374 results in English
The Baptistery of Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev
This book is about the baptistery of Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev. The name of the cathedral comes from the sixth-century Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) and means “Holy Wisdom,” rather than dedication to a particular saint. Designed as “the new Constantinople” to represent Eastern Christianity, Saint Sophia in Kiev was first constructed in the 11th century. The baptistery was built into the cloister a few years later and its walls still bear frescoes from the 11th–12th centuries. By the early 20th century, the baptistery was in a ...
Ukrainian Culture: A Short History of the Cultural Life of the Ukrainian People
In the summer of 1918, Ivan Ogienko (1882–1972), a Ukrainian scientist and political, public, and ecclesiastical figure, became a founder and the first president of Kam'ianets'-Podil's'kyi state university (subsequently renamed after him). He later gave a course of lectures on Ukrainian culture at the university, on which this book is based. Part I concerns the history of the culture until the 17th century. It describes the territory of Ukraine, along with song, epic (Cossack) poems and other major literary works, the language, and architecture. Also ...
Vrubelʹ
Mikhail Vrubelʹ (1856–1910) was a Russian painter known for his unusual style, which synthesized elements of native Russian art with Western and Byzantine influences. Born in Omsk to a Polish father and a Russian mother, he moved to Saint Petersburg in 1874 to study law. He abandoned his legal studies and in 1880 entered the Academy of Fine Arts. In a career cut short by mental illness and blindness, Vrubelʹ produced a body of work that included church murals and mosaics, book illustrations, stage sets, watercolors, and oil paintings ...
To Modest Ment͡synsʹkyĭ from Prisoners of the Wetzlar Camp
This publication, dedicated to the opera tenor Modest Omeli͡anovych Ment͡synsʹkyĭ (1875–1935), was produced by the prisoners from the Wetzlar camp for whom Ment͡synsʹkyĭ gave a performance in February 1916. It contains essays and poems dedicated to Ment͡synsʹkyĭ as well as the program of his performance and the lyrics of the songs he sang, which included poems by Taras Shevchenko and Ivan Franko. During World War I, more than a million Russian army soldiers were taken prisoner, of whom several hundred thousand were ethnic Ukrainians. The ...
Ukrainian People in the Past and Present
This book is the first volume of what became a two-volume, Russian-language encyclopedia of the Ukrainian people. The authors of the articles were prominent Ukrainian and Russian scholars. They included S. Rudnitskii, who wrote about geography of Ukraine; O. Rusov, V. Ohrimovich and S. Tomashevskii, who wrote about population statistics; F. Vovk, whose article was on anthropological and ethnographic features specific to the Ukrainians; and O. Shakhmatov, who contributed a history of the Ukrainian language. The book includes numerous illustrations. World War I interrupted the production of the encyclopedia, but ...
A Collection from the Archaeological Museum, Used for Teaching in the Women's Advanced Courses in Kiev
This book contains an extended essay about and eight illustrations of the clothes and decorations worn by women in ancient Russia. The information is based on archeological excavations of kurgans, or burial mounds, containing domestic objects from the ancient Slavs. The objects depicted are from the Archaeological Museum in Kiev. As indicated in the title, the book was used for teaching courses for women in Kiev. Advanced courses for women opened in Kiev and several other Ukrainian cities in 1878, and were part of a broader movement in the country ...
West India Islands and the Approaches to the Panama Canal
This large folding map, issued by the London Geographical Institute during World War I, shows the islands of the Caribbean Sea and the approaches to the Panama Canal. The canal had opened to traffic in early 1914, shortly before the outbreak of the war. Protection of the canal against possible sabotage by Germany was a concern of U.S. military planners in World War I and, especially, during World War II. The map shows telegraph lines, undersea cables, and the distances in nautical miles of steamer routes from the key ...
Map of the Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1916, shows a proposed highway across the southern United States linking Miami and Los Angeles. Tentatively named the Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway, the proposed route was to be ...
National Highways Preliminary Map of the State of Minnesota
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1916, shows 2,600 miles of national highway proposed for Minnesota. The NHA employed engineers to plan routes with the aim of maximizing the share of each state ...
Map of the Meridian Road
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the proposed Meridian Route, running from the U.S.–Canada border in North Dakota to Galveston, Texas, and the U.S.–Mexico border at Laredo. The ...
Map of the Pacific Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Pacific Highway, proposed by the Pacific Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Blaine, Washington, to San Diego, California, a ...
National Highways Association Map of the State of Delaware
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1914, shows 300 miles (483 kilometers) of highways proposed for Delaware and their connections to the adjoining states of Pennsylvania and Maryland. No bridge across the Delaware River ...
Map of the Rocky Mountain Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Rocky Mountain Highway, proposed by the Rocky Mountain Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Glacier National Park in Montana ...
Map of the Dixie Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Dixie Highway, proposed by the Dixie Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Mackinaw City, Michigan, to Miami, Florida. In ...
Map of the Sunshine Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Sunshine Highway, proposed by the Sunshine Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from the U.S.–Canada border in Washington ...
Map of the Mississippi Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Mississippi Highway, proposed by the Mississippi Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Duluth, Minnesota, to New Orleans, a distance ...
Map of the Great Lakes-Atlantic Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Great Lakes–Atlantic Highway, proposed by the Great Lakes-Atlantic Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Cleveland, Ohio, to Miami ...
Map of the Great Plains Road
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Great Plains Road, proposed by the Great Plains Road Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from the U.S.–Canada border ...
National Highways Map of the United States
This map, issued in 1918 by the National Highways Association (NHA), shows the 150,000-mile (241,402-kilometer) network of roads proposed by the NHA. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated a “four-fold system” of roads that would include national highways to be built and maintained by the federal government, and systems of state, county, and township or town roads. The map associates the building of roads with national defense and “preparedness” for U.S. involvement in World War I, as symbolized by James Montgomery Flagg’s ...
Fifty Thousand Miles of National Highways Proposed by the National Highways Association, 1914
This map was issued in 1914 by the National Highways Association (NHA) to promote the development of the 50,000-mile (80,500-kilometer) network of national highways proposed by the NHA. Published in the year that the Panama Canal opened to traffic, the map contrasts the benefits to citizens of the canal with those offered by the proposed highway system. The NHA was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated a ...
Map of Proposed National Highways for Michigan, 1916
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1916, shows 3,400 miles (5,472 kilometers) of national highway proposed for Michigan. The NHA employed engineers to plan routes with the aim of maximizing the share ...
Map of United States Proposed National Highways, 1915
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA proposed a 150,000-mile (241,402-kilometer) network of roads, based on a four-fold system of national, state, county, and town or township highways and roads. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the tentative routes of the most important highways in this network, totaling 100,000 miles (160,934 kilometers) in length. The table at the ...
Map of United States Proposed National Highways System, 1915
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA proposed a 150,000-mile (241,402-kilometer) network of roads, based on a four-fold system of national, state, county, and town or township highways and roads. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows (in red) the tentative routes of the 13 principal transcontinental highways in this network, and the connecting system of other major highways, totaling 100 ...
Map of the Atlantic Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Atlantic Highway, proposed by the Atlantic Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Calais, Maine to Miami, Florida, a distance ...
Map of the Canada–Kansas City–Gulf Road
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Canada–Kansas City–Gulf Road, proposed by the Canada–Kansas City–Gulf Road Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Duluth, Minnesota, to Cameron, Louisiana ...
Map of Proposed National Highways of the United States, 1915
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA proposed a 150,000-mile (241,402-kilometer) network of roads, based on a four-fold system of national, state, county, and town or township highways and roads. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the tentative routes of the most important highways in this network, totaling 100,000 miles (160,934 kilometers) in length. The table at the ...
Hupmobile United America Tour, 1918
This map, issued in 1918 by the National Highways Association (NHA), shows the route of the United America Tour undertaken by the Hupp Motor Car Corporation, under the auspices of the American Automobile Association and the NHA, “for the purpose of pioneering a new good road that would include all capitals and major cities of the U.S.” The tour began in Washington, DC, on August 28, 1916, and was completed, after visits to the capitals of all of the then-48 states, in the same city on January 9, 1917 ...
First World War
This photograph from the archives of the League of Nations shows a soldier killed in World War I. The war raged for more than four years, from August 1914 to November 1918, and resulted in the deaths of more than nine million combatants. As many as seven million civilians also were killed in the war or died as a consequence of it. In the hope of ensuring that such a destructive conflict would never recur, U.S. president Woodrow Wilson and other leaders established, at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference ...
General Map of the Turkish War Theater
This map, published in Berlin in July 1916, shows the Turkish theater of World War I. It is based on an 1884 map in French of the Asian provinces of the Ottoman Empire by German geographer and cartographer Heinrich Kiepert (1818–99). The map contains additional notes in German and its coverage of existing and projected railroads is updated to 1916. The Ottoman territories, shown in pink, include present-day Turkey, Cyprus, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan, as well as Saudi Arabia. The Ottoman Empire, or Turkey as it was ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Revolt in Arabia
This historical booklet about the origins of the Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire during World War I was written by Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936), a Dutch professor who specialized in oriental languages and cultures and served as a colonial official in the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia). The booklet is a collection of newspaper articles by Hurgronje that appeared in the newspaper Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant in 1916, after Hurgronje had spent a year conducting research in Mecca and Jiddah. The articles were translated into English and published in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Poetic Collection of Tarzi
Diwan-i tarzi (Poetic collection of Tarzi) contains verses by Ghulām Muḥammad Ṭarzī (1830−1900), mostly concerning piety, ethics, politics, and society in 19th century Afghanistan. Tarzi came from a distinguished background; he belonged to the Mohammadzai sub-lineage of the Durranis, one of two main Afghan Pashtun lineages, the other being Ghilzai. Because of their connections to Muḥammad Yaʻqūb Khān, Tarzi and his family were exiled from Afghanistan in 1882−83 by Abd al-Raḥmān Khān, a kinsman of Yaʻqūb Khān and a rival to the Afghan throne. The feeling of desolation ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Echo of Babylon, Number 4, September 3, 1909
Seda Babel (Echo of Babylon), first published in 1909 in Baghdad, was among Iraq’s earliest newspapers. It appeared weekly on Friday. Until the end of World War I, Iraq was part of the Ottoman Empire and was subject to Ottoman law. In 1908, in line with the liberalizing revolution of the Young Turks, imperial press regulation loosened, allowing Iraq’s intellectuals and writers the freedom to publish newspapers, magazines, and books. Seda Babel was one of more than a dozen newspapers to appear as a result, and part of ...
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Al-Arab, Volume 1, Number 1, July 4, 1917
The newspaper Al-Arab (The Arabs) was first published in Baghdad on July 4, 1917, some four months after British troops captured the city from the Turks, thereby ending three centuries of Ottoman rule. The paper appeared at a critical period in the history of Iraq. Issued by the British authorities, it served as a mouthpiece for the British administration at a time of rising Iraqi and Arab nationalism. It depicted the Ottomans as foreigners and the British as liberators and sought to advance broader British military and political strategy against ...
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Korea
This photograph of a Korean woman and her daughter in traditional costume is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lest Liberty Perish from the Face of the Earth - Buy Bonds
In 1917 the United States entered the Great War, as World War I was known at the time. A national propaganda campaign was started to convince Americans to support the war effort. Some of the images used in this campaign have become a permanent part of American cultural iconography, notably J.M. Flagg’s famed 1917 poster of Uncle Sam declaring, “I want YOU.” In addition to recruiting troops to fight, the U.S. government issued “Liberty Bonds” to help finance the war effort. Artists helped the cause by making ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bouncing Baby
The film Bouncing Baby, featured here, is a prime example of the works produced by the Vim Comedy Company in Jacksonville, Florida, during the early years of silent films. Favorable weather, political support, and cheap real estate and labor helped to make Jacksonville a major center for motion picture production in this period. The mayor of Jacksonville in 1915−17, J.E.T. Bowden, set out to restore business confidence in northeastern Florida after a recessionary slump and extended an open invitation “to the moving picture fraternity of this country ...
Marjory Stoneman Douglas World War I Service Card
Marjory Stoneman Douglas, best known as an environmentalist and author of The River of Grass (1947), served in the United States Navy during World War I, from April 1917 to May 1918. Frank Bryant Stoneman, Marjory’s father and editor-in-chief of the Miami Herald, sent his daughter to cover the story of the first woman in the Miami area to enlist in the armed forces during World War I. Douglas was the first to arrive at the recruiting office, and became the very woman she was sent to report on ...
The Cradle of the War: The Near East and Pan-Germanism
The Cradle of the War: The Near East and Pan-Germanism is a study of the origins of World War I. The author, Henry Charles Woods (1881−1939), argues that the main cause of the conflict was “the Pan-German desire for domination from Hamburg to the Persian Gulf.” The book offers an overview of political and military developments in the Near East (defined as the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor), with chapters on Serbia and Montenegro, Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, and Albania. Later chapters cover military highways in the Balkans, the ...
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Through the Brazilian Wilderness, by Theodore Roosevelt: With Illustrations from Photographs by Kermit Roosevelt and Other Members of the Expedition
After failing to win a third term in the elections of 1912, former U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt planned a speaking trip to Argentina and Brazil and a cruise up the Amazon. The government of Brazil suggested that Roosevelt join the famous Brazilian explorer Cândido Rondon in an expedition down the recently discovered River of Doubt. Roosevelt accepted the invitation and, accompanied by his son Kermit, reached the river with Rondon on February 27, 1914. From the beginning, the expedition was fraught with difficulties, including disease, lack of supplies, and ...
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Nepal and the Himalayan Countries
Isabelle Massieu (1844–1932) was a French writer and traveler who became the first French woman to visit Nepal. Beginning in 1892, she undertook a series of journeys from her native Paris that took her to nearly all parts of Asia and resulted in the publication of several popular books. Népal et pays himalayens (Nepal and the Himalayan countries) is a first-hand account of her 1908 voyage from the Sutlej Valley in northern India across Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim to Tibet. Massieu describes the people, landscape, and architecture of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Siberia
Morgan Philips Price (1885–1973) was a British journalist, photographer, and politician who wrote several books about Russia. He studied science at Cambridge University. In 1910 he joined a British scientific expedition to explore the headwaters of the Enesei River in central Siberia with two friends, writer, photographer, and cartographer Douglas Carruthers, and J.H. Miller, a zoologist and big-game hunter. Siberia is Price’s account of the expedition and his travels on the Trans-Siberian Railroad, his stay in the city of Krasnoiarsk, and his visit to the Siberian provincial ...
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It is Nice in the Surf but What about the Men in the Trenches? Go and Help
This 1917 Australian poster is representative of many used to recruit volunteers to serve with the British forces in World War I. Australian recruitment drives were highly successful and resulted in more than 400,000 men enlisting from a population of fewer than five million. Posters such as this one appealed to the Australian value of “mateship” or comradeship, while others appealed to patriotism. In addition to the young man swimming in the surf, the poster features the emblem of the Win the War League, an organization founded in 1917 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress