176 results in English
Ringling Bros. Lion Tableau Wagon
Parades to celebrate the arrival of the circus to town in America featured highly decorated wagons carrying the circus band and artists along main thoroughfares to the big top circus tent, attracting patrons along the way. This “Lion Tableau” wagon was built by Sebastian Wagon Works of New York City in approximately 1880 for the Adam Forepaugh Circus.  A telescoping platform holding the figure of Saint George fighting a dragon was removed around 1889 and the lower portion was converted into a bandwagon. The wagon was purchased by the Ringling ...
Contributed by Circus World Museum
Collected Poems of Aisha Durrani
This work is a lithographic print, published in Kabul, of the collected poems of 'Āyisha Durrānī, an Afghan poetess from the Durrani family, who was active in the second half of the 19th century. The poems include qasidas (a lyric form) and ghazals (a metrical form expressing the pain of loss and the beauty of love), and are arranged alphabetically according to qāfiya (the effect of rhyme). The collection was compiled during the reign of 'Abd al-Raḥmān Khān, emīr of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. The Durrani family led a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Maps of Shazhou in Jiangyin County
The land on which Shazhou, Jiangyin County, Jiangsu Province (present-day Zhangjiagang) is located was formed by alluvial deposits of the Yangtze River over a period of thousands of years. As the land grew and changed, local people made paintings of the area, which they petitioned the authorities to acquire. Measurements of the narrow strip of land formed by the river deposits differed, and those seeking to obtain land often conspired with officials, resulting in lawsuits and disorder. Two officials, Wu Heng and Xie Cunbin, together with the magistrate of Jiangyin ...
Contributed by National Central Library
New Records on the Travel Round the Globe
To celebrate the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia, in 1876 the United States held a Centennial Exhibition in the same city. The Foreign Office of the late Qing court authorized the Commercial Tax Office for the Western Countries to arrange the Chinese display at the exposition. Li Gui (1842–1903), a secretary at the Customs Office, was dispatched to the United States with a delegation to assist in the arrangements. On his journey he also visited England, France, and other countries. After his ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Indian Celebrities: Sir Robert Egerton, Lieutenant Governor of Punjab
This small photograph of Sir Robert Egerton (1827–1912), lieutenant governor of Punjab, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Egerton was an aide to the previous lieutenant governor of Punjab, Sir Robert Henry Davies (1824–1902), before being appointed to the same position in 1877. During the British Raj of 1858–1947, prominent British administrators and military men were often considered as “Indian” celebrities. The Second Anglo-Afghan War began in November 1878 when Great Britain, fearful of what ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Indian Celebrities: General Dunham Massy
This portrait of General Dunham Massy (1838–1906) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Massy is shown standing next to his spiked pith helmet. As a lieutenant colonel, Massy successfully led a cavalry brigade at the Battle of Charasia in October 1879, but he subsequently was removed from cavalry command because of poor leadership in another engagement, the Battle of Killa Kazi, in December of the same year. He overcame this dismissal and by 1886 had risen to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Indian Celebrities: Sir Donald Stewart
This three-quarter-view portrait of Sir Donald Stewart (1824–1900) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Stewart commanded the Kandahar Field Force (also known as the Quetta Army) in October 1878 and, after arduous marching across harsh terrain and several cavalry battles against Afghan forces, successfully occupied Kandahar in January 1879. He was promoted to commander in chief in India in April 1881 and to field marshal in 1894. He is shown here in the uniform of a lieutenant ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Indian Celebrities: Babu Khan
This photograph of Babu Khan, probably a tribal Pashtun leader judging from his typical Afghan longi (turban), is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. During the British Raj of 1858–1947, prominent British administrators and military men, as well as Indian princely rulers and tribal chiefs, were often considered as “Indian” celebrities. The Second Anglo-Afghan War began in November 1878 when Great Britain, fearful of what it saw as growing Russian influence in Afghanistan, invaded the country from British ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Indian Celebrities: Amir Abd al-Raḥmān
This photograph of the Afghan amir, Abd al-Raḥmān Khān (circa 1844–1901), is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Abd al-Raḥmān Khān was known as the “Iron Amir” because of his skill and forcefulness in suppressing rebellions against his authority. He is credited with creating a centralized state in the aftermath of the war, based on a cabinet called the Supreme Council, a general assembly called the Loya Jirgah, and the army. His achievements included the introduction of some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Indian Celebrities: Mustanfi Habibulah Khan
This photograph of Mustanfi Habibullah Khan is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Mustanfi (also seen as mostufi and mustaofi, the latter being the Arabic origin of the title) was a title approximating to state treasurer, the most powerful position in the government of Afghanistan after that of Amir Yakub Khan. Mustanfis were not elected, but subject to the ruler’s approval. They had full authority over all financial affairs, including hiring and dismissal of government personnel. Habibullah Khan ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sir Alfred Lyall
This photograph of Sir Alfred Lyall (1835–1911) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Lyall was an administrator in the Indian Civil Service, a poet and Tennyson scholar, and the author of several works on the expansion of British power in India. He served as the foreign secretary to the government of India during the war and helped broker the 1880 peace treaty with the Afghan ruler, Amir Abd al-Raḥmān Khān (circa 1844–1901). The Second Anglo-Afghan War ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sir Ashley Eden, Lieutenant Governor of Bengal
This portrait of Sir Ashley Eden (1831–87), lieutenant governor of Bengal, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Eden became the first civilian governor of Burma after his success as a special envoy to the Himalayan hill state of Sikkim in 1861. He was appointed lieutenant governor of Bengal in 1877 and promoted major public works in the state, such as hospitals, schools, canals, and railroads. Eden’s efforts were praised by both Europeans and Bengalis. The Second ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sir William Muir
This photograph of Sir William Muir (1819–1905) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Muir entered the Bengal Civil Service in 1837 but served in the North-Western Provinces for most of his career. After the 1857 Indian Rebellion, the North-Western Provinces were ruled by a lieutenant governor who reported directly to the British government; Muir served in that position from 1868–74. He became famous because of his extensive and controversial scholarship on Islam and the early Muslim ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sir Richard Meade
This photograph of Sir Richard Meade (1821–94) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Meade, who is smartly dressed with his military honors across his chest, served as the British resident at the Indian princely (nominally sovereign) state of Hyderabad in 1875–81. He tutored and protected Maḥbūb ʻAlī Khān (1866–1911), the underage nizam (ruler). Meade’s biographer, Thomas Henry Thornton (1832–1913), author of General Sir Richard Meade and the Feudatory States of Central and Southern ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sir George Colley
This photograph of Sir George Colley (1835–81), likely taken within three years of his death, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Colley served nearly all of his military and administrative career in British South Africa, but he played a significant part in the Afghan War as military secretary and then private secretary to the governor-general of India, Lord Lytton (1831–91). After the war Colley returned to South Africa, became high commissioner for South Eastern Africa in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sir Peter Lumsden
This military portrait of Sir Peter Lumsden (1829–1918) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Lumsden’s first posting in the region was in the North-West Frontier of British India in the 1850s, where as an ensign in the 60th Bengal Native Infantry he participated in the suppression of rebellions by several Pashtun tribes. He also served in the Second Opium War and the Bhutan War. He was adjutant general of the Indian army 1874–79 and then ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sir James Fergusson, Governor of Bombay
This portrait of Sir James Fergusson (1832–1907), governor of Bombay, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Fergusson briefly served as undersecretary of state for India in 1866–67, but otherwise his career in British India began late in life. His direct involvement in the war was brief. He was appointed as the governor of the Bombay Presidency in 1880. In this position, Fergusson was able to exercise as much power within Bombay as the viceroy wielded in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sir Frederick Haines
This photograph of Sir Frederick Haines (1819–1909) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Haines served as commander in chief in India (the highest-ranking military officer in the British Raj) throughout the war. His authority was subject only to the viceroy, Lord Lytton (1831–91). Haines and Lytton repeatedly clashed over British war strategy. At the start of the war, for example, Haines favored a significantly larger troop commitment than Lytton, but he was partially overruled by the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lord William Beresford
This photograph of Lord William Beresford (1846–1900) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Beresford served as an aide-de-camp to several British viceroys, including under Lord Lytton during the war. He was also a captain in the 9th Queen's Royal Lancers and, while on leave from Delhi, volunteered to fight under General Sir Samuel Browne (1824–1901) at the November 1878 Battle of Ali Masjid. Beresford was commended for his valor in dispatches after the battle. He ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sir Chas Aitchison
This photograph of Sir Charles “Chas” Aitchison (1832–96) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Aitchison held many positions in the government of India during his long career. He was the British foreign secretary in India from 1868 until 1878. During this time Aitchison published several scholarly works on Indian politics and the relationship between Britain and the nominally sovereign Indian princely states. He was a critic of the confrontational foreign policy towards Afghanistan pursued by the viceroy ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Colonel Mowbray Thomson
This photograph of Colonel Mowbray Thomson (1832–1917) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Thomson was one of only four survivors of the massacre of a British garrison in Cawnpore (now Kanpur) during the 1857 Indian Rebellion. After recovering from his injuries, he wrote a 260-page account of the massacre entitled The Story of Cawnpore. Thomson, then a captain, dedicated it to “the brave men, the patient women, and the helpless innocents of England,” who perished in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sir Andrew Clarke
