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Gulzar Calligraphic Panel
This calligraphic panel executed in black and red on a white ground decorated in gold contains a number of prayers (du'a's) directed to God, the Prophet Muhammad, and his son-in-law 'Ali. The letters of the larger words are executed in nasta'liq script and are filled with decorative motifs, animals, and human figures. This style of script, filled with various motifs, is called gulzar, which literally means 'rose garden' or 'full of flowers.' It usually is applied to the interior of inscriptions executed in nasta'liq, such as ...
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Library of Congress
The Aeneid
This book is the first printed work of the new Ukrainian literature written in the popular language. It introduced to the world the Ukrainian people with their history, language, traditions, faith, and ethical and aesthetic views, drawing upon materials derived from the social life of Ukraine of the late 18th–early 19th centuries. The work is based on The Aeneid, the epic poem by the Roman poet Virgil (circa 70–19 BC), but the author, Ivan Petrovych Kotlyarevsky, transforms Virgil’s ancient heroes into Ukrainian cossacks. The author used a ...
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V.I. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine
Score of Divine Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom and Other Compositions by Artemiĭ Vedelʹ
This manuscript is the only known work in the hand of Artemiĭ Vedelʹ (1767–1808), one of the most famous Ukrainian composers. It consists of six parts of the Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom, 12 spiritual choral pieces, and a composition for trio with choir. Different colors of ink reflect the fact that the compositions were written at different times over a period of several years. In 1856 the historian, publicist, and professor at the Kiev Theological Academy, V.I. Askochenskyi, offered the score as a gift to the library ...
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V.I. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine
Map of Sweden
This map shows the Kingdom of Sweden as it appeared at the end of the 18th century. At the time, the kingdom included present-day Sweden as well as Finland, which, however, was lost to the Russian Empire in 1809. The map is the work of Samuel Gustaf Hermelin (1744-1820), a Swedish industrialist and diplomat who also practiced cartography. Hermelin studied mining at the University of Uppsala before traveling to the United States to study industrialization. While in North America, he was instrumental in establishing diplomatic relations between Sweden and the ...
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National Library of Brazil
Modern Asia
John Wilkes was a London publisher best known for his Encyclopaedia Londinensis; or, universal dictionary of arts, sciences, and literature (1801-28). Wilkes frequently worked with Samuel John Neele, the engraver of this hand-colored map of “modern Asia.” The map reflects late 18th-century European geographic conceptions and terminology. India is referred to as “Hindoostan,” while much of the interior is shown as comprised of “Western Tartary” and “Chinese Tartary.” “Tartary” was a designation applied by Europeans to those parts of Asia inhabited by nomadic Turkic and Mongol peoples. This map shows ...
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Library of Congress
Map Showing the Presumed Headwaters of the Das Velhas River and Part of the Captaincy of Minas Gerais
This late-18th century hand-drawn map shows the Das Velhas River, one of the tributaries of the São Francisco River in southern Brazil that flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Gold was discovered on its banks in 1698-99.
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National Library of Brazil
A General Chart of the West Indies: With Additions from the Latest Navigators
Captain Joseph Smith Speer was an English mariner who served 21 years on the Mosquito (Miskito) Coast in what is now Nicaragua. He later created detailed maps of the West Indies based on his first-hand knowledge of the region. In 1766 he published The West-India Pilot containing 13 maps, followed by an enlarged edition with 26 maps in 1771. A General Chart of the West Indies, shown here, is a large, detailed map (71 by 117 centimeters). It is based on an earlier map from 1774, “with Additions from the ...
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Library of Congress
Instructions and Travel Diary that Governor Francisco Joze de Lacerda e Almeida Wrote about His Travel to the Center of Africa, Going to the River of Sena, in the Year of 1798
This manuscript diary by the Brazilian mathematician, geographer, and explorer Francisco José de Lacerda e Almeida (1750-98) describes Almeida’s journey into the interior of southern Africa in 1798. Almeida was born in Brazil, studied at the University of Coimbra in Portugal, and rose to the position of royal astronomer. In 1780, he returned to Brazil as part of a commission established to determine the borders between Spanish and Portuguese territories in South America under the recently concluded Treaty of San Ildefonso (1777). He spent ten years in Brazil, where ...
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National Library of Brazil
World's Marvels and Substances Book
This text contains sections extracted from the second part of the well-known and highly popular work of cosmography known as ʻAjāʼib al-makhlūqāt, written in the 13th century (7th century AH) by Abū Yaḥyā Zakarīyā al-Qazwīnī. The work begins with a section on the sources and properties of gems and stones, followed by sections on herbs, seeds, nuts and fruits, spices, the body parts of animals, and so forth. It also contains geographical information, for example the names and locations of major bodies of water such as the Mediterranean Sea ...
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Library of Congress
An Historical Survey of the French Colony in the Island of St. Domingo: Comprehending a Short Account of Its Ancient Government, Political State, Population, Productions, and Exports
In August 1791, slaves in the French colony of Saint-Domingue staged a massive revolt, setting in train the chain of events that ultimately led to the founding of Haiti in 1804. In February 1793, war broke out between Britain and France. In September 1793, British troops landed on Saint-Domingue, intent on restoring order, seizing the colony for Britain, and reinstating slavery. This work by a British author is an account of events in Haiti in 1789-94, based in part on his own first-hand observations. The author concludes his work by ...
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Library of Congress
Rear High thy Bleak Majestic Hills
Robert Burns (1759-96) is best known for his poems and songs that reflect Scotland's cultural heritage. He was born in Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland, the first of seven children belonging to William Burnes, a tenant farmer, and his wife Agnes Broun. Burns had little formal education, but he read English literature and absorbed the traditional, largely oral Scots-language folk songs and tales of his rural environment. He began to compose songs in 1774, and published his first book, Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, in 1786. The work was a ...
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University of South Carolina
Defense of the Settlers of Saint Dominique: Or, a Quick Look at the New Declaration of the Rights of Man, Particularly as it Relates to the Colonies
The French Revolution of 1789 had enormous repercussions in France’s Caribbean colonies. In August 1791, slaves in the colony of Saint-Domingue staged a massive revolt, setting in train the chain of events that ultimately led to the founding of Haiti in 1804. In 1792, the de facto government of revolutionary France sent commissioners to the colony to enforce a decree by the National Assembly that enfranchised free blacks and mulattoes, but that did not yet free the colony’s slaves. Under growing pressure from the revolt and threatened by ...
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Library of Congress
Illustrated Stories Exemplifying the Five Confucian Virtues
By order of King Jeongjo, the 21st king of the Joseon Dynasty (reigned 1724–76), Oryun haengsildo (Illustrated stories exemplifying the five Confucian virtues) was made by binding together two books of ethics drawn from the Chinese classics. These were Samgang haengsildo (Illustrated conduct of the three bonds) and Iryun hangsildo (Illustrated stories exemplifying the two Confucian virtues). The book describes the achievements of 150 models extracted from ancient Korean and Chinese literature. Topics covered include relationships between the king and his servants, fathers and sons, husbands and wives ...
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National Library of Korea
The Actor Nakayama Tomisaburo
The term ukiyo-e, literally “pictures of the floating world,” refers to a genre of Japanese artwork that flourished in the Edo period (1600–1868). As the phrase “floating world” suggests, with its roots in the ephemeral worldview of Buddhism, ukiyo-e captured the fleeting dynamics of contemporary urban life. While being accessible and catering to “common” tastes, the artistic and technical details of these prints show remarkable sophistication, their subjects ranging from portraits of courtesans and actors to classical literature. This print is one of only seven known works, all portraits ...
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Library of Congress
A Philosophical and Political History of the Settlements and Trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies
A Philosophical and Political History of the Settlements and Trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies is a six-volume translation, published in London in 1798, of the ten-volume Histoire philosophique et politique des établissemens et du commerce des Européens dans les deux Indes by Guillaume-Thomas-François (1713–96), also known as Abbé Raynal. Educated by the Jesuits and ordained as a priest, Raynal left the clergy and became a journalist. He published the first edition of Histoire des deux Indes in 1770, which he expanded in editions of ...
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Library of Congress
A Sketch of the Islamic Law
This manuscript work in two volumes was translated and edited by Ma Boliang (1640–1711), an influential Islamic scholar from Jining, Shandong Province. It deals with the basics of Islam and instructs readers on how to identify unorthodox ideas and deeds. To accommodate some readers, Ma also provided Arabic letters for a few of the most important expressions and terms as well as Chinese characters. The work became very popular in the Muslim community, which constituted a large minority population in China. It has a preface and a postscript, but ...
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Library of Congress
Chart of the Galapagos: Surveyed in the Merchant-Ship Rattler and Drawn by Captain James Colnett of the Royal Navy in 1793, 1794 ; Engraved by T. Foot
In 1793, Captain James Colnett of the Royal Navy in the merchant ship Rattler undertook a survey of the Galapagos Islands. Colnett was on an extended voyage to the Pacific that he chronicled in a book published in 1798 under the lengthy title A voyage to the south Atlantic and round cape Horn into the Pacific Ocean, for the purpose of extending the spermaceti whale fisheries, and other objects of commerce, by ascertaining the ports, bays, harbours, and anchoring births in certain islands and coasts in those seas at which ...
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Library of Congress
Map of the City of Rio de Janeiro, with the Essential Part of the Port and All Fortified Places
This manuscript map shows the city of Rio de Janeiro spread along the shores of Guanabara Bay. The map, which is the work of José Correia Rangel de Bulhões, emphasizes the defenses of the city and the port. Rio de Janeiro displaced Salvador as Brazil’s most important port after gold and diamonds were discovered in nearby Minas Gerais province in 1720. The city became the colonial capital in 1763.
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National Library of Brazil