29 results in English
Johanne Luise Heiberg
This daguerreotype of the actress and writer Johanne Luise Heiberg (1812–90) was made by Carl Gustav Oehme (1817–81), probably in 1854 or 1855, when Heiberg was visiting the German spas. Oehme ran the largest photographic studio in Berlin and had learned the daguerreotype process in Paris from its inventor, Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (1787–1851). After years of experimentation, in the late 1830s Daguerre succeeded in capturing images by exposing a silver-plated copper sheet to the vapor given off by iodine crystals. The earliest daguerreotypes generally were portraits and, unlike ...
Colton’s Peru and Bolivia
This 1855 map of Peru and Bolivia shows topographical features, cities, towns, forts, rapids, and rivers. National and regional boundaries are marked in pink, green, yellow, and blue. An inset map of Lima, the capital of Peru, appears in the lower-left-hand corner. In the upper right are the River Madeira, forming part of the border between Peru and Brazil, and the Amazon, the upper parts of which are known in Peru as the Marañón and in Brazil as the Solimões. A note indicates the navigability of the River Ucayali up ...
European Turkey as the Theater of War between the Turks and the Russians
This map shows southeastern Europe during the Crimean War (1853−56) that pitted Russia against the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) and its allies Britain, France, and Sardinia. The western European powers backed the Turks in order to block Russia’s expansion into the Black Sea region, which they believed threatened their positions in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Many of the war’s major battles were fought on the Crimean Peninsula in southern Russia, which, ironically, is not shown on this early map of the “theater of war.” The conflict ...
Colton's Persia, Arabia, Et cetera
This map showing the Arabian Peninsula, Persia (present-day Iran), Afghanistan, and Baluchistan (present-day Iran and Pakistan) was published in 1855 by J.H. Colton & Company of New York. Coloring is used to indicate borders and certain provinces or settled areas. The map shows cities, mountains, and roads, and includes some notes on topographical features. The old Qatari city of Al Zabara is shown. The map is accompanied by a one-page summary of the geography, people, principal places, and recent history of Afghanistan and Baluchistan. The map later appeared in the 1865 edition of Colton’s General Atlas and reflects the general level of geographic knowledge of the Middle East in mid-19th-century America. J.H. Colton & Company was founded in New York City, most likely in 1831, by Joseph Hutchins Colton (1800–93), a Massachusetts native who had only a basic education and little or no formal training in geography or cartography. Colton built the firm into a major publisher of maps and atlases by purchasing the copyrights to and republishing other maps before it began creating its own maps and atlases ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Elements of Geometry
This copy of Mabādi' al-handasa (Elements of geometry) is a second edition of a work by Rifā‘ah Rāfi‘ al-Ṭahṭāwī (1801−73), a leading intellectual and a pioneer of the 19th century Egyptian enlightenment. In his introduction, the author refers to an edition of 1842−43, written for students at the Madrasa al-Ṭubjīa, the military school founded by Muḥammad ʻAlī Bāshā (1769−1849) in Ṭura, Egypt. He also mentions the celebrated 1794 geometry textbook by A.M. Legendre, Eléments de géométrie (Elements of geometry). Al-Ṭahṭāwī says that this new 1854 ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Lanterns Burning for Students Discerning
This mid-19th century publication is a basic textbook of Arabic grammar and syntax. Originally written by Jirmānūs Farḥāt (1670 or 1671−1732 or 1733), it was edited by the famous Lebanese teacher and scholar Buṭrus al-Bustānī. Jirmānūs, Maronite bishop of Aleppo, composed his work at a critical time in the history of the Maronite rite of the Catholic Church as it sought to develop a national identity. With the help of scholars and writers such as Jirmānūs, a solution was found in the Garshuni script, that is, the native Arabic ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Map of the Near East
German geographer and cartographer Heinrich Kiepert (1818–99) is generally regarded as one of the most important scholarly cartographers of the second half of the 19th century. He was head of the Geographical Institute in Weimar between 1845 and 1852 and professor at the University of Berlin from 1852 until his death. Shown here is Kiepert’s 1855 map of the Near East, which appeared in the Kiepert’s Neuer Hand-Atlas über alle Teile der Erde (Kiepert’s new portable atlas of all parts of the world), published by Dietrich ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Pleasing Supplement to the Excellent Coverage Contained in the Essay “The Intellectual Hearth and Awakener of the Drowsy”
This manuscript, Tadhyil latif bi-dhikr masa’il hisan min risalah “Mawqid al-idhhan wa mawqiz al-wasnan” (A pleasing supplement to the excellent coverage contained in the essay “The intellectual hearth and awakener of the drowsy”), by an unknown author is a commentary on, or supplement to, a short grammatical treatise by the famous scholar Ibn Hisham al-Ansari (1309−60). The text about which this commentary is written, Mawqad al-Izhan (The intellectual hearth), treats of difficult points of Arabic grammar. Ibn Hisham was not a widely travelled person, having made only two ...
Morning Glory Flowers
This pictorial book from 1854 is known as one of the best books on morning glories published in Japan. It reflects the morning glory mania that began in 1847 and that was widespread among the people of Edo (present-day Tokyo) at that time. The book features colored prints of 36 morning glory flowers and leaves with strange shapes, by Hattori Sessai (1807-?), a Japanese painter known for his naturalist works. The descriptions were written by Bankaen Shujin, also known as Yokoyama Masana (1833-1908), who was a retainer of a Tokugawa ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Maps of Ezo, Sakhalin, and Kuril Islands
This map was made by Fujita Junsai and published by Harimaya Katsugorō in 1854, around the time period when the Tokugawa shogunate started sending expeditions to the area of Ezo, Sakhalin, and the Kuril Islands. Russia was also showing interest in this area at this time. Place names are identified and indicated in the Japanese katakana characters (the angular Japanese phonetic syllabary). Various land and sea routes in the Ezo area (now Hokkaido) are shown in detail.
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Precious Necklace Regarding Weigh Scales
This treatise on scales, measures, and weighing instruments is by a prominent member of the Jabartī family, a distinguished clan of Somali-Egyptian Ḥanafī ‘ulamā’ in Ottoman-ruled Egypt. The author, Ḥasan al-Jabartī, was the father of the famous historian ‘Abd al-Rahmān al-Jabarti (1753-1826 [1167-1241 AH]). Ḥasan al-Jabartī married into wealthy military families and also inherited substantial wealth. His relatives included merchants and ship owners, and he spent part of his life in business. He had a reputation for deep learning and was credited with restoring Egypt’s prestige as a center ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Atlas of the Physical and Political History of Chile [Plates, Volume 1]
Claudio Gay was born in Provence, southern France, in 1800.  In childhood he developed a deep fascination with the natural sciences. In his youth, he traveled extensively in parts of Europe under the direction of the Italian botanist Juan Bautista Balbis, visiting the French Alps, northern Italy, Greece, Asia Minor, and several Mediterranean islands. In 1828 the adventurer Pedro Chapuis invited him to come to Chile to teach geography. Gay accepted the offer, and lived in Chile until 1842, working as a teacher and participating in scientific expeditions. Under a ...
Contributed by National Library of Chile
Atlas of the Physical and Political History of Chile [Plates, Volume 2]
Claudio Gay was born in Provence, southern France, in 1800. In childhood he developed a deep fascination with the natural sciences. In his youth, he traveled extensively in parts of Europe under the direction of the Italian botanist Juan Bautista Balbis, visiting the French Alps, northern Italy, Greece, Asia Minor, and several Mediterranean islands. In 1828 the adventurer Pedro Chapuis invited him to come to Chile to teach geography. Gay accepted the offer, and lived in Chile until 1842, working as a teacher and participating in scientific expeditions. Under a ...
Contributed by National Library of Chile
The Book of Elegance in the Science of Agriculture
The author of this work, Abd al-Gani ibn Isma’il al-Nabulusi (1641–1731), is considered one of the most influential and prolific Syrian writers of his time. He was affiliated with the Sufi orders of the Naqšbandiyya and the Qādirīyya and produced an impressive number of works in the fields of mysticism, theology, and poetry. He traveled extensively in the Islamic world and recorded his adventures in narratives that touch upon his private mystical experiences and the intellectual milieu of the 18th-century Islamic centers. This manuscript contains a copy of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A North American: Portrait of Perry
Commodore Matthew C. Perry entered the port of Yokohama in 1853 with an intimidating fleet of steam warships, in order to compel Japan to open up after nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact. The Japanese people became increasingly exposed to Western culture as new trade agreements prompted cross-cultural interaction. The influx of unfamiliar technology and customs gave rise to anxiety as well as awe among the Japanese people, whose curiosity about the external world is evident in the detailed depictions of foreign subjects by ukiyo-e (pictures of the floating ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Collected Civil Examination Papers of the Qi Family of Shouyang
This is a manuscript collection of essays and poems by 12 members of the Qi family over several generations, written during their competitions for the ju ren and jin shi degrees. It was compiled by Qi Junzao (1793–1866), an official and poet, a native of Shouyang, Shanxi Province. Qi Junzao, the fifth son of Qi Yunshi, a historian, grew up in Beijing but returned to Shouyang after his father was exiled. Qi Junzao received a successful provincial ju ren degree in 1810 and a jin shi degree in 1814 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The U.S. Grinnell Expedition in Search of Sir John Franklin: a Personal Narrative
Elisha Kent Kane (1820–57) was an American Arctic explorer. He studied medicine in his native Philadelphia and in 1843 entered the U.S. Navy as a surgeon. In 1850 he sailed as the senior medical officer and naturalist on an expedition in search of Sir John Franklin (1786–1847), the British naval officer and explorer who had been missing in the Canadian Arctic since 1845. Funded by New York merchant Henry Grinnell and carried out by the U.S. Navy, the expedition explored Lancaster Sound and Wellington Channel and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Twelve Months by Toyokuni: First Dancing Practice of the New Year
This nishiki-e (Japanese multicolored woodblock print) is one of a 12-part series depicting annual events and the changing of people’s lives with the seasons, from January to December, modeled on beautiful women in Edo (present-day Tokyo) in the early 19th century. This picture, a happy and brilliant scene that symbolizes the New Year, represents January and is titled in the top left-hand corner. It shows two young women having their first dancing practice of the New Year to a shamisen accompaniment. The dance is Harukoma, which expresses the wish ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Twelve Months by Toyokuni: The December Pounding of Rice Cakes
This picture is one of a series depicting the annual events and changing lives of people through the seasons from January to December. It was published in Edo (present-day Tokyo) in 1854. The artist, Utagawa Kunisada (circa 1786–1864), a pupil of Utagawa Toyokuni I, took the name Toyokuni III in 1844. In the Edo period, no well-to-do family would greet the New Year without making its own rice cakes. Some of the cakes were made into kagami-mochi, mirror rice cakes, large round hard cakes piled one atop the other ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
The Breath of Perfumes
Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari (1591–1632 AD, 992–1041 AH) was an Arab historian who wrote one of the oldest histories of Muslim Spain. He was born in Tlemcen, in present-day Algeria, and at times lived and worked in Morocco and in Egypt. His most important work, Nafh at-teeb (The breath of perfumes), consists of two parts. The first is a compilation from many authors on Andalusia and its history, including descriptions of the main Andalusian cities and the lifestyles of their peoples. The second part is a biography of the ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Colton's Japan: Nippon, Kiusiu, Sikok, Yesso and the Japanese Kuriles
J.H. Colton & Company was founded in New York City, most likely in 1831, by Joseph Hutchins Colton, a Massachusetts native who had only a basic education and little or no formal training in geography or cartography. Colton built the firm into a major publisher of maps and atlases by purchasing the copyrights to other maps and re-publishing them. Most of the Colton maps were of individual states or groups of states in the United States, but some were of other countries. This 1855 map of Japan is attributed to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The State Penitentiary, for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania
This print is a bird's eye view of the prison built in 1823–36 at 2101–99 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, after the designs of John Haviland. It shows the prison designed with radial corridors, courtyards, and a Gothic-style entranceway and outer wall. It was also known as Cherry Hill State Prison and was one of the largest and most expensive structures of its day. It was most unusual in having flush toilets and heating in the cells. A horse-drawn wagon is visible within, and another, probably a paddy wagon ...
