40 results in English
Declaration of Independence. In Congress, July 4, 1776, a Declaration by the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress Assembled.
This document is the first printed version of the American Declaration of Independence. On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia introduced a resolution urging Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, to declare independence from Great Britain. Four days later, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston were appointed as a committee to draft a declaration of independence. The committee’s draft was read in Congress on June 28. On July 4, Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, containing a list of grievances against the British ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Topographical Notes on Notable Places Visited by Her Imperial Majesty in Belarusian Vicegerencies
This book, published in Saint Petersburg in 1780 by the Russian Imperial Academy of Science, is about the history of and conditions in the eastern Belarusian lands visited by the Empress Catherine (the Great) in May of that year. The work includes detailed information about localities in the Polotsk and Mogil'ov territory (namestnichestva), including the population and descriptions of castles, palaces, churches, and monasteries. Descriptions of places in Belarus start on page 38. The book also contains information about places along the route from Saint Petersburg to Belarus, such ...
The Precious Book on Noteworthy Dates
This short work, entitled Kitāb al-yawāqīt fī ma‘rifat al-mawāqīt, and copied by an anonymous scribe in Shawwāl in June-July 1775 (AH 1168), is attributed to Ḥusayn (or Ḥasan) b. Zayd b. ‘Alī al-Jaḥḥāf, who is said to have dedicated it to Abū ‘Alī Manṣūr al-Ḥākim bi Amr-Allāh, the sixth Fāṭimid ruler (died 996). The manuscript lists the 12 months of the year, each on one sheet, in the form of an almanac. The last page is a one-page guide to the interpretation of dreams, reportedly prepared at the behest ...
A Summary View of the Rights of British America: Set Forth in Some Resolutions Intended for the Inspection of the Present Delegates of the People of Virginia, Now in Convention / by a Native, and Member of the House of Burgesses
This pamphlet is Thomas Jefferson’s personal copy of A Summary View of the Rights of British America, which he originally drafted in July 1774 as a set of instructions for the Virginia delegates to the first Continental Congress. Jefferson argued that the British Parliament had no rights to govern the colonies, which he claimed had been independent since their founding. He also described the usurpations of power and deviations from law committed by King George III and Parliament. Jefferson was not present in the Virginia House when his draft ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Album of Appreciation of the Fragrance of Spring
Takuhanga is a printing technique in which a cloth-covered cotton ball containing black ink is patted on wet paper placed on an intaglio-engraved woodblock. The technique derives from takuhon, the art of rubbing found in Chinese copybooks printed from the works of old masters of calligraphy. This late-18th-century takuhanga album includes poems in the Chinese style celebrating the spring scenery of Kyoto written by learned men from the city who were students of Chinese literature, including Iwagaki Ryūkei (1741−1808). The drawings are by prominent Kyoto artists from the time ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Edict Prohibiting Traveling Shows Throughout Tuscany
This edict, dated February 1, 1780, was promulgated by Domenico Brichieri Colombi, fiscal auditor of the city of Florence, in execution of orders issued by Pietro Leopoldo of Lorraine, Grand Duke of Tuscany (reigned 1765−90). It prohibited public performances by traveling entertainers so as not to give to the people “opportunities to dissipate themselves vainly.” The edict applied to “Charlatans, Cantimbanchi [street singers], Storytellers, Puppeteers, Peddlers, Jugglers, and all those who carry on freak shows, exhibit Machines, Animals, or who sell secrets, and to any other foreigner who goes ...
Map of the New Discoveries in the Eastern Ocean
This Russian map of 1781 depicts parts of eastern Siberia and the northwestern part of the North American continent, including places reached by the Russians Mikhail Gvozdev and Ivan Sind, the English explorer Captain James Cook, and others. In 1732, the expedition led by Gvozdev and the navigator Ivan Fedorov crossed the Bering Strait between Asia and America, discovered the Diomede Islands, and approached Alaska in the vicinity of Cape Prince of Wales. The expedition landed on the shore of the North American mainland, marked on the map as the ...
Painting of the Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion during the Spring Purification Festival
This rubbing scroll combines two works: Lanting xu tie (Calligraphy of the preface to the poems composed at the Orchid Pavilion) by Wang Xizhi (321−79), and Liu shang tu (The floating goblets), originally a painting, by the Song artist Li Gonglin (1049−1106). Emperor Qianlong (reigned 1736−95) commissioned this scroll, which was reprinted from the Song rubbing with the missing parts added, based on the fragment of Lanting tu (Illustrations of Lanting) by Zhu Yiyin (1536−1603), Prince Yi of the Ming dynasty. The missing part of the ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Explaining and Analyzing Characters, in 15 Juan
Shuo wen jie zi (Explaining and analyzing characters), often abridged as Shuo wen, was compiled by Xu Shen (circa 58−circa 147), a Confucian scholar and linguist of the Eastern Han dynasty. This is the first Chinese dictionary to use the principle of organization by sections with shared components, called bu shou (radicals), and to analyze the form, meaning, and pronunciation of each character, using the liu shu (six categories of Chinese characters) theory, to give the rationale behind them, as well as their interrelation. It is the forerunner of ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Tobias Conrad Lotter (1717-77) was a publisher of maps in Augsburg, Germany. He inherited the family mapmaking business from his father-in-law, Matthias Seutter. Lotter published atlases and numerous sheet maps, including this 1770 Latin map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. At the height of its power in the 14th-16th centuries, the Grand Duchy comprised the territories of present-day Lithuania, Belarus, and western Ukraine. In the late 16th century, Lithuania came under the increasing influence of Poland. In 1569 the two countries united to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. As shown ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A New Map of Nova Scotia, and Cape Breton Island: With the Adjacent Parts of New England and Canada, Composed from a Great Number of Actual Surveys; and Other Materials Regulated by Many New Astronomical Observations of the Longitude as Well as Latitude; by Thomas Jefferys, Geographer to the King.
Thomas Jefferys (1710-71) was a royal geographer to King George III and a London publisher of maps. He is well known for his maps of North America, produced to meet commercial demand, but also to support British territorial claims against the French. The period from 1748-63 saw fierce global competition between England and France, culminating in the Seven Years' War, which produced a high demand for maps of the contested territories. This map presents Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island in the wake of the “great upheaval,” when the British ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Plan of the Rosalij Compy. Estates, the Property of His Excelly. Charles O'Harra, the Honble. Leiut. Gov. Will. Stuart, James Clarke & Rob. & Phill.
France and Britain vied for control of Dominica for many years. In 1763, the British gained possession of the island. This detailed map shows British-owned estates and a plantation on the Atlantic side of the island. Details on the map include individual buildings and structures, roads, sections of the plantation identified by number, administrative divisions of the estates identified by letters, streams, pictorial representations of vegetation and relief, the coastline and coastal features, and a vignette of ships in the harbor. The map also includes a keyed legend listing the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Engrossed Declaration of Independence
On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, in which the American colonies set forth a list of grievances against the British Crown and declared that they were breaking from British rule to form free and independent states. On July 19, 1776, Congress resolved that the Declaration passed on the 4th be "fairly engrossed on parchment with the title and stile [sic]: 'The unanimous declaration of the thirteen United States of America'...and that the same, when engrossed, be signed by every member of Congress ...
Dunlap Broadside [Declaration of Independence]
John Dunlap, official printer to the Continental Congress, produced the first printed versions of the American Declaration of Independence in his Philadelphia shop on the night of July 4, 1776. After the Declaration had been adopted by the Congress earlier that day, a committee took the manuscript document, possibly Thomas Jefferson's "fair copy" of his rough draft, to Dunlap for printing. On the morning of July 5, copies were dispatched by members of Congress to various assemblies, conventions, and committees of safety as well as to the commanders of ...
Articles of Confederation
On June 11, 1776, the Second Continental Congress appointed three committees in response to the Lee Resolution proposing independence for the American colonies. One of these committees, created to determine the form of a confederation of the colonies, was composed of one representative from each colony. John Dickinson, the delegate from Delaware, was the principal writer. Dickinson’s draft of the Articles of Confederation named the new country "the United States of America." It also provided for a Congress with representation based on population, and gave to the national government ...
Britain Infantry Uniform Sketch (Rutland Militia?)
This sketch is the 14th of 15 original unsigned pencil and ink drawings attributed to Philip James de Loutherbourg (1740-1812). De Loutherbourg, an English artist of French descent, painted many large scenes of English naval victories, including The Defeat of the Spanish Armada. This sketch includes drawings of a uniformed infantryman with a rifle, a head with a cap, and notes on uniform coloring. The uniform may be that of the Rutland Militia, a British regiment founded in 1759. De Loutherbourg sketched these soldiers during mock battles held at Warley ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
The Cusp of Prophetic Lights from the Verified Traditions of Muhammad
This Arabic manuscript, dated 1775, is a collection of the sayings of Muhammad by the scholar as-Sagani (died 1252), who was born in India and served as a diplomatic representative of the caliph an-Nasirbillah to India. The traditions are arranged according to grammatical rules. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870-1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet, journalist, and museum director who assembled a ...
The Complete Library in Four Sections (Siku Quanshu)
Siku quanshu (Complete library in four sections), compiled in the Qianlong period of the Qing dynasty, was the largest collection of texts in pre-modern China and has an important historical place in the histories of cultural texts and academic thought in China. The Wenjin ge edition is a manuscript written during the Qianlong reign. It includes a total of 36,304 volumes in 6,144 boxes placed on 128 bookshelves. They comprise 79,309 juan (sections) and were originally kept in the Wenjin Pavilion at the Summer Palace in Rehe ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Map of the Attack and the Taking of the Island of Grenada on July 3, 1779
The islands of Grenada, Dominica, St. Vincent, the Grenadines, and Tobago were ceded by France to Britain following the close of the Seven Years' War (1756-63). France temporarily recaptured these islands in the late 1770s during the period of the U.S. Revolutionary War, a conflict that had hemispheric implications. This elegant, well-executed French military map of the vicinity of St. George's and the harbor depicts the July 1779 French attack on British-held Grenada. The map includes coastline, coastal features, anchorages, a grid of St. George's, other settlements ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Book of Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius Loyola, the Founder of the Jesuit Monastic Order
This manuscript is an Arabic translation of the Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola. At the beginning of the manuscript, Ignatius (1491–1556) is expressly described as the founder of “Jesuit monasticism.” The text also states that this work was translated from Latin into Arabic in the Phoenician city of Sidon, in the year 1731 by the Jesuit Pierre Fromage (1678–1740). The translation was for the benefit of those in Eastern countries, as it was known that many in Western countries had benefited from the Latin version of the ...
Courtesan
The term ukiyo-e, literally “pictures of the floating world,” refers to a genre of Japanese artwork that flourished in the Edo period (1600–1868). As the phrase “floating world” suggests, with its roots in the ephemeral worldview of Buddhism, ukiyo-e captured the fleeting dynamics of contemporary urban life. While being accessible and catering to “common” tastes, the artistic and technical details of these prints show remarkable sophistication, their subjects ranging from portraits of courtesans and actors to classical literature. Shunshō (1726–93) was a leading artist of the Katsukawa school ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Present State of the West-Indies: Containing an Accurate Description of What Parts Are Possessed by the Several Powers in Europe
This book, published in London in 1778, is a succinct compilation of information about the West Indies, containing, as indicated by the lengthy subtitle, “an authentick account of the first discoverers of those islands, and the parts adjacent, their situation, extent, boundaries, soil, product, trade, commerce, inhabitants, strength, government, and religion: also their principal bays and harbours, the materials for which were collected on the spot during the last war by some of the officers of his Majesty's forces, and diligently compared with all authentick narrators.” Even though the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Extract of the Dutch Map Representing the Colony of Surinam
This late-18th century French map based on Dutch sources shows a portion of northern Suriname, extending from the Suriname River and Paramaribo on the west to the Maroni River and French Guiana on the east. It includes coastline, coastal features, rivers and streams, the town of Paramaribo, a Jewish settlement ("Bourg nommé des Juifs"), fortifications, individual land holdings, and a defensive line extending almost 100 kilometers from the Atlantic Coast to the Bourg des Juifs on the Suriname River. The primary purpose of the map is to show the defensive ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Olney Hymns: In Three Books
Olney Hymns was compiled by John Newton, the author of "Amazing Grace" and rector of a parish in Olney, England, and William Cowper, a poet and close friend of Newton. The book contained the first printing of "Amazing Grace," which is numbered "Hymn 41" and begins at the bottom of page 53. The profits from the hymnal went to the benefit of Olney's poor. Olney Hymns later was published in New York in 1790 and in Philadelphia in 1791. In his preface to the book, Newton argued that hymns ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Chart of the NW Coast of America and Part of the NE of Asia with the Track of his Majesty's Sloops 'Resolution' and 'Discovery' from May to October 1778
George Vancouver (1757–98), who became a noted explorer and surveyor of the Pacific Northwest, joined the Royal Navy at the age of 13 and was a midshipman on H.M.S. Discovery during Captain James Cook’s ill-fated third voyage of 1778–80. This may be one of Vancouver’s first charts. The purpose for which the chart was made is not known. Such charts may have been drafted by the midshipmen as an exercise, part of a running survey conducted under the guidance of ships’ masters and captains ...
Map of the World
This late 18th-century Latin map of the world by the Augsburg map publisher Tobias Lotter (1717-77) is based on an earlier map by the French cartographer Guillaume de l'Isle (1675-1726). De l'Isle was among the group of French cartographers who wrested mapmaking preeminence from the Dutch in the late 17th century. De l’Isle was a child prodigy, having drawn his first map at age nine. He was trained in history and geography, as well as in mathematics and astronomy. He drew extensively on classical Arabic and Persian ...
Coast of Cuba from Cape of San Antonio to the Bay of Cardenas
This Spanish map of a portion of the north coast of Cuba shows the coastline, coastal features, soundings, navigational hazards, a fortification, and settlements. It includes a decorative wind rose and five coastal profile views. The map is oriented with south at the top. It is from the Real Escuela de Navegación in Cadiz, Spain, and was acquired by the Library of Congress from the Maggs Brothers, London.
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Victory of Khorgos
The “Battle Copper Prints” are a series of prints from copper engravings dating from the second half of the 18th century. They were commissioned by the Qianlong emperor of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), who ruled from 1735 to 1796. They depict his military campaigns in China’s inner provinces and along the country’s frontiers. The master illustrations for the engravings were large paintings done by European missionary artists employed at that time at the court in Beijing. These artists were Italian Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione (1688–1766), French Jesuit ...
The Chief of Us Surrenders with His City
The “Battle Copper Prints” are a series of prints from copper engravings dating from the second half of the 18th century. They were commissioned by the Qianlong emperor of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), who ruled from 1735 to 1796. They depict his military campaigns in China’s inner provinces and along the country’s frontiers. The master illustrations for the engravings were large paintings done by European missionary artists employed at that time at the court in Beijing. These artists were Italian Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione (1688–1766), French Jesuit ...
The Battle of Tonguzluq
The “Battle Copper Prints” are a series of prints from copper engravings dating from the second half of the 18th century. They were commissioned by the Qianlong emperor of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), who ruled from 1735 to 1796. They depict his military campaigns in China’s inner provinces and along the country’s frontiers. The master illustrations for the engravings were large paintings done by European missionary artists employed at that time at the court in Beijing. These artists were Italian Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione (1688–1766), French Jesuit ...
The Battle of Qos-Qulaq
The “Battle Copper Prints” are a series of prints from copper engravings dating from the second half of the 18th century. They were commissioned by the Qianlong emperor of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), who ruled from 1735 to 1796. They depict his military campaigns in China’s inner provinces and along the country’s frontiers. The master illustrations for the engravings were large paintings done by European missionary artists employed at that time at the court in Beijing. These artists were Italian Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione (1688–1766), French Jesuit ...
Hydrographic Map of the Famous Rio de Janeiro Bay Where the São Sebastião City is Situated
This map of the bay of Rio de Janeiro shows the city of São Sebastião, the bay entrance, the island, and the rivers entering the bay. During the colonial period, the city of São Sebastião was an agricultural center and its port was a major shipping point for gold from Minas Gerais. The map is the work of Luis dos Santos Vilhena (1744-1814), who lived in Salvador, where he worked as a teacher of Greek and Latin. Vilhena wrote extensively about life in Portuguese Brazil, often expressing the frustration of ...
Map of the District of Villa Rica
This map showing the district of Villa Rica in Brazil’s Minas Gerais state is the work of José Joaquim da Rocha (1737?-1807). Rocha was a Brazilian military engineer, painter, and cartographer who contributed works to many important churches and monasteries around Salvador and Minas Gerais. His map shows details of individual comarcas (judicial districts) and parochial districts, and an illustration of an Indian. Rocha was accused of participation in the Minas Conspiracy (Inconfidência Mineira) of 1789, a movement seeking independence from Portugal, and of involvement with its leader ...
An Account of a Selection of Plants of America
The first world-renowned natural scientist to set foot on Colombian soil was the Dutch physician and botanist Baron Nikolaus Joseph Jacquin (1727–1817). As a young man he showed such ability in his studies in Vienna that he attracted royal patronage. Emperor Francis I commissioned him to travel to the Americas for the purpose of collecting rare and exotic plants for the imperial parks of Vienna and Schönbrunn Palace. This tour occupied him from 1755 to 1759. Jacquin was the first person to show the world the botanical treasures of ...
A Guide to Geometry, Surveying, the Launching of Missiles, and the Planting of Mines
Hadiyat Al-Muhtadi fil Al-Handassa (A guide to geometry, surveying, the launching of missiles, and the planting of mines) is a technical manual on geometry and surveying, as well as on the motion of projectiles and the construction of missiles. The pages have a number of tables and illustrations set in the text area, and the book has many diagrams and drawings in its wide margins. The work consists of an introduction, two chapters, and a conclusion. The author describes the first chapter as being on the figures of plane geometry ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
A Plan of the City and Environs of Philadelphia, 1777
This map of Philadelphia was published in London in 1777 by William Faden, successor to Thomas Jefferys as royal geographer to King George III. It is based on a 1752 map prepared by Nicholas Scull (circa 1687–1762) and George Heap (flourished 1715–60), updated with new details. An important addition to the 1777 map is the shading to indicate the expansion of the city from the waterfront along the Delaware River. One of the largest and most prosperous cities in mid-18th century British North America, Philadelphia was laid out ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Map of the Country round Philadelphia Including Part of New Jersey and New York, 1776
This map of eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and the area around New York City originally was published in The Gentleman’s Magazine of September 1776. The American colonies had declared their independence two months earlier and were in revolt against the British crown, so the conflict in North America was of keen interest to readers of this popular London monthly. An accompanying article explained: “It [the map] comprehends that part of America which is now the chief object of the British arms. Should New-York be suddenly reduced, it is more ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Ohio River from Fort Pitt
The Ohio River begins in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers and flows southwestward toward the Mississippi River. This map shows the course of the Ohio from Fort Pitt, site of present-day Pittsburgh, to what is now New Martinsville, West Virginia. A pencil annotation reads “Montresor, 1776,” indicating that the map was made in that year by the British military engineer John Montrésor (1736–99). Montrésor fought in many of the most important engagements of the French and Indian War and was in Boston in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A New Map of the Western Parts of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina, 1778
Thomas Hutchins (1730–89) produced this map to accompany and supplement his A Topographical Description of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina, also published in London in 1778. A native of New Jersey, Hutchins fought with the militia in the French and Indian War. He became an expert frontiersman and was known for his skill as a surveyor, cartographer, and geographer. In 1766 he was given a regular commission as an engineer in the British army and assigned to survey the western regions of Britain’s North American empire. He ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General Map of Irkutsk Province, Self-Compiled in Irkutsk, Yakutsk, and Udinsk Provinces
This multi-colored, hand-colored map of eastern Siberia shows the state of geographic knowledge at the beginning of the last quarter of the 18th century. The geographic grid and the mapping of the rivers are well-executed. Sakhalin Island is shown, but is poorly mapped. The work is by Johann Treskot (1721-86), a cartographer at the Geographical Department of the Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg, who compiled many of the maps published by the academy from the 1740s to the 1780s.
Contributed by Russian State Library