This photograph of Sir Andrew Clarke (1824–1902) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Clarke was a military engineer and colonial governor for several British settlements in Australia, New Zealand, and Southeast Asia. He served as minister of public works in India in 1875–80 and was a member of the viceroy's council. Clarke's ambitious plans to upgrade the infrastructure of the subcontinent were undermined by the Indian famine of 1876–78 and by the British ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Group of Mountain Tribes
This photograph of a group of mountain tribesmen, most likely Afghan Pashtuns, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The term “Afghan” is very ancient and originally was used to denote only Pashto speakers or the Pashtun people, the dominant ethnic group in the country. But by the time of 17th-century Pashto poet Khwushḥāl Khān, Afghan already referred to any citizen of Afghanistan, regardless of tribal heritage. These men, apparently warrior tribesmen, are wearing traditional loose-fitting clothing and longis ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sikh Gurus Attached to Punjab Regiments
This photograph of two Sikh gurus attached to Punjab regiments of the British Indian Army is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Sikh soldiers were often deployed on the Afghan frontier and fought in most major engagements of the Afghan War. The men shown are religious figures who accompanied soldiers into battle. The gurus can be seen wielding their kirpans (ceremonial swords). They also wear elaborate dastars (turbans), which cover their uncut hair. The Second Anglo-Afghan War began in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Loyal Afghan
This photograph of a white-clad Pashtun Afghan tribesman wearing a carefully wrapped turban and a medal pinned to his tunic, with his sword by his side, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The religious and ethnic identity of this individual is unknown. The caption states that he was "a loyal Affghan," so he may have fought with the British during the war and earned the medal for his service. The Second Anglo-Afghan War began in November 1878 when ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
"Dumps," An Afghan Girl
This photograph of a young Afghan girl is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The girl’s head is covered with a patterned scarf tied behind her head and full-body chador (a large cloth worn as a combination head covering and shawl), and her long braided hair hangs down below her waist. The caption supplied by the photographer sheds little light on the girl’s identity or circumstances but may derive from her melancholy expression and the British saying ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Certificate Given by Kabul Prisoners in 1842 to Babu Khan
This photograph of a certificate given by prisoners held in Kabul is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The certificate, relating to an important episode in the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839–42), apparently had remained in the possession of an unknown Afghan for some 40 years before being reproduced by a British photographer during the Second Anglo-Afghan War. In the document, the prisoners attest to the kindness shown them by Babu Khan, who was probably a tribal Pashtun leader ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Copy of Hoondee in Payment of Moorcroft’s Ransom
This photograph of a hondee, or hundi, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. A hundi is a Hindi word for a negotiable financial instrument, such as a bill of exchange or promissory note, by which the signer authorized the recipient to pay a specified sum of money to a third party. This document, in English and Persian, was a ransom payment for 11,000 rupees, signed by the English explorer William Moorcroft (1767–1825) on December 20, 1824 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Group of Afghan Durbaries in Lahore, December 1880
This 1880 photograph of a group of Afghan notables in Lahore is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The Persian term durbar (darbar in Hindi) used in the caption describes a gathering of princes and other notables, usually for the purposes of state administration and business. In this durbar two British officers are present, one on the floor to the left of center and the other behind him, suggesting that they might have been cooperating with the Afghan attendees ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Four Sons of Nawrūz Khan of Lalpoora
This photograph of four sons of Nowruz Khān, ruler of Lalpura, Afghanistan, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The young men are wearing handsome traditional Afghan garments and pointed shoes called paizaar, usually adorned with gold-thread embroidery. The photographer, John Burke (circa 1843–1900), accompanied the Peshawar Valley Field Force during part of the war, and became one of the first photographers to take pictures of Afghanistan’s people, rather than simply of military personnel. The khan was ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sir Frederick Roberts and the Sirdars of Kabul, 1879
This photograph of Sir Frederick Roberts (1832–1914) and Afghan sirdars (noblemen) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Roberts was a British Army officer who in a long career fought in Ethiopia, Afghanistan, and South Africa. In October 1879 he led the Kabul Field Force, consisting of a combination of British and Indian troops, over the Shotur Gardan Pass, defeated an Afghan army at the Battle of Charasia, and occupied Kabul. Roberts is seated among Afghan men and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dōst Moḥammad Family
This photograph of the family of Dōst Moḥammad Khān (1793–1863) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Dōst Moḥammad was the predominant Afghan political figure of the mid-19th century. He brought the Barakzai Dynasty to power and ruled Afghanistan, at various times, for more than 30 years, gradually extending his rule from Kabul to the entire country. He is seated slightly to the right of center in this photograph. To Dōst Moḥammad’s right, the first figure in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Group of Hazara Chiefs
This photograph of a group of Besuti Hazara chiefs with two boys and a mule is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The origins of the Hazara people of Afghanistan are uncertain. One theory holds that they are descended from the Mongol tribes who invaded Afghanistan in the 13th century. They are predominantly Ithnā'ashariyyah (Twelver Shia Muslims) who speak a Persian dialect containing words of Mongolian origin. They form Afghanistan’s third largest ethnic group and have historically ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Peshawar Fort
This photograph of Peshawar Fort is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Also known as Bala Hissar (High Fort, in Persian), the fort served as the winter capital of the Durrani Empire (1747–1818). It was reconstructed in 1835 under the Sikh Empire (1799–1849), after its conquest by Sikh forces, but was captured by the British in 1849. The fort dominates the background of the photograph. The dirt road in the foreground is the Grand Trunk Road running ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Jamrūd Fort near the Khyber
This photograph of Jamrūd Fort is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The three tribesmen in the foreground of the picture wear loose tunics, longi (turbans), and dōpâta (shawls) and carry jezails (long heavy muskets). The fort is located at the eastern entrance to the Khyber Pass (in present-day Pakistan), the strategically important pass through the Hindu Kush mountain range along the historic Silk Road that in the 19th century linked British India and Afghanistan. It was the site ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Jamrūd Fort, Another View
This photograph of Jamrūd Fort is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The fort is located in present-day Pakistan at the east entrance to the Khyber Pass, the strategically important mountain pass through the Hindu Kush mountain range along the historic Silk Road that in the 19th century linked Afghanistan with British India. It was the site of a major battle between the Sikh and Durrani Empires in 1836–37. Even though the fort appears to be in disrepair ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Group of Afridis at Jamrūd, 1866
This photograph of a group of Afridi tribesmen with rifles is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The Afridi are Pashtun Afghans, part of the Karlani tribal confederacy, who both fought against and with the British in Afghanistan during all three Anglo-Afghan wars. The British frequently classified the peoples that they conquered with fixed personality or “racial” traits. They regarded both the Punjabi Sikhs and the Afghan Afridi tribesmen as “warlike” peoples. Different Afridi clans cooperated with the British ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ali Masjid and Surroundings
This photograph of Ali Masjid is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Ali Masjid is a small shrine located at the narrowest point in the Khyber Pass, to the east of the city of Landi Kotal. The shrine is dedicated to ʻAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (circa 600–661), nephew and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad and one of the first converts to Islam. Above the shrine sits a fort, at the highest point of the pass (visible atop the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ali Masjid and the British Camp, 1878
This photograph of the British camp at Ali Masjid is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Ali Masjid is located in the narrowest part of the Khyber Pass, and was the first location captured by General Sir Samuel Browne (1824–1901) on his march with the Peshawar Valley Field Force towards Kabul at the start of war. The battle took place on November 21, 1878. Browne’s victorious British and Indian troops faced the Afghan army and tribesmen led ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Gorge Below Ali Masjid
This photograph of the gorge below Ali Masjid is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Ali Masjid is located at the narrowest point in the Khyber Pass and contains a shrine to ʻAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (circa 600–661), the nephew and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad, one of the first converts to Islam and held to be particularly holy for his being born inside the Kaaba at Mecca. The fortress above the shrine was built in 1837 by ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ali Masjid from Below
This photograph of Ali Masjid is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Ali Masjid is located at the narrowest point in the Khyber Pass. It contains a shrine to ʻAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (circa 600–661), the nephew and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad, and a fortress built in 1837 by the Afghan amir, Dōst Mohammad Khān (1793–1863). The shrine and fort are located in extremely rugged terrain overlooking a deep gorge. The figures in the foreground, one ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Captured Guns at Ali Masjid
This photograph of artillery pieces captured by British forces in the Battle of Ali Masjid is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. In the battle, which took place in November 1878, a British and Indian force led by General Sir Samuel Browne (1824–1901) won a victory over the Afghan Army and tribesmen led by Gholam Hyder Khan. Browne captured the fort at Ali Masjid and then marched to Kabul, prompting the Afghan amir, Sher ʻAlī Khān (1825–79 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress