico shows a type of indigenous Ferris wheel: there are no seats, and the bodies of the individuals are held against the length of the poles as they revolve around the wheel in the middle. Each individual on the wheel wears a large, circular, decorated headdress that is itself like a wheel. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs ...
Cart Ride Ocean-Front
This photograph of a woman and her children in Nicaragua is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the western hemisphere adopted the OAS Charter, in which they reaffirmed their commitment to the pursuit of common goals and respect for each other’s ...
Corpus Christi Parade, Cuzco, Peru
This photograph from the Corpus Christi festival in Cuzco, Peru, shows indigenous peoples carrying religious artifacts. The festival begins 60 days after Easter. Representatives from nearby churches take part in the main day procession, bearing statues of their patron saints in a procession to the city’s main cathedral. On the eve of the procession, it is customary to prepare 12 traditional dishes, including cuy chiriuchu (guinea pig), cornbread, beer, and chicha (fermented corn beverage). The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of ...
Fiesta “Huayno,” a Folk Dance
This photograph shows a group of indigenous dancers in Peru performing a folk dance. The huayno is the most representative folk dance of the Andes. It combines pre-Colombian origins with later European influences, and encompasses dozens of regional variations. The dance is performed by couples who perform turns and movements featuring hops and a tap-like zapateo to mark time. The instruments used to accompany the huayno include the quena, charango, harp, and violin. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States ...
Devil Dancer Mask
This photograph shows a scary mask used in the Festival of the Virgin of Carmen that takes place in the Peruvian town of Paucartambo every July. The Virgin is the patron saint of the mestizo peoples, and the costumes worn at the festival represent the demons that the Virgin is credited with driving away. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were ...
Religious Parade, Santa Rosa de Lima
This photograph shows a procession in honor of Saint Rose of Lima, the first Catholic saint in the New World and the patroness of the Americas and the Philippines. On August 30, the feast day of the saint, the faithful from throughout Peru visit her sanctuary in Lima, as well as the town of Santa Rosa de Quives, where she spent her teenage years. Saint Rose was born in Lima on April 20, 1586, and died there on August 24, 1617. Known for her extreme piety, she was canonized in ...
Montevideo Celebrates Carnival Dancing Candombe
This photograph from the carnival celebrations in Montevideo, Uruguay, shows women dressed in costume, part of a carnival band dancing Candombe. Candombe is a drum-based Afro-Uruguayan rhythm that has roots in the Bantu regions of eastern and equatorial Africa, the original home of many slaves brought to Uruguay in the 18th century. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by ...
Montevideo Celebrates Carnival
This photograph of storybook figures on a rooftop depicts part of the carnival celebrations in Montevideo, Uruguay. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the western hemisphere adopted the OAS Charter, in which they reaffirmed their commitment to the pursuit ...
Two Women on Water Skis Wearing Tutus and White Gloves
Dick and Julie Pope founded Cypress Gardens in 1936, one of the many roadside attractions that began to line the highways of Florida and other U.S. states in the 1920s. Located between Orlando and Tampa in Winter Haven, the lush botanical gardens attracted tourists driving south through central Florida on U.S. Highway 27, known as the Orange Blossom Trail. During the early 1940s, Pope hired women to walk around the park wearing antebellum-style dresses. He introduced water-skiing shows during World War II to entertain soldiers who visited the ...
The Bunyoro Agreement 1955
This document, from the National Archives of Uganda, is the original of the Bunyoro Agreement of 1955 between Great Britain and the Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara, one of the traditional kingdoms of Uganda. The agreement, in both English and Lunyoro, was signed on September 3 by Sir Andrew Cohen (1909–68), governor of the Uganda Protectorate, on behalf of the British government in London and the government of the protectorate, and the Omukama (king), Sir Tito Gafabusa Winyi IV (1883–1971), on behalf of himself and his successors, the Rukurato (the ...
White Springs School 5th Graders Dancing
This photograph of children dancing is from the 1959 Florida Folk Festival. The festival first took place in 1953, on the grounds of the Stephen Foster Memorial along the banks of the Suwanee River in White Springs. The Suwannee formed the boundary between the Timucuans and the Apalachees, and the area was also considered special by the Seminole and Miccosukee peoples. The springs were considered by several indigenous American peoples to have healing powers. Settlers who began arriving in the area in the 1830s also advocated taking the waters, and ...
Care and Feeding of a Mermaid
This film shows a young woman training to perform as a mermaid at Weeki Wachee, a Florida water park founded by Newton Perry (1908–87) after World War II. After serving in the U.S. Navy during the war, where among other duties he trained military divers, champion swimmer Perry scouted out locations for a water park. He found a major spring in a largely unpopulated area 100 miles (160 kilometers) north of Tampa, with remarkably clear water that flowed to the Gulf of Mexico 16 miles (26 kilometers) away ...
Traditional Seminole Song - Rev. Josie Billie
Josie Billie was a member of the Florida Seminole people who lived his entire life on the Big Cypress Indian Reservation in Hendry County, Florida. Born December 12, 1887, Josie Billie was the son of Connie Pajo, also known to Floridians as Billie Cornpatch, the first Indian to receive a Western education in Florida. A Seminole medicine man and long-time public spokesman for the Florida Seminoles, Billie later continued his medical work as an herbalist and became a Baptist minister. He was a frequent participant in the Florida Folk Festival ...
Welcome to Rainbow Springs
“Welcome to Rainbow Springs” is an example of the traditional tour guide performances delivered by guides at Florida’s natural springs, which were the first tourist attractions widely promoted in the state’s long history as a tourist destination. The speech is part welcome message, part folk song, and part tall tale, and demonstrates how African Americans were integral to the early tourist trade in Florida. The performance style is evocative of the minstrel songs and theatricals of earlier years. Rainbow Springs boat captain Skipper Lockett gives his recitation while ...
Report of the Constitutional Committee 1959
This four-part report was prepared in 1959 by a constitutional committee established by Sir Frederick Crawford, Governor of Uganda, as the then-protectorate of Uganda prepared for independence from Great Britain. The committee was chaired by John Wild, and included two other Europeans, two Asians, and ten Africans. It was “to consider, and to recommend to the Governor, the form of direct elections on a common roll for the representative members of the Legislative Council to be introduced in 1961, the number of seats to be filled under the above system ...