Price and Harper's Steam Saw Mill, Fancy Chair Manufactory, and Lumber Yard, Girard Avenue, between Seventh and Eighth, Philadelphia
William H. Rease, born in Pennsylvania circa 1818, was the most prolific lithographer of advertising prints in Philadelphia during the 1840s and 1850s. This advertisement shows the four-story brick building and adjoining lumber yard on Girard Avenue above Seventh Street tenanted by Price & Harper. Signboards on the front facade read, "fancy-chair factory, steam sawmill, turning & scroll sawing, and iron foundry." Large piles of lumber are visible in the yard that extends west to Eighth Street from the factory building. A man leads a horse out of the yard, while horse-drawn ...
Rowley, Ashburner and Company's Oil, Alcohol, Fluid and Pine Oil Works. Kensington Screw Dock, Penn Street above Maiden, Philadelphia
William H. Rease, born in Pennsylvania circa 1818, was the most prolific lithographer of advertising prints in Philadelphia during the 1840s and 1850s. This advertisement shows the Kensington Screw Dock on North Penn Street above Maiden Street (later Laurel Street) from the Delaware River. Shipwrights work on the hull of a square-rigged ship raised in the dry dock in front of the firm's building. At the wharf, horse-drawn drays travel past the neighboring oil manufactory and distillery and a captain, with a dog, leans on a hitching post to ...
Shad Fishing (Taking up the Net)
This print shows shad fishermen working near Philadelphia, across the Delaware River from New Jersey. Several of the men are African American. They stand waist deep in the river, gathering up their catch into a rowboat. Visible in the foreground and background are residential buildings and a local church, a Philadelphia pier, the mills of Gloucester, New Jersey, and sailboats on the river. The print is by James Fuller Queen, a Philadelphia lithographer and pioneer chromolithographer known for his attention to detail who produced many views of the city.
The Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons
This document is a membership certificate for the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons. The society was founded in 1787 by prominent Philadelphia citizens, including Benjamin Franklin and Dr. Benjamin Rush, with the aim of correcting abuses in the city jail. The lithograph contains a vignette with a portrait bust of Bishop White, the long-time president of the organization, and a bird's-eye view of the buildings and grounds of Eastern State Penitentiary. The paragraph at the bottom describes this institution, also known as Cherry Hill State ...
Leaves of Grass
Walt Whitman (1819–92) is generally considered to be the most important American poet of the 19th century. He published the first edition of his major work, Leaves of Grass, in 1855. For the remainder of his life, Whitman produced further editions of the book, ending with the ninth, or "deathbed," edition in 1891–92. What began as a slim book of 12 poems was by the end of his life a thick compendium of almost 400. Whitman regarded each version as its own distinct book and continuously altered the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Louisa Van Velsor Whitman, Head-and-Shoulders Portrait of a Woman, Facing Slightly Left
Walt Whitman is generally considered to be the most important American poet of the 19th century. Of English and Dutch ancestry, he was born on May 31, 1819, in West Hills, Long Island, New York, the second of nine children. This daguerreotype by an unidentified photographer dates from around 1855, the year that Whitman published the first edition of his major work, Leaves of Grass, and shows his mother, Louisa Van Velsor Whitman (1795–1873). Emotionally close to Louisa, Whitman once told a friend: “How much I owe her! It ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Walt Whitman, 1819-1892
The American poet Walt Whitman used this three-quarter length portrait of himself as the frontispiece in the first edition of his major work, Leaves of Grass, published in 1855. It shows the 37-year old Whitman in laborer's clothes. Known as "the carpenter," the image is an icon of the American poet as "one of the roughs," or Everyman. Subsequent editions of Leaves of Grass depicted different Whitmans, ever more sophisticated and venerable. The elderly Whitman in 1891 reverted to an image of a young and urbane self, taken in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress