124 results in English
Ringling Bros. Lion Tableau Wagon
Parades to celebrate the arrival of the circus to town in America featured highly decorated wagons carrying the circus band and artists along main thoroughfares to the big top circus tent, attracting patrons along the way. This “Lion Tableau” wagon was built by Sebastian Wagon Works of New York City in approximately 1880 for the Adam Forepaugh Circus.  A telescoping platform holding the figure of Saint George fighting a dragon was removed around 1889 and the lower portion was converted into a bandwagon. The wagon was purchased by the Ringling ...
Contributed by Circus World Museum
Isabel, Brazilian Princess
The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph shows Princess Isabel, the daughter of Pedro II and, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1889, the heir to the Brazilian throne. It was taken by Joaquim José ...
Worthy Advice in the Affairs of the World and Religion: The Autobiography of Emir Abdur Rahman Khan
This work is an autobiography of 'Abd al-Raḥmān Khān, emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. It is styled, however, as a manual of advice and a mirror for princes. It is divided into 16 chapters, which are arranged according to the topics on which the author provides advice and worthy examples, in this case drawn from his own conduct. Subdivision by topic of this kind mimics the pattern of books in the advice genre. The colophon dates the work to the month of Muharram of 1303 AH (October–November ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Collected Poems of Aisha Durrani
This work is a lithographic print, published in Kabul, of the collected poems of 'Āyisha Durrānī, an Afghan poetess from the Durrani family, who was active in the second half of the 19th century. The poems include qasidas (a lyric form) and ghazals (a metrical form expressing the pain of loss and the beauty of love), and are arranged alphabetically according to qāfiya (the effect of rhyme). The collection was compiled during the reign of 'Abd al-Raḥmān Khān, emīr of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. The Durrani family led a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Maps of Shazhou in Jiangyin County
The land on which Shazhou, Jiangyin County, Jiangsu Province (present-day Zhangjiagang) is located was formed by alluvial deposits of the Yangtze River over a period of thousands of years. As the land grew and changed, local people made paintings of the area, which they petitioned the authorities to acquire. Measurements of the narrow strip of land formed by the river deposits differed, and those seeking to obtain land often conspired with officials, resulting in lawsuits and disorder. Two officials, Wu Heng and Xie Cunbin, together with the magistrate of Jiangyin ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Armillary Sphere
Zhang Heng (78–139 AD), a native of Xi’e, Nanyang (in present-day Henan Province), was an astronomer, mathematician, inventor, and an accomplished scholar. He began his career as an official during the Eastern Han dynasty (25–220). Controversy about his views and political rivalry with other officials led him to retire and return to Nanyang, but in 138 he was recalled to serve in the capital. He died a year later. He received posthumous honors for his scholarship and creativity. Two of his representative works are Hun yi (Armillary ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Group of Afghan Durbaries in Lahore, December 1880
This 1880 photograph of a group of Afghan notables in Lahore is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The Persian term durbar (darbar in Hindi) used in the caption describes a gathering of princes and other notables, usually for the purposes of state administration and business. In this durbar two British officers are present, one on the floor to the left of center and the other behind him, suggesting that they might have been cooperating with the Afghan attendees ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General Hume and Staff at Kandahar, 1881
This photograph of the staff of Major-General Robert Hume at Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Hume led the Southern Afghanistan Field Force and supervised the British withdrawal from Kandahar in April 1881. He is in the center, with a full beard and a sash across his chest. Surrounding him are the staff members who assisted him in coordinating the evacuation, along with two Baluch orderlies. The withdrawal from Kandahar marked the end of the war. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Medical Officers at Kandahar, 1881
This photograph of 24 medical officers of the Southern Afghanistan Field Force in Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. It is estimated that at least 30 surgeon officers accompanied the field force in 1880 in the fighting that culminated at the Battle of Kandahar. The men pictured here were withdrawn from Kandahar by April 1881. The Second Anglo-Afghan War began in November 1878 when Great Britain, fearful of what it saw as growing Russian influence in Afghanistan ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Natives of Ziarat-e-Hazratji
