529 results in English
Album of Religious Artifacts from the Church Archaeological Museum of Kiev Theological Academy
This book, the first in a series of albums dedicated to the Church Archaeological Museum of Kiev Theological Academy, is about the collection of icons from Mount Sinai and Mount Athos assembled by Bishop Porfiry Uspensky (1804–85). Bishop Porfiry was born in Russia, studied at the Saint Petersburg Theological Academy, and was ordained as a priest in 1829. In 1842 he was sent by the synod of the Russian Orthodox Church to Jerusalem to strengthen relations with the Orthodox Christians of Syria and Palestine. In 1845–46 he made ...
The Cultural and National Movement in Ukraine in the 16th and 17th Centuries
Mykhailo Hrushevs’kyi (1866–1934) was a professor of history and a leading political figure in Ukraine, who served as chairman of the Ukrainian Central Council at the time of the Russian Revolution of 1917. This work, published in 1912, is devoted to the national and cultural movement of Ukraine in the 16th and 17th centuries and the formation of a Ukrainian national consciousness. Much of the book deals with relations between Ukraine and Poland and their effect on the formation of a Ukrainian state. The author describes a decline ...
Peresopnytsia Gospel, a Monument of the 16th Century Renaissance Art from South Russia
This work is devoted to one of the most important and beautifully decorated East Slavic manuscripts, the Peresopnytsia Gospel created in the mid-16th century, partly at the Monastery of the Mother of God in Peresopnytsia, Volyn, and partly at the Monastery of the Holy Trinity near L’viv, both in present-day Ukraine. The present book, by Alexander Gruzinskii, covers the history of the gospel, its ornamentation, and graphics. The first part focuses on the origin of the Peresopnytsia manuscript, which was rediscovered in 1830s by Slavist scholar Osip Bodjanskij. The ...
Eternal Wisdom, a School Play from Kiev
The school drama is a theatrical form that developed in Ukraine in the 17th and 18th centuries. Students would perform plays written by their teachers as a way of receiving religious instruction and studying the principles of drama. The genre was said to have developed from the dialogic verse of the Christmas and Easter cycles that were popular in Western Europe beginning in the 12th and 13th centuries and that spread to Ukraine in the late 16th–early 17th centuries. This book is a 1912 edition of a Jesuit school ...
Mikhail Alexandrovich Vrubelʹ: Life and Work
Mikhail Alexandrovich Vrubelʹ (1856–1910) was a Russian painter known for his unusual style that synthesized elements of native Russian art with Western and Byzantine influences. Born in Omsk to a Polish father and a Russian mother, he moved to Saint Petersburg in 1874 to study law. He abandoned his legal studies and in 1880 entered the Academy of Fine Arts. In a career cut short by mental illness and blindness, Vrubelʹ produced a body of work that included church murals and mosaics, book illustrations, stage sets, watercolors, and oil ...
Brochure for White Star Line’s Two Ships “Olympic” and “Titanic”
This Danish-language brochure, published in Copenhagen in 1911 or 1912, advertises two ships of the British-owned White Star Line, the Olympic and Titanic. Included are facts about the line and its fleet; information about tickets, timetables, and classes of service; and illustrations of the dining rooms, libraries, cabins, and decks. The brochure lists amenities available to second- and third-class passengers and shows the menus for the morning, midday, and evening meals offered on each of the seven days of the voyage across the Atlantic. The publication was aimed at people ...
Map of the Argentine Railways
Between 1880 and 1915, the Argentine railroad network expanded from 1,388 miles (2,234 kilometers) to 22,251 miles (35,809 kilometers) in length, making it the longest on the continent of South America and the eighth longest in the world. Railroads played a key role in economic development and national consolidation and made possible Argentina’s emergence as a major exporter of wheat, beef, and other products. The most important railroads were owned and built by British companies, which were granted concessions by the Argentine government because of ...
Map of Bolivia, Showing Forest and Agriculture Areas, and Mineral Localities
This 1912 map shows the agricultural, forest, and mineral wealth of Bolivia. Mineral production is shown as located mainly in the western part of the country, in or near the Andes Mountains. The locations of mines producing antimony, bismuth, copper, gold, lead, silver, wolfram, and tin, Bolivia’s most important mineral product, are indicated. Tin was mined in the departments of Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, and Potosí. Production boomed in the late-19th century–early 20th century, as the extension of the rail line to Oruro made possible the export of ...
Olympic Games, Stockholm, 1912
The Stockholm Olympiad of 1912 marked the transition of the modern Olympic Games from what had been a modest-sized athletic competition into a global media event. The preparation and build-up for the games, the venues built especially for them, and media exposure all began to overshadow the fabric of the athletic competitions themselves. This media event emphasized both global and national dimensions and was meticulously conceived by the organizers. Recognizing that technology was evolving quickly and that visual images crossed borders unhindered, the committee mounted an innovative international media campaign ...
Feminine Elegance: Fortnightly Fashion Review, Number 1
Eleganze femminili: rivista quindicinale di mode (Feminine elegance: fortnightly fashion review) was an Italian fashion magazine, published from January to May 1911, which was sold by subscription in Italy and abroad. In addition to presenting the latest fashions by the most famous designers in Paris, London, and Vienna, Eleganze femminili reported on social occasions in high society and included articles on etiquette, women’s interests, art, and the history of fashion throughout the centuries. It also offered readers the chance to obtain muslin or paper patterns of the designs shown ...
View 9 more issues
Zigzag Journeys in the Camel Country: Arabia in Picture and Story
Samuel Zwemer (1867–1952) was an American missionary who became known as the “Apostle to Islam” for his strenuous, if not always successful, evangelization efforts in Islamic countries. He attended Hope College in Holland, Michigan, and the New Brunswick Seminary in New Jersey. In 1889 he and a classmate founded the American Arabian Mission, which later received sponsorship from the Reformed Church, and the next year he departed for the Arabian Peninsula. In 1896 he met and married Amy Wilkes (died 1937), an Australian fellow missionary and nurse. Together, the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Suffrage Parade, New York City, May 6, 1912
The suffrage parade was a new development in the fight for women’s suffrage in the United States. It was a bold tactic, adopted by suffragists and the more militant suffragettes shortly after the turn of the century. Although some women chose to quit the movement rather than march in public, others embraced the parade as a way of publicizing their cause and combating the idea that women should be relegated to the home. Parades often united women of different social and economic backgrounds. Because they were carried out in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Echo of Babylon, Number 4, September 3, 1909
Seda Babel (Echo of Babylon), first published in 1909 in Baghdad, was among Iraq’s earliest newspapers. It appeared weekly on Friday. Until the end of World War I, Iraq was part of the Ottoman Empire and was subject to Ottoman law. In 1908, in line with the liberalizing revolution of the Young Turks, imperial press regulation loosened, allowing Iraq’s intellectuals and writers the freedom to publish newspapers, magazines, and books. Seda Babel was one of more than a dozen newspapers to appear as a result, and part of ...
View 79 more issues
Russian Royal Family at Borodino, 1912
This photograph shows Tsar Nicholas II (1868−1918) and Tsarina Alexandra Fedorovna (1872−1918) with their daughters and other notables, walking on the train platform after arriving at Borodino Station on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the Battle of Borodino. The second individual from the right is Baron Vladimir Borisovich Frederiks (1838−1927), a minister of the imperial court who was close to Nicholas II. During Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812, Russian and French armies clashed on the Borodino battlefield, situated to the west of Moscow ...
History of Arab Literature
Jirjī Zaydān was born in Beirut, Lebanon, into a Syrian Orthodox family of modest means. After a mediocre experience at local schools, he moved to Egypt to study at al-Qaṣr al-ʻAynī medical college, but he abandoned medicine in favor of a literary and publishing career. He founded Dar al-Hilal printing and publishing house and in 1892 brought out the weekly al-Hilal magazine, which continues publication to this day. Al-Ahram newspaper and al-Hilal became the most long-lived and influential media advocates for Egyptian national causes and modernizing progress based on Western ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Afghanistan
This map of Afghanistan was produced by the Geographical Section of the General Staff of the British Army and issued by the War Office in London in January 1912. It gives the names and locations of districts, mountains, passes, and sources of water. Relief is shown by contours and heights are given in feet. Colors, as explained in the key on the right side of the map, are used to indicate altitude, with the heights shown ranging from sea level to 25,000 feet (7,620 meters) and higher. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
An Illustrated Tibeto-Mongolian Materia Medica of Ayurveda of ʼJam-dpal-rdo-rje of Mongolia
Dri med śel phreṅ nas bśad paʼi sman gyi ʼkhruṅs dpe mdzes mtshar mig rgyan (An illustrated Tibeto-Mongolian materia medica of ayurveda of ʼJam-dpal-rdo-rje of Mongolia) is a Tibetan book of unbound loose-leaf pages in landscape format. It was written in the first half of the 19th century in Tibetan and Mongolian, with additional Chinese scripts, by ʼJam-dpal-rdo-rje (also known as Ye-śes-don-grub-bstan-paʼi-rgyal-mtshan). The work is primarily a Tibetan-Mongolian book in the Indic ayurveda tradition, with some Chinese references as well, and some captions in Chinese. The book contains drawings and ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Fragment from Major Alfred Dreyfus's Memoirs
Alfred Dreyfus (1859−1935) was a French artillery officer of Jewish background who was wrongly accused and convicted of treason and espionage in 1894. As such, he became the main protagonist in one of the most famous political scandals of the beginning of the 20th century. In this voice recording of a fragment of his memoirs, made in 1912 at the Sorbonne by the Archives de la parole (Voice archives), Dreyfus recounts the events of July 20, 1906. Eight days after he was exonerated by the Cour de cassation (Court ...
The Strangling of Persia
William Morgan Shuster (1877−1960) was an American lawyer and financial expert who served as treasurer general to the government of the Persian Empire in 1911. In 1910, the Persian government asked U.S. president William Howard Taft for technical assistance in reorganizing its financial system. Taft chose Shuster to head a mission of American experts to Tehran. The Strangling of Persia is Shuster’s account of his experiences, published soon after his return to the United States. In the Anglo-Russian convention of August 31, 1907, Britain and Russia had ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Chola Woman, Full-Length Portrait, Standing, Facing Right, La Paz, Bolivia
This photograph of a Bolivian woman is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film negatives. Max T. Vargas ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Geographical Description and Governmental Administration and Settlement of the Spanish Colonies in the Gulf of Guinea
This book is a detailed description of the African colony of Spanish Guinea (present-day Equatorial Guinea), by a Spanish colonial official, Luis Ramos-Izquierdo y Vivar. The Spanish territories in west Africa included the islands of Ferdinand Po, Coriseo, Elobey-Chico, Elobey-Grande, and Annobon, and the mainland African territory known as Rio Muni. The first part of the book covers the geography of the island and the mainland territories, including their climate, physical features, and populations. The second part of the book discusses the government and administration of the territories. Ramos-Izqueirdo y ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Emir of Bukhara. Bukhara
Between 1785 and 1920 Bukhara was ruled by eight emirs in the Manghit dynasty. After the Russian conquest of Samarkand (1868), the Emirate of Bukhara became a Russian protectorate. Seen here is the last emir of Bukhara, Said Mir Mohammed Alim Khan (1880–1944). Following the death of his father, Abdulahad Khan, in late 1910, Alim Khan assumed power in Bukhara. He initially flirted with ideas of reform, but self-interest and the opposition of conservative clergy led him back to despotic rule. Overthrown by the Red Army in September 1920 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Chronicles of Senegalese Mauritania. Nacer Eddine
Ismaël Hamet was an interpreter and official in the service of the French army in the colony of French West Africa. His 1911 Chroniques de la Mauritanie sénégalaise (Chronicles of Senegalese Mauritania) is one of the few scholarly books about the region of the Western Sahara, and Mauritania in particular, to be published in the West before the mid-20th century. The first part of the book consists of an overview chapter on the geography, history, and social conditions of Mauritania; a chapter on the natural resources and commerce of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Spaso-Evfrosinevskii Monastery for Women, Three Versts from the City of Polotsk. View from the South
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Drissa River. Confluence with the Western Dvina. Drissa
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
