76 results in English
Upper View of the Castillo del Morro Situated at the Mouth of the Bay of Havana
This 18th-century manuscript map shows the plan of Morro Castle, located at the entrance of Havana Bay, Cuba. The fortress was built by the Spaniards, starting in 1585. The Italian military engineer Battista Antonelli (1547–1616) was commissioned to design the fortifications. The structure originally was conceived as a small fort surrounded by a dry moat, but it was expanded and rebuilt on several occasions and became a major fortress of great strategic importance for the island. The map is oriented with north to the left and tilted up at ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Map in Which the Rivers on Argentina, Parana and Paraguay are Described Most Exactly for the First Time, When a Beginning was Made by the New Colony as Far as the Mouth of the Jauru River
This atlas of colonial South America is by Miguel Antonio Ciera. A noted mathematician and professor of astronomy at the University of Coimbra in Portugal, Ciera was part of an expedition sent to demarcate the border between Spanish and Portuguese holdings in South America following signature of the 1750 Treaty of Madrid and the 1756 Guarani War. The atlas focuses on the southern part of the continent, in the watershed of the Paraná River, where the borders were most disputed. The territory in the atlas includes present-day Argentina and Paraguay ...
Letters, Pedagogical Teachings, and Sayings of Saint Anthony of Egypt
This manuscript opens with the 20 letters “to the sons who follow his [Anthony’s] gentle path…and prayers to keep us from Satan’s example.” The letters are for the most part short, many not exceeding five folios. According to an introductory note, they are addressed to both men and women. The work is in a bold but relaxed hand. Each letter or other significant section is set off in red. There are no contemporary marginal glosses, but comments and corrections (some in English) in pencil were made by ...
Different Views of the Major Cities in Persia
This map by the Nuremberg engraver and publisher Johann Baptist Homann (1663-1724) features 15 aerial views of cities in Persia (present-day Iran), Afghanistan, southern Russia, eastern Turkey, and the Caucasus region. Beneath each city portrait is a number or letter key indicating the most important points in each city, including city gates and walls, bodies of water, royal palaces, and markets. The cities depicted are (1) Astrakhan, Russia; (2) Derbent, Dagestan, Russia; (3) Tiflis, Georgia; (4) Kars, Turkey; (5) Erzurum, Turkey; (6) Baku, Azerbaijan; (7) Sultanieh (Zanjān Province), Iran; (8 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
European Turkey and Part of Asian Turkey, Divided into Large Provinces and Governorships
This mid-18th century French map shows the Balkan Peninsula, most of Anatolia (present-day Turkey), and the Mediterranean islands of Cyprus and Crete. The map bears the inscription “Sr. Janvier” (“Le Sieur Janvier”), a designation that refers to a cartographer active in Paris between 1746 and 1776 whose name was either Jean or Robert Janvier. The map offers a striking view of the European territories of the Ottoman Empire. Although past the peak of its power, the empire still controlled Albania, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia. The borders of ...
Geographical Map of Modern Northern Greece
The long subtitle of this Latin map of northern Greece explains that it depicts “the provinces of Macedonia, Thessaly, and Albania, in the last one of which the dwellings of the Montenegrin people located in the county of Zenta are indicated, together with the neighboring regions and islands, drawn by very recent and new auxiliary troops according to the rule of correct projections in use in the current war.” In 1770, when the map was published, these lands were all part of the Ottoman Empire. Zenta, or Zeta, refers to ...
Beauties of Yoshiwara
Seirō Bijin Awase (Beauties of Yoshiwara) is one of the finest multicolored woodblock printed books in Japan. It was published in 1770. The book depicts 166 courtesans of the Yoshiwara, the pleasure quarter in Edo (present-day Tokyo), with the names of the courtesans and the brothels where they worked, with a haiku (a short poem) in the background of each illustration. The work consists of five sections in five chapters. The original title slip on which the book title and the volume title were printed is attached to the center ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
History of Nadir Shah Afshar
Waqiat-i Nadiri (literally “Events of Nadir”) is a historical manuscript that chronicles the political and military career of Nādir Shāh, who was born in 1688 and rose to power in Iran during the 1720s; he became shah in 1736. He is known as a military warrior famous for his campaigns in Iran, Afghanistan, northern India, and Central Asia. He was assassinated by his officers in June 1747. The name of the author of this work, Mohammad Mahdi Munshi ibn Mohammad Nasir (also seen as Mahdī Khān Astarābādī), appears on page ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of French Guyana and of the Island of Cayenne
This map of French Guyana and the island of Cayenne is by Jacques Bellin (1703-72), a prolific cartographer attached to the French Marine Office. It reflects the careful mapping of bays, seas, and harbors that characterized 18th-century French naval cartography. In addition to the detailed information about the coast, Bellin’s map includes notes about the interior of this part of South America, much of which was still largely uncharted by the Europeans.
Map of the Persian Gulf
This map of the Persian Gulf is by the French cartographer Jacques-Nicolas Bellin (1703−72). Qatar is shown as Catura. Cities on both the Arabian and Persian sides of the gulf are indicated, and the map shows a river emptying into the gulf at the port of Julfar (present-day Ra's al-Khaymah, United Arab Emirates). The scale is in common leagues, and there are no latitudinal or longitudinal lines. Trained as a hydrographer, Bellin was attached to the French Marine Office and specialized in producing maritime maps showing coastlines. His ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Part I of the Map of Asia: Including Turkey, Arabia, Persia, India below the Ganges River, and Tartary, which Borders Persia and India
Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d’Anville (1697−1782) was an important French cartographer known for his scrupulous attention to detail and his commitment to accuracy. His method was to collect and compare as many sources of geographic information as possible and to correct and reissue maps as new information became available. His own personal collection of maps eventually totaled nearly 9,000 items. This map of 1751 by d’Anville shows the part of Asia from its border with Africa and Europe in the west to most of the Indian subcontinent ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Iron Brush of Ju Kungao, Two Juan
Ju Lühou (1723−86), style name Kungao, a native of Fengxian, Shanghai, was a seal artist. Seal carving was one of the four essential skills required of a scholar. Ju was also the author of a number of works, among which are Kungao tie bi (Iron brush by Kungao), in two juan, Kungao tie bi yu ji (Remaining works of Kungao), in five juan, and Yin wen kao lue (A brief study on inscriptions on seals), in one juan. This work is a manual about seals collected by Ju. On ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Haydn’s Symphony in C, Number 48 (Maria Theresia Symphony)
Presented here is a manuscript transcription of the Symphony Number 48, commonly known as the Maria Theresia Symphony, by Joseph Haydn (1732−1809). The original of the composition was not preserved in Haydn’s own hand, but this manuscript was created by the composer’s most important copyist, Joseph Elssler (died 1782). It dates from 1769 and is the oldest known manuscript of this composition. The date of the document proves that Haydn did not compose this work on the occasion of the visit of Empress Maria Theresia to the ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Map of the Old World, 1752
Didier Robert de Vaugondy (1723−86) was from a line of famous geographers and cartographers. He was the great-grandson of Nicolas Sanson (1600−1667) and the son of Gilles Robert de Vaugondy (1688−1766), with whom he created a universal atlas of 108 maps. This atlas, which was first published in 1757, included the world map of 1752 presented here. The efforts by the great explorers notwithstanding, the world as drawn by the cartographers of this period remained very incomplete, especially with regards to the American and Australian continents. In ...
Synopsis of the Art of Rhetoric
Synopsis technēs rhētorikēs (Synopsis of the art of rhetoric) by Alexandros Mavrokordatos (1636−1709) is a rhetorical “catechism" consisting of three books. The first book, Ti esti rhētorikē (What is rhetoric), is devoted to general questions relating to rhetoric. The second book, Peri diatheseōs (About arrangement), considers questions concerning the arrangement of texts. The third book, Peri euphradias (About grace in speech), is devoted to tropes and figures and is composed mostly as a glossary. Several pages in the manuscript have no relation to the main work. They include passages ...
Map of the Great Tartary. Established upon the Accounts of Several Travelers from Various Nations and Several Observations Made in that Country
The French cartographer Guillaume de l'Isle (1675−1726) was admitted into the French Académie Royale des Sciences when he was 27 years old and subsequently became the first person to receive the title Premier Géographe du Roi (principal geographer to the king). At the time de l’Isle was engaged in cartographic research, the prestige of a cartographer and the authority of his maps were gauged by the veracity of the cartographer’s sources, i.e., the explorers and travelers who reported details of their travels to geographers and ...
Commentary on the Little Canon
The Qānūnjah (also commonly known by its Persian name, the Qānūncha), a medical book by Mahmud ibn Muhammad al-Jaghmini, was written in the late-12th or early 13th century and, as the name indicates, was inspired by Avicenna's encyclopedic work, al-Qānūn fī al-ibb (The canon of medicine). Al-Jaghmini's work was itself the subject of great interest and in turn inspired numerous commentaries. The present commentary on the Qānūnjah was composed by ʻAli ibn Kamal al-Din al-Astarabadi during the reign of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II (ruled ...
Contributed by Wellcome Library
The Book of Instant Recovery
Kitāb burʼ al-sāʻa (The book of instant recovery) is a short medical tract by the famous Islamic scientist and physician Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi (died circa 925). The work consists of 24 short sections, which list the remedies for common afflictions. The work includes sections on al-udāʻ (headaches), wajʻ al-asnān (toothache), and al-iʻyā wa al-taʻab (exhaustion). The colophon lists the scribe’s name as Ghulam Muhammad Pursururi and the completion date for the manuscript as Dhu Qa’da 17, 1173 AH (July 1, 1760). Based on ...
Contributed by Wellcome Library
Rapid Healing
Sadr al-Din Ali al-Gilani al-Hindi (died April 10, 1609) was a renowned physician of the 16th century. His uncle was a physician and may have served as Sadr al-Din’s first teacher. Sadr al-Din completed his studies in Persia (likely in his region of birth, Gilan), and subsequently emigrated to India and the court of Akbar I (reigned 1556–1605). Presented here is an 18th century manuscript of Sadr al-Din’s al-Shifā’ al-ʻājil (Rapid healing). In the introduction, the author states that he composed this work in response to Razi ...
Contributed by Wellcome Library
The Little Canon (on Medicine)
The title of Mahmud ibn ʻUmar al-Jaghmini’s medical text, the Qānūncha, (or Qānūnja in Arabic), is a reference to Avicenna's seminal work on medicine, al-Qānūn (The canon). The suffix -cha is a diminutive in Persian, so the title of al-Jaghmini’s work can be translated as “The little canon.” The Qānūncha is written in ten chapters: 1, al-Umūr al-ṭabiʻiya (On natural philosophy); 2, al-Tashriḥ (On anatomy); 3, Aḥwāl badan al-insān (On the states of the human body); 4, al-Nabḍ (On the pulse); 5, Tadbir al-aṣḥḥā’ wa ‘alāj al-maraḍ ...
Contributed by Wellcome Library
Map of New Discoveries North of the South Sea, in Eastern Siberia and Kamchatka, and in Western New France
Carte des nouvelles découvertes au nord de la mer du sud tant à l'est de la Sibérie et du Kamtchatka qu'à l'ouest de la Nouvelle France (Map of new discoveries north of the South Sea, in Eastern Siberia and Kamchatka, and in western New France) was created in 1750 by the Philippe Buache (1700−73), son-in-law of the great French cartographer Guillaume de L’Isle (1675−1726), and Joseph-Nicolas de L’Isle (1688−1768), brother of Guillaume de L’Isle. The map is centered on the North ...
Catechism of the Diocese of Sens
Catéchisme du diocese de Sens (Catechism of the diocese of Sens) was printed in 1765 by order of Jean Joseph Languet, Archbishop of Sens (1677–1753), and used in the Diocese of Quebec until 1777, when the first edition of the Catéchisme à l'usage du diocèse de Québec (Catechism for use in the Diocese of Quebec) was published. In the absence of a printing press in New France, the availability of catechisms and other books was subject to the same hazards that affected the import of other goods from ...
The Western part of New France, or Canada, Done by Mr. Bellin, Royal Marine Engineer, in Order to Further Understanding of Present-Day Political Matters in America
This detailed map of the Great Lakes region of western “New France” by Jacques Nicolas Bellin was published by the Heirs of Homan in 1755, shortly before the outbreak of the Seven Years’ War, the conflict that resulted in the transfer of New France to British hands. Bellin was just one representative of a greater movement by French royal and military cartographers in the 18th century to map New France using the knowledge possessed by Native Americans. This map shows details not only of the Canadian waterways, but also of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Bay of Rio de Janeiro
Jacques Bellin (1703-72) was a prolific cartographer attached to the French Marine Office. His sea atlases reflected the careful mapping of bays, seas, and harbors that characterized 18th-century French naval cartography. In 1764, he published Le Petit Atlas Maritime, a work in five volumes, containing 581 maps. This map, from the second volume of the atlas, shows the Bay of Rio de Janeiro and its important natural harbor.
The Attack of Manilla, October 1762
The Seven Years' War (1756-63) was a world-wide conflict between Britain and France that also involved Spain as an ally of France. In 1762, the British sent Admiral William Draper, with an expeditionary force of some 2,000 European and Indian (Sepoy) soldiers, to attack Manila in the Spanish colony of the Philippines. The Spanish offered little opposition, and on October 2, 1762, the acting governor-general, Archbishop Manuel Antonio Rojo, surrendered the city. The British occupation lasted until 1764, when the Philippines reverted to Spanish control as part of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Bloody Massacre Perpetrated in King Street, Boston, on March 5th 1770 by a Party of the 29th Regiment
In Boston in the late 1760s, the stirrings of what became the American Revolution began as residents grew angry about the heavy taxation to which they were subjected. With the Townshend Acts of 1767, the British placed taxes on imported goods, including glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. To enforce the acts, they imposed a heavy military presence on the Massachusetts colonists that exacerbated tensions between the local populace and representatives of the crown. On March 5, 1770, British sentries guarding the Boston Customs House were surrounded by jeering Bostonians ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
View of Quebec, Capital of Canada
This illustrated map, from the Rochambeau Collection of the Library of Congress, presents a striking panorama of the City of Quebec during its last years as the capital of New France, the French colony of Canada. Drawn in 1755 by Royal Geographer Georges-Louis Le Rouge, the map identifies ten key sites throughout the city. Located on the St. Lawrence River, Quebec was an administrative, military, and commercial hub, as well as a religious center that was home to a cathedral, bishop’s palace, seminary, and Jesuit mission. Originally established in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Memoirs of the Revolution in Bengal, Anno Domini 1757
This work by William Watts (active 1737-58) is an account of the Battle of Plassey, which took place on June 23, 1757, near the village of Pâlāshir, some 150 kilometers north of Calcutta (present-day Kolkata). In this decisive encounter, the forces of the British East India Company, under Robert Clive, defeated Siraj Ud Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal. The British victory and the treaty with the Moghul Empire that ensued brought the province of Bengal and its great wealth under the control of the company, thereby establishing the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Finest of Adornments is an Exposition on the Jewels of Faith
This manuscript, written in 1754, is a commentary on an earlier work by a Turkish author. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts, located in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870-1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet, journalist, and museum director who assembled a collection of 284 manuscript volumes and 365 print volumes that reflect the development of Islamic civilization from its inception to the early 20th century. The manuscript is ...
Compendium on Using the Device Known as the Almucantar Quarter
This work, by a timekeeper at the Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo, is an important and comprehensive textbook on timekeeping. It introduces the useful device of dividing a quarter of a circle of projection into sections known as almucantars (muqanṭarāt). The work, comprising 100 folio pages, contains 30 chapters and a conclusion. The work was composed in 1440-1 (844 A.H.) and was copied in 1757 (1170 A.H.).
View of the Island and the City of Batavia Belonging to the Dutch, for the India Company
This hand-colored engraving of the Dutch colonial capital of Batavia (present-day Jakarta) was created by Jan Van Ryne in 1754. Van Ryne was born in the Netherlands, but spent most of his working life in London, where he specialized in producing engravings of scenes from the British and Dutch colonies. Located at the mouth of the Ciliwung River, Jakarta was the site of a settlement and port possibly going back as far as the fifth century A.D. In 1619, the Dutch captured and razed the existing city of Jayakerta ...
England Plate 2nd
This unsigned wash drawing is presumed to be the original by William Hogarth (1697-1764) for the etched plate, The Invasion, Plate 2, England. Hogarth was a major English pictorial satirist and social critic. He was also one of the first artists to draw subjects in a series. One of his best-known works is the series The Rake’s Progress, which shows the downfall of a young man of means who squanders his inheritance. The Invasion series, consisting of two plates, depicts the French plotting an invasion of England while the ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Imperial Comments Concerning Illustrations of the Cotton Industry
This book is comprised of paintings by Fang Guancheng, with illustrations and text facing each other. The text is the same as in Fang’s memorial (on the cotton industry); the illustrations are slightly different. The first volume contains eight pictures, from “Planting” to “Ginning;” the second volume contains another eight pictures, from “Fluffing the Cotton” to “Bleaching and Dyeing.”
Contributed by Library of Congress
Frederick the Great's "The Works of the Philosopher of Sans Souci." Volumes I-III
The three-volume edition of selected works by Frederick II, King of Prussia, printed in 1749−50, was the first product of Frederick’s private printing press at the palace of Sanssouci. The king entitled the edition, the contents of which were entirely in French, Oeuvres du Philosophe de Sans Souci (The works of the philosopher of Sans Souci). (Sanssouci was the name of the summer palace that Frederick had built just outside Berlin in 1745−47.) Volume one contains the burlesque heroic epic Le Palladion, which was written as a ...
Frederick the Great's "The Works of the Philosopher of Sans Souci." Volume I
The three-volume edition of selected works by Frederick II, King of Prussia, printed in 1749−50, was the first product of Frederick’s private printing press at the palace of Sanssouci. The king entitled the edition, the contents of which were entirely in French, Oeuvres du Philosophe de Sans Souci (The works of the philosopher of Sans Souci). (Sanssouci was the name of the summer palace that Frederick had built just outside Berlin in 1745−47.) Volume one contained the burlesque heroic epic Le Palladion, which was written as a ...
Memoirs of the House of Brandenburg
Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire de la maison de Brandebourg (Memoirs of the House of Brandenburg) is a history of the Brandenburg Dynasty by Frederick II, King of Prussia, himself a member of that dynasty. It was read at the Prussian Academy of Sciences in 1747−48 and published in three installments. Shown here is the first complete printing of the work, which dates from 1751. It was produced at Frederick’s private press at the palace of Sanssouci, near Berlin. It was considered as the fourth volume of ...
Map of the Kingdoms of Siam, Tunquin, Pegu, Ava Aracan
Jacques Bellin (1703-72) was a prolific cartographer attached to the French Marine Office. His sea atlases reflected the careful mapping of bays, seas, and harbors that characterized 18th-century French naval cartography. In 1764, he published Le Petit Atlas Maritime (Small maritime atlas), a work in five volumes, containing 581 maps. This map, from the third volume of the atlas, shows the kingdoms of southeast Asia as they appeared in the mid-18th century, including Ava and Pegu (present-day Burma), Siam (Thailand), Cambodia, and Tonkin (part of present-day Vietnam). Also shown are ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Remains of the Antiquities Existing in Puteoli, Cumae, and Baiae
Paolo Antonio Paoli, president of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy in Rome (1775–98), was a pioneering scholar and historian of the ancient civilizations of the region of Campania in southern Italy. He completed this fundamental work about the Greek and Roman settlements in the area of Pozzuoli, near Naples, in 1768. Avanzi delle antichità esistenti a Pozzuoli Cuma e Baia. Antiquitatum Puteolis Cumis Baiis existentium reliquiae (Remains of the antiquities existing in Puteoli, Cumae, and Baiae) features 69 plates with etched engravings, which are explained in an accompanying text that ...
Design Statement for the Royal Palace of Caserta to their Holy Royal Majesties Carlo, King of the Two Sicilies and of Jerusalem. Infante of Spain, Duke of Parma and of Piacenza, Great Hereditary Prince of Tuscany and of Queen Maria Amalia of Saxony
Luigi Vanvitelli (1700–73) was an Italian architect and engineer, the son of Flemish-born painter Caspar van Wittel. Vanvitelli trained in Rome under the architect Niccolo Salvi, and designed churches and other structures in Rome, and in Ancona, in east-central Italy. He received a commission in 1751 to build a new royal palace at Caserta, just north of Naples for Charles VII, the Bourbon king of Naples and Sicily. Construction of this magnificent building began in 1752. It was one of the largest buildings erected in Europe in the 18th ...
Commentary on "The Little Sparkles on the Science of Calculation"
The system of fara'i(shares) for inheritances is considered to be one of the most advanced innovations introduced by Muslim conquerors in Middle Eastern and North African societies. The exact calculation of shares of inheritance is a complex chapter in Islamic law, and it is not surprising that Muslim intellectuals and scientists developed a system of mathematical tools in order to master "the science of the shares" (‘ilm al-fara'i). An important contribution to this field can be found in the work of Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad Ibn ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Catching Cicadas
The term ukiyo-e, literally “pictures of the floating world,” refers to a genre of Japanese artwork that flourished in the Edo period (1600–1868). As the phrase “floating world” suggests, with its roots in the ephemeral worldview of Buddhism, ukiyo-e captured the fleeting dynamics of contemporary urban life. While being accessible and catering to “common” tastes, the artistic and technical details of these prints show remarkable sophistication, their subjects ranging from portraits of courtesans and actors to classical literature. This print is a page from an egoyomi (pictorial calendar), which ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Chinese Gentleman and Stableboy Exchanging a Light with their Pipes
The term ukiyo-e, literally “pictures of the floating world,” refers to a genre of Japanese artwork that flourished in the Edo period (1600–1868). As the phrase “floating world” suggests, with its roots in the ephemeral worldview of Buddhism, ukiyo-e captured the fleeting dynamics of contemporary urban life. While being accessible and catering to “common” tastes, the artistic and technical details of these prints show remarkable sophistication, their subjects ranging from portraits of courtesans and actors to classical literature. Suzuki Harunobu (circa 1725–70) was a central figure in developing ...
Contributed by Library of Congress