This image of a group of people at a Muslim shrine is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Ziarat generally means “visit” in Arabic, but here it refers specifically to religious pilgrimage sites found across the Middle East and North Africa and visited by Muslims of all persuasions. The remains of great religious teachers or members of bāyt ʻAlī (the family of ʻAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, the fourth Muslim caliph) are buried in such shrines. This monument to Hazratji ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Barrack Square, Kandahar, 78th Highlanders
This photograph of the 78th Highlanders at Barrack Square in Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The 78th Highlanders, a Scottish infantry regiment then commanded by Colonel A.E. Warren, did not arrive in Afghanistan until November 1880. Most of the fighting was over by then, as the British victory at the Battle of Kandahar several months earlier was the last major battle of the war. In this photograph, the 78th Highlanders pose for a group portrait ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Natives of Kandahar
This photograph of a large group of Kandahar residents is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Kandahar, the second-largest city in Afghanistan, was occupied by the British Southern Afghanistan Field Force from September 1880 until April 1881, when all British forces withdrew from the country. This photograph is taken at a palace zenana (harem) quarters, which clearly were not being used by women at the time, given the presence of a large group of men and boys of different ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Street View, Kandahar
This photograph of a street view of Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. A crowd seems to have gathered to watch the photographer, who is also regarded by a young boy perched on a roof. Shops, houses, and a section of the city wall are visible from this point, which is called Charsu or Char Su. It is where the main routes into Kandahar from the gates in the city walls converged. The photograph was taken during ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Street View, by Sir Benjamin Simpson
This photograph of a scene, assumed to be in Kandahar, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Men and young boys have gathered on both levels of a ruined building and in its courtyard and are observing the photographer. In the foreground is a charpoy (also seen as chaar payee), a bed frame made of woven rope used throughout Afghanistan as an outdoor bed during the hot summer. The photograph most likely was taken during the British occupation of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Courtyard of Wali Sher Ali Khan's Zenana, by Sir Benjamin Simpson
This photograph of the ornately decorated courtyard of a palace in Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The photograph most likely was taken during the British occupation of Kandahar, which lasted from September 1880 to April 1881. It shows the exterior of the zenana, the women’s quarters of the palace of Sher Ali Khan, who was amir of Afghanistan for most of the period 1863–79. Sher Ali Khan was the son of Dōst Moḥammad Khān ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Durrani Gate
This photograph of the Durrani Gate in Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Ahmad Shah Durrani made Kandahar his capital when became the ruler of an Afghan empire in 1747. The heavy wooden doors of the gate, one of the entrances to the Kandahar citadel, can be seen in the back center of the photograph. Soldiers in pith helmets stand guard, regarding a scene that includes camels and herdsmen who have just emerged from the gate, civilians ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Literary Essay by Jāmī
This lithographic print is a literary essay by Nūr al-Dīn ‘Abd al-Rahmān Jāmī (1414–92), a great Persian poet, scholar, and mystic, who lived most of his life in Herat (present-day Afghanistan). The work is exceptional for being written in prose at a time when most fine Persian writing was in poetic form. Extensive commentary and critical notes are printed in the margins. There are also some handwritten notes in the margins, but most of these were lost when the work was rebound. Lithographic printing was invented in Europe in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Central Asia: Afghanistan and Her Relation to British and Russian Territories
This 1885 map shows Asia from the eastern littoral of the Mediterranean to western China and the Indian subcontinent. An inset in the upper right depicts the region in the broader context of Asia, Europe, and Africa. A focal point of the map is Afghanistan, where, in what was called “the Great Game,” the Russian and British empires competed for influence throughout most of the 19th century. The British feared that the Russians, who annexed large parts of Central Asia in the 1860s and 1870s, would use Afghanistan as a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Stanford's Map of Western Asia
This 1885 map of Western Asia shows the region from the Mediterranean Sea to British India, including the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula. This region was at the time under the rule of the Ottoman Empire in the west, independent Persia (present-day Iran) in the center, and independent Afghanistan in the east, with the Russian Empire to the north. Relief is shown by hachures, and the elevations of lakes and inland seas are given in feet (one foot = 30.48 centimeters) above sea level. The map indicates pilgrimage routes ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Map of the Countries between Constantinople and Calcutta: Including Turkey in Asia, Persia, Afghanistan and Turkestan
This 1885 map shows the region between Constantinople, capital of the Ottoman Empire, and British India, an area of intense imperial rivalry between the British and Russian Empires in the late-19th century. British possessions are colored in red and include British India, Cyprus, the Aden Protectorate (present-day Yemen), Socotra Island (Yemen), and the northern littoral of the Horn of Africa, which became the protectorate of British Somaliland (present-day Somalia) in 1888. The map shows railroad lines and submarine telegraph cables. The railroad network is at this time more developed in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Afghanistan: A Short Account of Afghanistan, Its History, and Our Dealings with It
This book is a brief history of Afghanistan and its relations with the British Empire. It was published in London in 1881 as Parliament and the British public were debating policy toward Afghanistan in the aftermath of the Second Anglo-Afghan War, which was fought between 1878 and 1880. The author, Philip Francis Walker, was a London barrister who had recently served with the British army in Afghanistan, and the book contains vivid accounts of fierce fighting with the Afghans. In a typical passage, Walker describes the Afghan tribesmen as “being ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Book Known as “The Sulṭānī History”
Tārīkh-i Sulṭānī (The Sulṭānī history) is a historical study of the Afghan people and the rulers of Afghanistan from the beginnings of Islam to the mid-19th century. The work was published as a lithographic print in Bombay (present-day Mumbai) in 1881. This copy has been rebound, with “Ṣaḥāfī Sulṭān Muḥammad, Kabul" gold-stamped on the back cover. The title page and pages 3−4 are damaged and repaired with no loss of text. The last page (page 291) has been repaired and missing text added in ink in a later hand ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Selected Techniques in the Art of Agriculture
The author of this book, Bishārah ibn Salwān Naḥūl al-Lubnānī, explains in the introduction how he had long desired to write an Arabic text on the agricultural sciences but was only able to do so after he obtained a series of agricultural texts that had been translated from French into Turkish. The book is arranged in two parts, the first on horticulture, and the second on animal husbandry. The part on horticulture opens with general topics, such as water, soil, and plant diseases. This is followed by sections on grains ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The True Account of Veterinary Medicine
Kitāb ṣidq al-bayān fī ṭibb al-ḥayawān (The true account of veterinary medicine) is a late 19th century veterinary science manual by Lebanese author Jirjīs Ṭannūs ʻAwn. It is divided into two main parts, of which the first deals with common domesticated animals such as horses, cows, and pigs, and the second with diseases. The fourth section of the second part, “On Common Diseases,” comprises the bulk of the book and includes 24 chapters on diseases of the chest, the liver, the pancreas, and so forth. For each disease, the species ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Three Collections of Proverbs and Sayings
This printed book was published in 1883 at the famous Jawa’ib Press founded by the Arab printer, author, and journalist Ahmad Fāris al-Shidiyāq. As is often the case with early printed books, the publication itself has received more attention than the contents of the work. Jawa’ib Press was established in the Ottoman capital of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1860 and operated for about 20 years publishing the newspaper al-Jawa’ib (begun in 1861) as well as more than 70 Arabic classics and tracts. Books were printed in runs of ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Discourse on Universal History
This work is a translation into Arabic of Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet’s history of the world, Discours sur l’histoire universelle (Discourse on universal history), in which the author argues for the divine right of kings. Bossuet’s book, originally published in 1681, is regarded as a classic statement defining the monarch as the embodiment of the state. Bossuet wrote the book for the benefit of the crown prince of France and based his argument on an interpretation of Biblical history. The work was translated by ‘Abd Allah al-Bustāni. It was ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The History of Modern France
Tarikh Faransa al-Hadith (The history of modern France) is a biography of Napoleon Bonaparte rather than, as suggested by the title, a general history of France. The author states that “France is the closest country to us in the Orient commercially and linguistically. We have chosen this topic as serviceable history, that is, the fundamental art upon which public policies, action, and planning are based.” The book is more than 1,000 pages long. Introductory chapters briefly cover geography and history to the 1770s, as well as the French Revolution ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Ottoman Commercial Code: Arabic Translation
This volume contains Arabic translations of four works related to the Ottoman commercial code originally published in Turkish: The Commercial Code, Appendix, Sources of Court Judgments, and Commentary. The Ottoman commercial code and updates of it were based on the French code of 1807. The importance of the code lies in the fact that it represented a break with the tenets of al-shari’ah (Islamic law) and prepared the way for promulgation of criminal and civil codes and reorganization of courts. Publication of the translation was a project of the ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Commercial Law of Egypt
This volume, Qanun al-Tijarah (Commercial law of Egypt), contains two printed works, the commercial and the maritime codes of Egypt. The two documents are extracted from a more comprehensive but unidentified work, possibly covering civil procedure and the criminal code. Each title is preceded by the order of Egyptian ruler Khedive Muhammad Tawfīq authorizing publication and implementation of the law. The first title, Commercial Code, includes definitions of terms and focuses on debt and bankruptcy. The second title, Maritime Code, covers ships operating under the Ottoman flag and the rights ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The Judges’ Assistant for Issues Raised by Adversaries at Law
Mu’in al-Hukam fi-ma Yataraddudu bayn Khusmin al-Ahkam  (The judges’ assistant for issues raised by adversaries at law) is a handbook of Islamic law procedure. It was written in the 15th century by ‘Ali ibn Khalil al-Tarabulsi, also known as ‘Ala’ al-Din ibn al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Khalil al-Tarabulsi (or al-Tarabulusi), a Hanafi jurist in Jerusalem. After introducing his book with references to the singular importance of al-shari’ah (Islamic law) in the Qur’an and among the prophets, al-Tarabulsi proceeds to explain that he wrote in order to elucidate the ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The Superabundance of the Commendable and the Reinforcement of the Yet-More Commendable: Poetry Collection
This diwan, Al-Faydh al- Muhammadi wa-al-Madad al-Ahmadi wa Huwa Diwan (The superabundance of the commendable and the reinforcement of the yet-more commendable: Poetry collection), is a book of poems, mostly in praise of the Prophet Muhammad or in supplication of his blessing and assistance. Some of the verses vary from this theme, for example, poetic prayers addressing Ahmad al-Rifa’i, founder of the famous Sufi order of which the author, Abū al-Hudá al-Ṣayyādī, was a prominent (and controversial) leader. Abu al-Huda was a prolific writer who rose from humble origins ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The Commentary of al-Allāma Ibn ʻAqīl on “al-Alfiya” by al-Allāma Ibn Mālik
This work is a commentary by Ibn ʻAqīl on the famous 1,000-line poem on the principles of Arabic grammar, al-Alfīya by Ibn Malik. ʻAbd Allah ibn ʻAbd al-Raḥmān ibn ʻAqil was born in Cairo in about 1294 and died there in 1367. He was a leading grammarian of the Arabic language and wrote prolifically, but not much is known about his life. In addition to his commentary on al-Alfiya, his works include Taysīr al-istiʻdād li rutbat al-ijtihād (The facility of preparedness for the capacity of independent reasoning ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
A Journey through the Atmosphere on an Airship
Al-riḥla al-jawwīya fī al-markaba al-hawā'iya (A journey through the atmosphere on an airship) is an Arabic translation by Yusuf Ilyan Sarkis (1856−1932 or 1933) of Cinq Semaines en Ballon (Five weeks in a balloon), a novel by the French author Jules Verne originally published in 1863. Shown here is a second edition of this work, produced by the Jesuit print shop in Beirut in 1884 (the first edition having been published in 1875). The novel tells the story of an explorer, Dr. Samuel Ferguson, who, accompanied by a ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Persia, Afghanistan and Baluchistan
This colored map of Persia (present-day Iran), Afghanistan, and Baluchistan (in present-day Iran and Pakistan) was published by Chicago-based Rand McNally and Company, which became a major publisher of atlases, maps, globes, and travel guides in the United States in the second half of the 19th century. The map shows major cities and towns, mountains, rivers, deserts and other geographic features, and submarine telegraph cables in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea. Two distance scales are given, one in Persian fursakhs (also seen as parasangs or farsangs, an ancient Persian ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Palestine, or, the Holy Land; Persia, Afghanistan and Beluchistan
“Rand McNally & Co.'s Map of Asia and Europe” displays two maps on a single large sheet. The top half is a map of Asia, with an inset of the Holy Land in the lower-right corner. The bottom half contains a more detailed map of Persia (present-day Iran), Afghanistan, and Baluchistan (in present-day Pakistan and Iran). At the bottom is an index showing lakes, mountains, and cities and towns in Afghanistan and Baluchistan. Populations are given for some cities and towns, with the largest in Afghanistan being Kabul (60,000 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map Illustrative of the March of the Indian Section of the Boundary Commission from Quetta to Olerat and Badkis; of the Frontier as Proposed and Actually Demarcated, and of the Author's Return Journey from Herat to the Caspian
In the early 1880s, Great Britain (which at that time effectively controlled the foreign policy of Afghanistan) and the Russian Empire opened negotiations to define the northern border of Afghanistan. The two sides formed a Joint Boundary Commission, which began work in the fall of 1885. By January 1888, the commission had set up 79 boundary markers along the 630-kilometer frontier from the Du’l-Feqar Pass to the Amudar’ya River. This annotated map of the western half of Afghanistan shows the route taken by the British (i.e., Indian ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Kafiristan
Kafiristan, or “The Land of the Infidels,” was a region in eastern Afghanistan where the inhabitants had retained their traditional culture and religion and rejected conversion to Islam. In 1896 the ruler of Afghanistan, Amir 'Abd al-Raḥmān Khān (reigned 1880−1901), conquered the area and brought it under Afghan control. The Kafirs became Muslims and in 1906 the region was renamed Nuristan, meaning the “Land of Light,” a reference to the enlightenment brought by Islam. Kafiristan was visited by British expeditions and survey missions in the 1870s and 1880s and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Layout Plan for the Sheltered Port of La Luz and the Projected Works
This document is an original plan for the port of La Luz, situated in the Bay of Las Isletas in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). It was drawn up by the engineer Juan de León y Castillo (1834-1912), whose idea was to construct an outer dock measuring 1,240 meters long, starting from an anterior pier providing shelter on a north-south axis. A transverse dock some 600 meters in length running in an east-west direction would complete the port seawall and separate the port from the outer ...
Map of Alaska and Adjoining Regions: Showing Distribution of Beaver, Land Otter, and Sea Otter
This multi-sheet map was produced by Ivan Petroff (also seen as Petroof and Petrof), a U.S. Census agent, in 1882, 15 years after Russia’s sale of Alaska to the United States. The sheets of this map show the zoogeography of Alaska for various animals, including the typical range for land otter, sea otter, polar bear, brown bear, black bear, red fox, cross fox, black (silver) fox, white and blue Arctic foxes, mink, and marten. The maps use a variety of colors to highlight specific species for easy reference ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Alaska and Adjoining Regions: Showing Distribution of Polar, Brown, and Black Bear
This multi-sheet map was produced by Ivan Petroff (also seen as Petroof and Petrof), a U.S. Census agent, in 1882, 15 years after Russia’s sale of Alaska to the United States. The sheets of this map show the zoogeography of Alaska for various animals, including the typical range for land otter, sea otter, polar bear, brown bear, black bear, red fox, cross fox, black (silver) fox, white and blue Arctic foxes, mink, and marten. The maps use a variety of colors to highlight specific species for easy reference ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Alaska and Adjoining Regions: Showing Distribution of Foxes
This multi-sheet map was produced by Ivan Petroff (also seen as Petroof and Petrof), a U.S. Census agent, in 1882, 15 years after Russia’s sale of Alaska to the United States. The sheets of this map show the zoogeography of Alaska for various animals, including the typical range for land otter, sea otter, polar bear, brown bear, black bear, red fox, cross fox, black (silver) fox, white and blue Arctic foxes, mink, and marten. The maps use a variety of colors to highlight specific species for easy reference ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Alaska and Adjoining Regions: Showing Distribution of Mink and Marten
This multi-sheet map was produced by Ivan Petroff (also seen as Petroof and Petrof), a U.S. Census agent, in 1882, 15 years after Russia’s sale of Alaska to the United States. The sheets of this map show the zoogeography of Alaska for various animals, including the typical range for land otter, sea otter, polar bear, brown bear, black bear, red fox, cross fox, black (silver) fox, white and blue Arctic foxes, mink, and marten. The maps use a variety of colors to highlight specific species for easy reference ...
Contributed by Library of Congress