German East Africa as a Settlement Region for Europeans, Taking into Consideration British East Africa and Nyassaland
As imperial Germany began creating an overseas empire in the late 19th century, many influential Germans sought to emulate the example of Great Britain, which had built its large and powerful empire in part by promoting the settlement of immigrants from the British Isles to British-controlled territories in other parts of the world, including East Africa and South Africa. Germany declared a protectorate in East Africa in 1885 and established the colony of German East Africa (present-day Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi) in 1891. In 1908, Friedrich von Lindequist, undersecretary in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Vitebsk. Part of the City with the Western Dvina
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Polotsk. Nikolaevskii Cathedral from the Left Bank of the Western Dvina
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Harvested Field
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Vitebsk. Assumption Cathedral
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Vitebsk. Iconostasis in the Assumption Cathedral
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mill and Dam on the Polot River
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Vitebsk. General View of the Southern Part of the City
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Plan of Ayala
John Womack, historian of the Mexican Revolution, has called the Plan of Ayala the "Sacred Scripture" of the Zapatistas. Written by Emiliano Zapata and Otilio Montaño, and signed on November 25, 1911, the plan was proclaimed in Ayala, Morelos, on November 28 of the same year. It became the blueprint for the Zapatista rebellion after its break with the initiator of the Mexican Revolution, Francisco I. Madero. Besides condemning the "treason" of the more conciliatory Madero, the Plan of Ayala puts forward the demands of the Zapatista agrarian rebellion: restitution ...
Central America, the Lesser Antilles, and the Dutch West and East Indies
In May 1910, the Verein für Sozialpolitik (Association for Social Policy), an influential organization of German economists based in Berlin, decided to commission a series of studies on the colonization and settlement of tropical regions by Europeans, with the goal of determining whether and under what conditions such colonization was economically and socially sustainable. The studies were to assist in the development of the German overseas empire, and German East Africa in particular. Each study was to include an overview of a particular region of settlement; analyses of its economy ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
History of the Basuto, Ancient and Modern
David Frédéric Ellenberger (1835–1919) was a Swiss French Protestant missionary who left for Basutoland (present-day Lesotho) in 1860 as a member of the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society. Ellenberger spent more than 45 years collecting the oral traditions of the Basotho (also known as Sotho) people. His method was to gather “all the information which it was still possible to obtain from intelligent old men concerning the tribes, their origin, their manners, their form of government, their beliefs, the genealogy of the chiefs, etc.” His objective was to preserve, for ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Stories from Hans Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen (1805-75) is perhaps Denmark’s best known author. A prolific writer of plays, novels, travel books, and an autobiography, he is mainly remembered for his 156 fairy tales and stories, among them “The Little Mermaid,” “The Ugly Duckling,” and “The Emperor’s New Clothes.” Andersen was born and raised in Odense, the only child of a poor washerwoman and shoemaker. He received little formal education, but drew upon his early experiences and observations in his literary work. He once wrote: “Most of what I have written is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Shimmer of Al-Māridinī in the Explanation of the Treatise by al-Yāsamīn
The 12th-century mathematical poem known as al-Yāsamīnīyya fī ‘ilm al-Jabr (The poem by al-Yāsamīn on calculus) from the name of its author, al-Yāsamīn, is one of the most read and commented upon mathematical texts of its time. Its verses have been extensively copied, both in autonomous form and by incorporation into larger commentaries up to the 20th century. The present manuscript preserves an early 20th-century copy of the 15th-century commentary on the Yāsamīnīyya written by Badr al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Ġazal, best known as Sibṭ al-Māridīnī ("the son ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dvinsk. Roman Catholic Church
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dvinsk. General View of the Embankment of the Western Dvina River
The town of Dvinsk, located on the Western Dvina River, was founded by the Livonian Order in 1275 as the Dünaburg castle. As a result of the 1772 partition of Poland, the town was absorbed into the Russian Empire and became an important garrison defending the southwestern approaches to Saint Petersburg. In early July 1812 a secondary French force approached the town but was defeated. In 1893 Alexander III renamed the town Dvinsk, and by the time of this photograph it had become a regional industrial center by virtue of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Railroad Bridge across the Western Dvina River Near Dvinsk
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dvinsk. View from Southwest from the Bell Tower of a Military Cathedral
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress