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Map Showing the Different Routes Surveyed for the Union Pacific Rail Road Between the Missouri River and the Platte Valley
President Abraham Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act into law on July 1, 1862. The act gave two companies, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Central Pacific Railroad, responsibility for completing the transcontinental railroad. The Union Pacific was to lay track westward from a point near Omaha, Nebraska toward Ogden, Utah; the Central Pacific was to build eastward from Sacramento, California. The Union Pacific began construction on December 2, 1863. This map, submitted to Secretary of Interior James Harlan on September 18, 1865, by Lieutenant Colonel J.H. Simpson of ...
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Library of Congress
Southwest Asia
This map of Southwest Asia dating from about 1866 shows the possessions of the European powers in this region. The map extends from Libya, Egypt, and Sudan in the west to Mongolia, China (Tibet), and Burma in the east. Colored lines are used to indicate territories controlled by Britain, France, Portugal, and the Ottoman Empire and to delineate what the map calls the kingdom of the imam of Oman. The names of provincial capitals are underlined. British territories in India are divided into six parts: Bengal, the Northwest Provinces, Panjab ...
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Library of Congress
Soothing the Desire to Learn About Speech from Other Languages
This publication is a dictionary of words, idioms, and proper names taken into Arabic from other languages. It includes personal names from scripture and literature, their supposed derivations, and examples of usage. Place-names are included, along with guides to variant pronunciation. With its intriguing title, Shifa’ al-Ghalil fi-ma fi-Kalam al-‘Arab min al-Dakhil (Soothing the desire to learn about speech from other languages)  is a fascinating lexical history of classical and colloquial Arabic. The author, Shihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad Al-Khafājī (1571 or 1572−1659), was born in Egypt and received his ...
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Qatar National Library
National Exposition 1866: Throne Room
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1866, Rio de Janeiro hosted the National Exposition, which took place in a palace that today houses the National Archives. The Exposition was visited by 52,824 persons ...
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National Library of Brazil
National Exposition 1866: Agricultural Products
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1866, Rio de Janeiro hosted the National Exposition, which took place in a palace that today houses the National Archives. The Exposition was visited by 52,824 persons ...
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National Library of Brazil
Gavia, in Tijuca
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph of the Pedra da Gávea was taken by Brazilian landscape photographer George Leuzinger (1813-92). Because of its location and composition, the rock has eroded over time, so ...
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National Library of Brazil
Princess Isabel, the Baroness of Muritiba and the Baroness of Loreto on the Veranda of the Princess’s Residence
The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. The Brazilian nobility is well-represented in the collection. This 1866 photograph by Marc Ferrez, one of the most celebrated Brazilian portrait photographers, shows Princess Isabel, the daughter of Pedro II, on ...
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National Library of Brazil
Bhotan and the Story of the Dooar War
The Dooar (or Duār) War of 1864-65 began as an attempt by the authorities in British India to annex from Bhutan the territory known as Duārs in order to stop what they claimed were incursions into India from Bhutan. David Field Rennie, who participated in the conflict as a military surgeon, wrote this book on his four-month voyage back to England. Bhutan, which is located at the eastern end of the Himalaya mountain range, was at that time one of the world’s most isolated countries. Rennie’s intention was ...
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Library of Congress
Political Missions to Bootan, Comprising the Reports of the Hon'ble Ashley Eden,--1864; Capt. R.B. Pemberton, 1837, 1838, with Dr. W. Griffiths's Journal; and the Account by Baboo Kishen Kant Bose
Published in Calcutta (present-day Kolkata) in 1865, this volume contains four narratives relating to the interactions in the 19th century between British India and the Kingdom of Bhutan. The first is the report of Sir Ashley Eden (1831–87), a British administrator who, in 1863, was sent on a mission to conclude a treaty of peace and friendship with Bhutan. Eden’s mission failed and was followed by the outbreak of the Anglo-Bhutan War of 1864–65 (also known as the Dooar or Duār War), in which Bhutan was forced ...
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Library of Congress
Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambesi and its Tributaries; and of the Discovery of the Lakes Shirwa and Nyassa. 1858-1864
Scottish missionary and explorer David Livingstone (1813–73) made three great African voyages: across the continent in 1852–56, up the Zambezi River in 1858–64, and the unsuccessful attempt to find the source of the Nile in 1866–73. Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambezi and Its Tributaries is Livingstone’s account of the second journey. It was on this voyage, in 1859, that Livingstone reached and named Lake Nyasa. In contrast to his first expedition, which made Livingstone a national celebrity, establishing him as an explorer, promoter ...
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Library of Congress
The Gabrovo School and Its First Trustees
The Gabrovo School was the first secular school in Bulgaria. Founded in 1835, it trained Bulgarian teachers and employed such notable Bulgarian scholars as Neofit Rilski. The Gabrovo School and Its First Trustees is a history of the school’s early years, edited by Petko Slaveikov, one of Bulgaria’s most renowned 19th-century writers.
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Library of Congress
The Protestant Willems Church on the King's Place in Batavia
This photograph shows the Willemskerk in Batavia (present-day Jakarta) as it appeared in the middle of the 1860s. Construction of the church began in 1834, after the Lutheran and Dutch Reformed congregations agreed to build a Protestant church in the city. Upon completion in 1839, it was named in honor of the Dutch king, Willem I, but was renamed Immanuel Church in 1948. The photograph was taken by the studio of Woodbury & Page, which was established in 1857 by the British photographers Walter Bentley Woodbury and James Page. The photograph ...
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Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and the Caribbean Studies KITLV
Syr-Darya Oblast. Ruins of the City of Sauran. Taken in 1866
This photograph of ruins from the city of Sauran, located in the southern part of present-day Kazakhstan, is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The caption notes that the photograph was taken in 1866, which predates the photography undertaken specifically for the album. Sauran (also known as Savran) was some 40 kilometers from the city of ...
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Library of Congress
Record of Songs and Dances Performed by Professional Female Entertainers
Gyobanggayo is a collection of 19th-century songs and dances by the gisaeng (the Korean equivalent of geisha). Gyobang were the facilities that trained and controlled gisaeng, who belonged to the provincial government office during the Joseon Dynasty, and gayo meant songs. The book includes not only ariettas, lyrics, poems, and folksongs (all collected using Hangul, the Korean alphabet) but also colored manuscripts of dances with detailed movements for the gisaeng. It has a distinct historical value by providing insight into the cultural and social situations of the provinces at that ...
Contributed by
National Library of Korea
Profile Showing the Grades upon the Different Routes Surveyed for the Union Pacific Rail Road Between the Missouri River and the Valley of the Platte River
President Abraham Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act into law on July 1, 1862. The act gave two companies, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Central Pacific Railroad, responsibility for completing the transcontinental railroad. The Union Pacific was to lay track westward from a point near Omaha, Nebraska, toward Ogden, Utah; the Central Pacific was to build eastward from Sacramento, California. Under the authorizing legislation, the railroad was not to have grades or curves exceeding the maximums on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, the first U.S. railroad to cross the ...
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Library of Congress
Students Studying in the Netherlands at the End of the Edo Period
This photograph of Japanese students in the Netherlands was taken in 1865. After the arrival in Japan of Commodore Mathew C. Perry and the opening of Japanese ports to international trade, the acquisition of Western science and technology became an urgent priority for Japan. The shogunate government drew up a plan to dispatch students to Western countries. The government initially planned to purchase its first warship from the United States and send its first students there, but the outbreak of the U.S. Civil War forced it to drop those ...
Contributed by
National Diet Library
Max and Moritz: A Story of Naughty Boys in Seven Pranks
Max and Moritz, a picture story about two mischievous little boys, is one of the most popular German children’s books. The first edition came out in late October 1865 in a print run of 4,000 copies. The author, Wilhelm Busch (1832–1908), had intended to have his tale published in Fliegende Blätter, then a successful satirical weekly paper, but publisher Kaspar Braun included the title in the children’s books catalog of the firm of Braun & Schneider. The comic story is told in rhyming verse, and divided into ...
Contributed by
Berlin State Library - Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation
In Commemoration of the Great Parade of the Philadelphia Fire Department, October 16th, 1865
This tinted print commemorates the great parade of the Philadelphia Fire Department on October 16, 1865, and is dedicated to the Philadelphia firemen and their “visiting brethren.” The text at the bottom lists the fire companies participating in the parade, mainly from Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York, but some from as far away as Massachusetts and the District of Columbia. The print is based on an illustration by Francis H. Schell (1834–1909), an artist, illustrator, and lithographer in Philadelphia, who later worked in New York for Frank Leslie ...
Contributed by
The Library Company of Philadelphia
Citizens Volunteer Hospital Association of Philadelphia. Instituted September 5th, 1862
This contribution certificate for the Citizens Volunteer Hospital Association shows a view of a street scene near the hospital, which was situated opposite the Philadelphia, Wilmington, & Baltimore Railroad depot at the corner of Broad Street and Washington Avenue in Philadelphia. On the sidewalk, American Civil War soldiers are seen conversing, pedestrians stroll, and a female peddler and vendor sell their goods and wares, including to a group of Zouaves. In the street, medical personnel and doctors accompany injured soldiers, by stretcher, foot, and on crutches toward the hospital. Horse-drawn carriages ...
Contributed by
The Library Company of Philadelphia
Mower U.S.A. General Hospital, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia
This print is a bird's eye view of the Mower General Hospital, operated by the U.S. Army during the American Civil War. Built in 1862 after the designs of Philadelphia architect John McArthur, Jr., the hospital was located opposite the Chestnut Hill track of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad. The hospital received injured soldiers transported directly from the battlefield between January 1863 and May 1865. Designed as a pavilion to control the spread of infection, it consisted of hospital wards radiating from a central enclosed complex of administrative ...
Contributed by
The Library Company of Philadelphia
Emancipation
This engraving by the American political cartoonist Thomas Nast (1840–1902) celebrates the emancipation of Southern slaves with the end of the Civil War. Nast paints an optimistic picture of the future of free blacks in the United States. The central scene shows the interior of a freedman's home with the family gathered around a "Union" woodstove. The father bounces his small child on his knee while his wife and others look on. Between the mantel and the window hang a picture of Abraham Lincoln and a banjo. Below ...
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Library of Congress