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Great Trading Routes of the Sahara
This 1889 map of trans-Saharan trading routes by French explorer Edouard Blanc reflects the growing priority that Europeans gave to land-based trade during the late 19th-century imperial “scramble for Africa.” In articles about his work, Blanc stressed the importance of identifying “natural” geographic routes that would connect French colonial possessions in west Africa, such as Senegal, to Algeria in north Africa, and link the Mediterranean coast to Sudan and central Africa. Blanc based his maps not only on his own travels but also on nearly a century of reports from ...
Guide to Kiev and Its Environs, Including an Address Section, Map and Phototype Views of Kiev
This 1890 guidebook provides comprehensive information for visitors to Kiev. It includes a history of the city and details of places of interest, such as Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, the cathedrals and other churches, historical monuments, public gardens and wooded areas, public and administrative buildings, and bridges over the Dnieper River. Included is useful information for travelers, such as timetables for trains, steamships, and other passenger transport and a directory for hotels, restaurants, doctors, banks, stores, baths, libraries, clubs, and city and church authorities. The guide anticipates by 24 years Baedeker’s ...
Compilation of Images of Ancient Objects from Private Collections in Kiev
This collection of images was put together by the Kiev amateur archaeologist Nikolaj Leopardov and numismatist Nikolaj Černev, who also collaborated in writing the introduction and explanatory texts. The images of crosses, icons, and other religious items and brief descriptions of them are included in Part I of the book. Part II contains the images of objects from the Bronze Age, mostly axes and knives, and Jewish Cabalistic amulets and coins. Part III contains the images and description of some of the thousands of medieval lead commercial seals from Drohiczyn ...
Memoirs of Babur
This book is a lithograph edition of the Persian translation of Bāburnāmah (Memoirs of Babur), the autobiography of Ẓahīr al-Dīn Muḥammad Bāburshāh (1483–1530), the first Mughal emperor of India. Bāburnāmah originally was written in Chagatai Turkish and was translated into Persian during the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar. The translation was undertaken by Bairam Khan (died 1561), an Afghan bureaucrat and military commander who served under Emperor Humayun and who was briefly appointed regent over his successor, Emperor Akbar, when Akbar was a child. This book was printed ...
Map of the Republic of Colombia
This 1891 map of Colombia depicts the main physical features and administrative divisions of the country. It shows national and departmental borders, the capitals of departments, other cities, villages, railroads (completed and projected), and highways. Present-day Panama, which did not become independent until 1903, is still shown as a department of Colombia. The railroad across the Isthmus of Panama, from Colón to Panama City, is indicated, but the Panama Canal has not yet been built. The eastern part of the country is shown as thinly settled and not well mapped ...
Map of the Republic of Costa Rica
This 1891 map of Costa Rica shows the main physical features and administrative divisions of the country. The key, in the upper-right-hand corner, is in Spanish and English. Indicated on the map are the national capital, San José; provincial capitals; principal cities; minor cities; and railroads (in operation, under construction, projected, and “contracted for and soon to be built”). The highest mountains, volcanoes, and craters are indicated by the numbered key, and their heights given (inaccurately) in both feet and meters. The country’s seven provinces—Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia ...
Ciniselli Circus Water Pantomime
This poster by an unknown artist is devoted to the Ciniselli Circus water pantomime (probably The Four Elements). Produced in Berlin by the firm Dinse & Eckert, the picture is a colored lithograph with the letters written in gold. The water pantomime was performed for the first time in Russia in 1892. In The Four Elements, water rushed down in a cascade and fountains gushed out in different places of the arena. Deer, elephants, and horses with riders swam in the arena lake. Pantomime, an art form in which the story ...
Rules of Conduct for the Ciniselli Circus
This placard contains the rules of conduct for the Ciniselli Circus in Saint Petersburg set by the management. Issued on January 10, 1891, the rules were published in two languages: French and German. The choice of languages, combined with circus programs of the period, demonstrates that nearly all the performers in the circus came from abroad. The 18 points regulated the lives of circus personnel. Performers and staff were required to attend all rehearsals and to take care of their equipment and costumes; everyone was required to be ready at ...
Tales of Heroes and Great Men of Old
Siyar al-Abtal wa-al-Uzama’ al-Qudama’ (Tales of heroes and great men of old) introduces young readers to classical mythology. It typifies many publications of the British and American missionaries in the Levant in the mid-to-late 19th century. Uplifting humanistic writing of this kind was new to the Middle East. It grew directly from the children’s book movement in Britain in the first half of the century, led by the British Tract Society, which later reinforced the efforts of American missionaries to the Middle East, such as Cornelius Van Dyck. The ...
Comprehensive Map of Vietnam’s Provinces
This undated brush and ink manuscript map of Vietnam during the 19th century combines features of the traditional cartography practiced in both China and Vietnam with some Western elements. The place names and a text block in the lower right-hand corner are in classical Chinese calligraphy, the writing system used by both Chinese and Vietnamese scholar-officials. Traditional elements include its pictorial style (mountains, trees, and structures such as the border gate between Vietnam and China), lack of precise scale, and emphasis on mountains and water. A large number of mountains ...
History of Corea, Ancient and Modern; with Description of Manners and Customs, Language and Geography
The Reverend John Ross was a Presbyterian minister who, in 1872, left his native Scotland to become a missionary in China. He opened a school for boys in 1873 and, having mastered Chinese, in 1877 published Mandarin Primer: Being Easy Lessons for Beginners, designed to help English speakers learn Chinese. After working for a time in Xin Zhuang, Liaoning Province, he moved to the Manchurian city of Mukden (present-day Shenyang), near the Chinese-Korean border. At the time, Korea followed a policy of isolation and did not permit missionaries on its ...
General View, Njegus, Montenegro
This late-19th century photochrome print is from “Views of Montenegro” in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It depicts a view from Njegus, characterized by Baedeker’s Austria, Including Hungary, Transylvania, Dalmatia, and Bosnia (1900) as “the ancestral home of the reigning family and the cradle of the Montenegrin wars of independence.” The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to ...
Spindelmuhl, Riesengebirge, Germany (i.e.,Špindlerův Mlýn, Czech Republic)
This late-19th century photochrome print is from “Views of Germany” in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It shows the village of Spindelmühl (present-day Špindlerův Mlýn) in what is now the Czech Republic. Baedeker’s Northern Germany: As Far as the Bavarian and Austrian Frontiers (1897) described Spindelmühl as a favorite summer resort, located at an altitude of 2,600 feet (792 meters) in the Giant Mountains (Riesengebirge). The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William ...
Paul Ferdinand Gachet. Etching by V. van Gogh, 1890
Paul Ferdinand Gachet (1828-1909) was a maverick physician who practiced what later came to be called complementary or alternative medicine. He had a consulting room in Paris to which he commuted from his house in Auvers-sur-Oise outside the city. He was an art lover--an amateur artist, art collector, and a friend of many artists, one of whom was the eccentric Dutchman Vincent Van Gogh (1853-90). Gachet and Van Gogh only knew each other for a couple of months: from May 20, 1890, when Van Gogh arrived to stay in a ...
This multicolored print shows the second temporary Imperial Diet building. It was built in 1891 in Hibiya Uchisaiwaichō, central Tokyo, to replace the first temporary Imperial Diet building, which was destroyed by a fire. Its style combined elements of Japanese traditional architecture with Western elements attributable to its German architect. Imperial Diet sessions were held in this building 48 times before it too burned down, in 1925. The present National Diet building was constructed in Nagatachō, Metropolitan Tokyo, in 1936.
A Map of the Great Forest Region, Showing the Routes of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition, from the River Congo to the Victoria Nyanza
After his successful search for David Livingstone in 1871-72, the journalist Henry M. Stanley went on to become a celebrated African explorer in his own right. He led two further expeditions, an Anglo-American expedition in 1874-77, in which he explored the lakes of central Africa, and a relief expedition in 1887-90, ostensibly to rescue Emin Pasha (1840-92). Emin, a German explorer whose original name was Eduard Schnitzler, was the governor of Equatoria, the southernmost district of the Sudan, then ruled by Egypt. He was cut off from the outside world ...
This 1890 map, published by the New York firm of Charles Scribner’s Sons, shows Italy as it appeared in the decades after its unification. In 1859-60, most of Italy was united in a new Kingdom of Italy under King Victor Emmanuel II, previously ruler of the Kingdom of Sardinia. The northeastern region of Venetia, part of the Austrian Empire, was annexed by the new kingdom in 1866. Rome (except for Vatican City) was annexed in 1870. The note at upper right lists the States of the Church that were ...
A Battery of 70 at Gragoatá Fort
The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs, assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph shows the Forte de Gragoatá, a fortress constructed in 1696 as part of the defenses of Rio de Janeiro.
Two Years in the French West Indies
Lafcadio Hearn (1850–1904) was an international writer best known for his books about Japan. Born on the Greek island of Lefkáda, the son of an Irish father and a Greek mother, he was raised in England, Ireland, and France and immigrated to the United States at age 19. He lived first in Cincinnati, where he landed a job as a journalist, and then moved to New Orleans in 1877, where he wrote for several newspapers. His impressionistic writings about the city caught the eye of editors at Harper’s ...
The Essence of Matters and the Role of Facts
Khulāṣat al-masā’il wa-muhimmat al-dalā’il (The essence of matters and the role of facts) covers a wide range of issues of importance to Islam: the main trends and interpretations, explication on the precepts laid down in the Qur’an, religious and legal norms, and other factors guiding the believer’s life. Published in Kazan, Russia in 1890, the book is written in Chagatai, an extinct Turkic language that was once widely spoken in Central Asia and that remained the literary language of the region until the early 20th ...
Kanjinchō, One of the 18 Great Plays of Kabuki
Toyohara Kunichika (1835–1900) has been called the last great master of ukiyo-e. His dramatic Kabuki three-page sets of prints are much admired for their skilled use of color. Here he portrays Kanjinchō, a Kabuki play written earlier in the 19th century. This nishiki-e (Japanese multicolored woodblock print) was based on a performance of the play in May 1890 and published that year. The story is set in the late 12th century and shows at left Minamoto no Yoshitsune, played by Onoe Kikugorō V (1844–1903). Yoshitsune is a son ...