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Isabel, Brazilian Princess
The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph shows Princess Isabel, the daughter of Pedro II and, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1889, the heir to the Brazilian throne. It was taken by Joaquim José ...
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National Library of Brazil
Collected Poems of Aisha Durrani
This work is a lithographic print, published in Kabul, of the collected poems of 'Āyisha Durrānī, an Afghan poetess from the Durrani family, who was active in the second half of the 19th century. The poems include qasidas (a lyric form) and ghazals (a metrical form expressing the pain of loss and the beauty of love), and are arranged alphabetically according to qāfiya (the effect of rhyme). The collection was compiled during the reign of 'Abd al-Raḥmān Khān, emīr of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. The Durrani family led a ...
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Library of Congress
Armillary Sphere
Zhang Heng (78–139 AD), a native of Xi’e, Nanyang (in present-day Henan Province), was an astronomer, mathematician, inventor, and an accomplished scholar. He began his career as an official during the Eastern Han dynasty (25–220). Controversy about his views and political rivalry with other officials led him to retire and return to Nanyang, but in 138 he was recalled to serve in the capital. He died a year later. He received posthumous honors for his scholarship and creativity. Two of his representative works are Hun yi (Armillary ...
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National Central Library
Natives of Ziarat-e-Hazratji
This image of a group of people at a Muslim shrine is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Ziarat generally means “visit” in Arabic, but here it refers specifically to religious pilgrimage sites found across the Middle East and North Africa and visited by Muslims of all persuasions. The remains of great religious teachers or members of bāyt ʻAlī (the family of ʻAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, the fourth Muslim caliph) are buried in such shrines. This monument to Hazratji ...
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Library of Congress
Literary Essay by Jāmī
This lithographic print is a literary essay by Nūr al-Dīn ‘Abd al-Rahmān Jāmī (1414–92), a great Persian poet, scholar, and mystic, who lived most of his life in Herat (present-day Afghanistan). The work is exceptional for being written in prose at a time when most fine Persian writing was in poetic form. Extensive commentary and critical notes are printed in the margins. There are also some handwritten notes in the margins, but most of these were lost when the work was rebound. Lithographic printing was invented in Europe in ...
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Library of Congress
Afghanistan: A Short Account of Afghanistan, Its History, and Our Dealings with It
This book is a brief history of Afghanistan and its relations with the British Empire. It was published in London in 1881 as Parliament and the British public were debating policy toward Afghanistan in the aftermath of the Second Anglo-Afghan War, which was fought between 1878 and 1880. The author, Philip Francis Walker, was a London barrister who had recently served with the British army in Afghanistan, and the book contains vivid accounts of fierce fighting with the Afghans. In a typical passage, Walker describes the Afghan tribesmen as “being ...
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Library of Congress
The Book Known as “The Sulṭānī History”
Tārīkh-i Sulṭānī (The Sulṭānī history) is a historical study of the Afghan people and the rulers of Afghanistan from the beginnings of Islam to the mid-19th century. The work was published as a lithographic print in Bombay (present-day Mumbai) in 1881. This copy has been rebound, with “Ṣaḥāfī Sulṭān Muḥammad, Kabul" gold-stamped on the back cover. The title page and pages 3−4 are damaged and repaired with no loss of text. The last page (page 291) has been repaired and missing text added in ink in a later hand ...
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Library of Congress
Selected Techniques in the Art of Agriculture
The author of this book, Bishārah ibn Salwān Naḥūl al-Lubnānī, explains in the introduction how he had long desired to write an Arabic text on the agricultural sciences but was only able to do so after he obtained a series of agricultural texts that had been translated from French into Turkish. The book is arranged in two parts, the first on horticulture, and the second on animal husbandry. The part on horticulture opens with general topics, such as water, soil, and plant diseases. This is followed by sections on grains ...
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Qatar National Library
The True Account of Veterinary Medicine
Kitāb ṣidq al-bayān fī ṭibb al-ḥayawān (The true account of veterinary medicine) is a late 19th century veterinary science manual by Lebanese author Jirjīs Ṭannūs ʻAwn. It is divided into two main parts, of which the first deals with common domesticated animals such as horses, cows, and pigs, and the second with diseases. The fourth section of the second part, “On Common Diseases,” comprises the bulk of the book and includes 24 chapters on diseases of the chest, the liver, the pancreas, and so forth. For each disease, the species ...
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Qatar National Library
Three Collections of Proverbs and Sayings
This printed book was published in 1883 at the famous Jawa’ib Press founded by the Arab printer, author, and journalist Ahmad Fāris al-Shidiyāq. As is often the case with early printed books, the publication itself has received more attention than the contents of the work. Jawa’ib Press was established in the Ottoman capital of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1860 and operated for about 20 years publishing the newspaper al-Jawa’ib (begun in 1861) as well as more than 70 Arabic classics and tracts. Books were printed in runs of ...
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Qatar National Library
Discourse on Universal History
This work is a translation into Arabic of Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet’s history of the world, Discours sur l’histoire universelle (Discourse on universal history), in which the author argues for the divine right of kings. Bossuet’s book, originally published in 1681, is regarded as a classic statement defining the monarch as the embodiment of the state. Bossuet wrote the book for the benefit of the crown prince of France and based his argument on an interpretation of Biblical history. The work was translated by ‘Abd Allah al-Bustāni. It was ...
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Qatar National Library
The History of Modern France
Tarikh Faransa al-Hadith (The history of modern France) is a biography of Napoleon Bonaparte rather than, as suggested by the title, a general history of France. The author states that “France is the closest country to us in the Orient commercially and linguistically. We have chosen this topic as serviceable history, that is, the fundamental art upon which public policies, action, and planning are based.” The book is more than 1,000 pages long. Introductory chapters briefly cover geography and history to the 1770s, as well as the French Revolution ...
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Qatar National Library
Commercial Law of Egypt
This volume, Qanun al-Tijarah (Commercial law of Egypt), contains two printed works, the commercial and the maritime codes of Egypt. The two documents are extracted from a more comprehensive but unidentified work, possibly covering civil procedure and the criminal code. Each title is preceded by the order of Egyptian ruler Khedive Muhammad Tawfīq authorizing publication and implementation of the law. The first title, Commercial Code, includes definitions of terms and focuses on debt and bankruptcy. The second title, Maritime Code, covers ships operating under the Ottoman flag and the rights ...
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Qatar National Library
The Judges’ Assistant for Issues Raised by Adversaries at Law
Mu’in al-Hukam fi-ma Yataraddudu bayn Khusmin al-Ahkam  (The judges’ assistant for issues raised by adversaries at law) is a handbook of Islamic law procedure. It was written in the 15th century by ‘Ali ibn Khalil al-Tarabulsi, also known as ‘Ala’ al-Din ibn al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Khalil al-Tarabulsi (or al-Tarabulusi), a Hanafi jurist in Jerusalem. After introducing his book with references to the singular importance of al-shari’ah (Islamic law) in the Qur’an and among the prophets, al-Tarabulsi proceeds to explain that he wrote in order to elucidate the ...
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Qatar National Library
Persia, Afghanistan and Baluchistan
This colored map of Persia (present-day Iran), Afghanistan, and Baluchistan (in present-day Iran and Pakistan) was published by Chicago-based Rand McNally and Company, which became a major publisher of atlases, maps, globes, and travel guides in the United States in the second half of the 19th century. The map shows major cities and towns, mountains, rivers, deserts and other geographic features, and submarine telegraph cables in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea. Two distance scales are given, one in Persian fursakhs (also seen as parasangs or farsangs, an ancient Persian ...
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Library of Congress
Map of Kafiristan
Kafiristan, or “The Land of the Infidels,” was a region in eastern Afghanistan where the inhabitants had retained their traditional culture and religion and rejected conversion to Islam. In 1896 the ruler of Afghanistan, Amir 'Abd al-Raḥmān Khān (reigned 1880−1901), conquered the area and brought it under Afghan control. The Kafirs became Muslims and in 1906 the region was renamed Nuristan, meaning the “Land of Light,” a reference to the enlightenment brought by Islam. Kafiristan was visited by British expeditions and survey missions in the 1870s and 1880s and ...
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Library of Congress
Layout Plan for the Sheltered Port of La Luz and the Projected Works
This document is an original plan for the port of La Luz, situated in the Bay of Las Isletas in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). It was drawn up by the engineer Juan de León y Castillo (1834-1912), whose idea was to construct an outer dock measuring 1,240 meters long, starting from an anterior pier providing shelter on a north-south axis. A transverse dock some 600 meters in length running in an east-west direction would complete the port seawall and separate the port from the outer ...
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Cabildo of Gran Canaria, Canary Islands
Montreal Winter Carnival, February, 1884
In the late 19th century, the Montreal Winter Carnival changed the way winter was perceived in Quebec. It sought to attract visitors to the city in the heart of the winter, a season they had otherwise avoided. From 1883 to 1889, five such carnivals were organized. A smallpox epidemic caused a break in 1886 and the withdrawal of financing by the train companies caused a cancellation in 1888. Highly publicized, the carnival was attended by a large number of American tourists. Special trains were even chartered for the event. Discount ...
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National Library and Archives of Quebec
Dominion Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition under the Patronage of His Excellency, the Governor General of Canada Will Take Place in the City of Montreal
This impressive poster of the Grande Exposition agricole et industrielle de la Puissance (Dominion Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition), held in Montreal in 1884, is more than two meters high. Dominated by the picture of the Montreal Crystal Palace, this monumental wood engraving was typical of the "mammoth posters" that were used in both Canada and the United States. The poster evokes the exceptional scale of the 1884 exhibition, which attracted a large number of visitors. These exhibitions took place during one week in August or September of each year. The ...
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National Library and Archives of Quebec
Minas and Rio Railway, Brazil: Storage Yard
The Minas and Rio Railway, also known as the Rio Verde Railway, was opened for traffic on July 14th, 1884, in the presence of Emperor Pedro II (1825–91), his daughter Princess Isabel, and her husband, Prince Gastão de Orléans, conde d’Eu. The British-owned and constructed line ran from Cruzeiro in the interior of the state of São Paulo, across the Mantiqueira Mountains, and through cities and towns in the southern part of the state of Minas Gerais as far as Três Corações do Rio Verde. The line played ...
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National Library of Brazil
Minas and Rio Railway, Brazil: Workshops
The Minas and Rio Railway, also known as the Rio Verde Railway, was opened for traffic on July 14th, 1884, in the presence of Emperor Pedro II (1825–91), his daughter Princess Isabel, and her husband, Prince Gastão de Orléans, conde d’Eu. The British-owned and constructed line ran from Cruzeiro in the interior of the state of São Paulo, across the Mantiqueira Mountains, and through cities and towns in the southern part of the state of Minas Gerais as far as Três Corações do Rio Verde. The line played ...
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National Library of Brazil