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Ceremony at "Wedding of the Rails," May 10, 1869 at Promontory Point, Utah
President Abraham Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act into law on July 1, 1862. The act gave two companies, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Central Pacific Railroad, responsibility for completing the transcontinental railroad and authorized extensive land grants and the issuance of 30-year government bonds to finance the undertaking. The Union Pacific was to lay track westward from a point near Omaha, Nebraska; the Central Pacific was to build eastward from Sacramento, California. The meeting point of the two lines, a matter of some significance relating to land grants ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Map of Persia, Turkey in Asia: Afghanistan, Beloochistan
Samuel Augustus Mitchell (1792–1868) was a renowned American geographer and cartographer. The majority of his work focused on the United States, but he also made maps of other parts of the world, including this 1868 map of the Ottoman Empire, Persia (present-day Iran), Afghanistan, and Baluchistan. The main territorial units that Mitchell shows are Turkey, meaning the core of the Ottoman Empire comprised of present-day Turkey, Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon; Persia; Afghanistan; and Baluchistan (mainly present-day Pakistan). Egypt and much of the Arabian Peninsula were at that time technically ...
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Library of Congress
Students' Guide
Zakarīyā ibn Muḥammad al-Anṣārī, a Shafi’i jurist, teacher, and Sufi, was born in Egypt and studied at al-Azhar, the Sunni Islamic center of learning in Cairo. Throughout his long career (he lived about 100 years), al-Anṣārī held many positions as judge and Sufi authority. He is recognized as a major figure in medieval Sunni jurisprudence. He studied under the greatest teachers of the age and influenced later generations, being referred to by the honorific Shaykh al-Islam. Manhaj al-Ṭullāb (Students' guide) is an abridgement of Nawawī’s Minhāj al-Ṭālibīn (Path ...
Contributed by
Qatar National Library
The Fountain of Gold
Presented here is the original autograph manuscript of La Fontana de Oro (The fountain of gold), the first novel by the great Spanish writer Benito Pérez Galdós (1843−1920). The manuscript dates from 1868; the novel was published in 1870. Galdós was a major literary figure in 19th century Spain, comparable in the scope and quality of his literary output to Charles Dickens in Great Britain and Honoré de Balzac in France. He was born in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, in the Canary Islands archipelago of Spain, and lived ...
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Cabildo of Gran Canaria, Canary Islands
Mr. Vidigal's Diamond Mine in the Jequitinhonha River (Removing Gravel)
The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1868, the photographer Augusto Riedel took part in an expedition to the interior of Brazil that visited several mining towns. This photograph, taken by Riedel, shows a mine on the ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Jailhouse at Ouro Preto
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The jailhouse in the gold mining town of Ouro Preto was constructed between 1784 and 1837. It served as a prison through the 19th century. In 1938, the building ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
S. John Del Rey Mining Company: Morro Velho
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The São João Del Rei mine was a British-owned mine in the Brazilian gold mining province of Minas Gerais. The mine, established in 1834, dominated the economic, social, and ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Negroes' Congado at Old Mountain
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1868, photographer Augusto Riedel accompanied Luis Augusto, Duke of Saxe, son-in-law of Emperor Pedro II, on an expedition into the interior of Brazil. During a visit to the ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Amalgamation
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1868, photographer Augusto Riedel accompanied Luis Augusto, Duke of Saxe, son-in-law of Emperor Pedro II, on an expedition into the interior of Brazil. During a visit to the ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Residence of Dr. Lund at Saint Lake
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1868, photographer Augusto Riedel accompanied Luis Augusto, Duke of Saxe, son-in-law of Emperor Pedro II, on an expedition into the interior of Brazil. During the expedition, the group ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Brandt's Tomb in Lagoa Santa
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1868, photographer Augusto Riedel accompanied Luis Augusto, Duke of Saxe, son-in-law of Emperor Pedro II, on an expedition into the interior of Brazil. During the expedition, the group ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Mining of Diamonds of Mr. Felisberto D'Andrade Brant
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1868, photographer Augusto Riedel accompanied Luis Augusto, Duke of Saxe, son-in-law of Emperor Pedro II, on an expedition into the interior of Brazil. The expedition visited the city ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Bom Jesus de Lapa
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1868, photographer Augusto Riedel accompanied Luis Augusto, Duke of Saxe, son-in-law of Emperor Pedro II, on an expedition into the interior of Brazil. The expedition visited the sanctuary ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Bom Jesus da Boa Morte's Villa: Capim Grosso
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1868, photographer Augusto Riedel accompanied Luis Augusto, Duke of Saxe, son-in-law of Emperor Pedro II, on an expedition into the interior of Brazil. The expedition visited the town ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Steamer S. Salvador, São Francisco River
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1868, photographer Augusto Riedel accompanied Luis Augusto, Duke of Saxe, son-in-law of Emperor Pedro II, on an expedition into the interior of Brazil. The expedition probably traveled by ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
English Cemetery of Bahia
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1868, photographer Augusto Riedel accompanied Luis Augusto, Duke of Saxe, son-in-law of Emperor Pedro II, on an expedition into the interior of Brazil. During the expedition, Reidel photographed ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Lodging of Their Royal Highnesses Duke of Saxe and Luis Philippe: at the House of Major Brant
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1868, photographer Augusto Riedel accompanied Luis Augusto, Duke of Saxe, son-in-law of Emperor Pedro II, on an expedition into the interior of Brazil. The expedition visited the city ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Nursery Tales, Traditions, and Histories of the Zulus in their Own Words: With a Translation into English, and Notes by the Rev. Canon Callaway. Volume 1
Nursery Tales, Traditions, and Histories of the Zulus in Their Own Words is a compilation of Zulu literature gathered by the Reverend Henry Callaway (1817–90) in the Natal region of South Africa in the late 1850s and 1860s. Callaway left the United Kingdom in 1856 to become a Church of England missionary. In 1858 he settled near the Umkomanzi River in Natal and began to study the Zulu language, religious beliefs, and oral traditions. As Callaway mastered the language, he wrote down tales dictated to him by native storytellers ...
Contributed by
University of Pretoria Library
Map of a Journey to Musardu, the Capital of the Western Mandingoes
In 1868, President Daniel Bashiel Warner of the Republic of Liberia sent Benjamin J.K. Anderson, a Liberian government official, into the interior of the country to negotiate a treaty with the King of Musardo. Warner’s objective was to improve ties with the peoples of the interior and to try to associate them, economically and culturally, with the coastal colonies established by immigrants from the United States. Traveling through dense forest, Anderson made careful notes about the people, customs, and natural resources of the areas through which he passed ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
The Greater "Life of Animals", Volume 2
Kamal ud-Din Al-Damiri (circa 1341–1405 AD, 742–808 AH) was a tailor-turned-scholar. He was born in Cairo and spent most of his life in Egypt. Hayat al-Hayawan (Life of animals) is his best-known work. It is found in two versions, referred to as the greater and the lesser. It includes more than 1050 entries on animals, arranged according to the Arabic alphabet. Some of the entries are long, others are shorter or duplicates. The longest entry, for example, is for the lion, and runs to 11 pages. Other entries ...
Contributed by
Bibliotheca Alexandrina
The Greater "Life of Animals"
Kamal ud-Din Al-Damiri (circa 1341–1405 AD, 742–808 AH) was a tailor-turned-scholar. He was born in Cairo and spent most of his life in Egypt. Hayat al-Hayawan (Life of animals) is his best-known work. It is found in two versions, referred to as the greater and the lesser. Shown here is the greater version. It includes more than 1050 entries on animals, arranged according to the Arabic alphabet. Some of the entries are long, others are shorter or duplicates. The longest entry, for example, is for the lion, and ...
Contributed by
Bibliotheca Alexandrina