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Region Between Amazon River and São Paulo
This pen-and-ink watercolor map shows the course of the Amazon River, including its minor tributaries and the towns located along its banks. Although much of the area along the Amazon was controlled by indigenous people through the early colonial period, settlers established towns along the riverbanks to support trade and exploration into Brazil’s interior. The largest of these towns was Belem, which appears on the map.
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
The Dutch Republic, Enlarged and Edited: Produced with the Care and Work of Matthaeus Seutter
This map of the United Provinces of the Netherlands was engraved by Matthaeus Seutter (1678-1757), an engraver and publisher from Augsburg, Germany. Seutter studied printing in Nuremburg and in Augsburg, as an apprentice to Jeremias Wolff, before setting up his own printing house in 1710. Seutter generally enlarged and engraved the work of others but did very little drawing of original maps. This map was printed by Tobias Conrad Lotter (1717-77), Seutter’s son-in-law, who took over the business after Seutter’s death.
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
The Historical Theater in the Year 400 AD, in Which Both Romans and Barbarians Resided Side by Side in the Eastern Part of the Roman Empire
This map in Latin by the great French mapmaker Guillaume de L’Isle (1675–1726) shows the eastern parts of the Roman Empire circa 400 AD and the territory of adjacent tribes and kingdoms not under Rome’s control. The latter include the Sarmatians and the Scythians, peoples that the Romans regarded as barbarians. Arabia is shown divided into its three traditional divisions, Arabia Petrea, Arabia Felix, and Arabia Deserta. Qatar is indicated as “Catarei.” The eastern part of the map shows the empire of Alexander the Great, including Persia ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Turkey in Europe: According to New Observations by the Gentlemen at the Royal Science Academy
Pieter van der Aa (1659−1733) was a Dutch publisher and bookseller, based in Leiden, who specialized in reissuing maps acquired from earlier mapmakers. Van der Aa’s major work was the elaborate Galerie Agréable du Monde (The pleasurable gallery of the world), a compendium of some 3,000 maps in 66 parts, bound in 27 volumes, and completed in 1729. Presented here is van der Aa’s map of the European provinces of the Ottoman Empire, which in the early 18th century included present-day Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria ...
Contributed by
National and University Library “St Kliment Ohridski” – Skopje
Girl's Day
The Japanese art of Ukiyo-e (“Pictures of the floating [or sorrowful] world”) developed in the city of Edo (now Tokyo) during the Tokugawa or Edo Period (1600-1868), a relatively peaceful era during which the Tokugawa shoguns ruled Japan and made Edo the seat of power. The Ukiyo-e tradition of woodblock printing and painting continued into the 20th century. This print is one sheet of an illustrated book from between 1716 and 1736. It shows three richly dressed women or girls eating and drinking, probably celebrating Hina Matsuri (Girl's day ...
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Library of Congress
California or New Carolina: Place of Apostolic Works of Society of Jesus at the Septentrional America
Nicholas de Fer (1646-1720) was a French cartographer and publisher of atlases. This hand-colored map by de Fer from 1720 is actually a pirated copy of a manuscript map of 1696 by Father Eusebio Kino (1645-1711). Kino was an Italian-born Jesuit priest who was trained as a cartographer. Best known for his work in establishing missions and in defending the rights of Indians, he also made important geographic discoveries. In the 1680s and 1690s he explored Pimería Alta in present-day southern Arizona and northern Mexico. His explorations of Baja California ...
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Library of Congress
Brazil: According to New Surveys by Messrs. of the Royal Academy of Sciences, etc.
As seen in this map, much of Brazil was still uncharted territory in the early 18th century. The annotations about the rivers, native peoples, and mines of the interior provide limited information. The map was printed in Leiden by Pieter van der Aa (1659-1733), a Dutch publisher and bookseller who specialized in reissuing maps acquired from earlier mapmakers. Van der Aa’s major work was the elaborate Galerie Agréable du Monde (The pleasurable gallery of the world), a compendium of some 3,000 plates in 66 parts, bound in 27 ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
The Kingdom of France
This map of the Kingdom of France is attributed to Alexis-Hubert Jaillot and Guillaume Sanson, son of Nicolas Sanson, who is widely considered to have been the father of French cartography. Although dated 1724, in the monarchy of Louis XV, the map appears to be one of the last known reprints of Jaillot’s L’Atlas français (French atlas) of 1690, published more than two decades after the cartographer’s death. It depicts the provinces and major cities of France under the reign of Louis XIV, as well as the ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Fundamentals and Rules by Imam al-Nawawi
This short manuscript, Usul wa Dawabit lil-Imam al-Nawawi (Fundamentals and rules by Imam al-Nawawi), by the leading Shafi’i jurist known as al-Nawawi (1233−77), outlines the principles to be applied and the procedures to be used in personal conduct and ritual. The tract is divided into several parts. The first defines the limits of human action and argues against the “exaggerations” of the Mu’tazalite school of philosophy and its deviance from text-based orthodoxy. The work then covers rules for everyday living, including business transactions, marriage contracts, and gender ...
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National Library and Archives of Egypt
Map of Turkey, Arabia and Persia
John Senex (circa 1678-1740) was an English surveyor, engraver, bookseller, and publisher of maps and atlases. He served as geographer to Queen Anne and was elected to the Royal Society in 1728. Among his many works was A New General Atlas: containing a geographical and historical account of all the empires, kingdoms, and other dominions of the world, published in 1721. This map of the Middle East is one of 34 maps in the atlas. Senex borrowed liberally from the great French mapmaker Guillaume de L’Isle, often simply translating ...
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Library of Congress
The History of Genghizcan the Great, First Emperor of the Antient Moguls and Tartars
This early Western history of Genghis Khan, the 13th-century Mongol Emperor who established the world’s largest contiguous empire, is by François Pétis (1622-95), an interpreter of Arabic and Turkish at the French court. In a long and distinguished career, Pétis translated a history of France into Turkish, compiled a French-Turkish dictionary, and created a catalog of the Turkish and Persian manuscripts owned by the king of France. François Pétis de la Croix (1653-1713), the son of François Pétis, took over the position of interpreter from his father in 1695 ...
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Library of Congress
This Chart was Compiled on the Siberian Expedition under the Command of Navy Captain Bering from Tobolsk to the Chukotkan Corner
Vitus Jonassen Bering (1681–1741) was born in Denmark but spent most of his adult life in the Russian navy. In 1725, Tsar Peter I (Peter the Great) instructed Bering to undertake an expedition to find the point at which Siberia connected to America. In what became known as the First Kamchatka Expedition (1725–30), Bering traveled overland from St. Petersburg via Tobolsk to the Kamchatka Peninsula, where he had a ship, the Saint Gabriel, constructed. In 1728 he sailed north along the coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula. In August ...
Contributed by
National Library of Sweden
Africa, Corrected from the Observations of the Royal Society of London and Paris
John Senex (circa 1678-1740) was an English surveyor, engraver, bookseller, and publisher of maps and atlases. He served as geographer to Queen Anne (1665-1714), the first sovereign (from 1707 to 1714) of the United Kingdom, formed by the 1707 union of England and Scotland. Senex was elected to the Royal Society in 1728. He borrowed liberally from other mapmakers, notably the great French cartographer Guillaume de L’Isle. This early-18th century map of Africa shows how little European geographers knew at the time about the interior of the continent. The ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Map of Ancient Arabia
This map of the Arabian Peninsula, published in 1720, shows Arabia Felix, Arabia Deserta, and Arabia Petraea. Other regions included are Palestine, Mesopotamia, Chaldea, Persia, Aegyptus, and Aethiopia. A large number of towns are shown. The title cartouche includes nine vignette coins. The tribal and town names on the map are those used by Ptolemy. Some are used more than once, with variations. Thus “Indicara,” “Iacara,” “Ichara,” and “Aphana” all could indicate the same place: the spot where Alexander the Great intended to build a capital on an island in ...
Contributed by
Qatar National Library
Map of Mexico City
Dated 1720, this map was produced by the government of Mexico City in order to improve urban sanitation through the collection of garbage. It shows the central part of the city in detail, including names of streets, plazas, hospitals, hospices, columns, small squares, arches, and other places.
Contributed by
Center for the Study of the History of Mexico CARSO
Travels of Francois Coreal to the West Indies, Containing the Most Remarkable Things He has Seen on His Voyage from 1666 to 1697
This three-volume work by a Spanish author of uncertain identity, Francisco (François) Coreal, was published in Amsterdam in 1722. It purports to be the French translation of a first-hand account, in Spanish, of multiple voyages to Brazil and Spanish America undertaken by Coreal over a span of 30 years, from 1666-97. Coreal's supposed voyages cover about half of the three volumes. The rest of the work is comprised of a heterogeneous set of texts taken from the travelogues of Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) and several of his contemporaries. Many ...
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Library of Congress
Complaint by Some Members of the Dutch Reformed Church, Living at Raritan, etc in [...] New Jersey [...] about the Behavior [...] of Dominie Theodorus Jacobus Frilinghuisen and his Church Council
In 1664, the Dutch colony of New Netherland ceased to exist when Governor Peter Stuyvesant was forced to surrender New Amsterdam--soon to be renamed New York--to an English fleet. Many residents of what became the British colonies of New York and New Jersey continued to speak Dutch and to worship in churches where services were conducted in Dutch. This pamphlet, published in New York in 1725, concerns a dispute within a Dutch Reformed congregation in Raritan, "in the Province of New Jersey, in North America, under the Crown of Great ...
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National Library of the Netherlands
Pictorial Representation of the Illustrious City of Venice Dedicated to the Reign of the Most Serene Dominion of Venice
Lodovico Ughi’s 1729 map of Venice is regarded as a landmark in the cartographic history of the city. For centuries, Venetian mapmakers had been copying older maps without significantly altering the appearance of the city. Ughi’s map was the first to be based on accurate field surveys and real measurements. Little is known about Ughi, the cartographer. The publisher of the map, Giuseppe Baroni, was one of six Venetian printmakers and merchants who formed, in 1718, a guild of engravers that attempted to regulate the quality of copper ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
The Book of the Explanation of the Excursion in the Science of Calculus
This 18th-century manuscript offers a clear example of the continued use in the Islamic world of the scientific commentary well after the end of Middle Ages, the period most associated with Arabic scientific achievement and this literary form. In this case, the treatise commented upon is the Nuzhat al-nuẓẓār fī ‘ilm al-ghubār (The excursion of the observer in the science of numerals), which was itself an abridgment by Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Farāḍī ibn al-Hā'im (around 1356-1412) of his own mathematical treatise entitled Murshid al-ṭālib ilā asnā' al-maṭālib (A student ...
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Library of Congress
The Book of the Table Regarding the Knowledge of the Time and the Heavens for the Calculation of the Beginning of the Islamic and Christian Months
Because of the religious obligation to perform canonical prayers at set times of the day and the sanctity attributed to particular times of the year, such as the month of Ramaḍān, Muslim scientists have studied questions relating to the calendar and the reckoning of time almost since the beginning of Islam. The present manuscript presents tables for the comparison of the Hijrī and Christian years. Little is known of the author of these tables, al-Ḥusayn ibn Zayd ibn ‘Alī ibn Jaḥḥāf, beyond a marginal note, which states that Ibn Jaḥḥāf ...
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Library of Congress
Luxembourg, a Famous Fortress in the Duchy of the Same Name in the Netherlands
The city of Luxembourg, capital of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is strategically located on a plateau above two gorges formed by the Alzette and Petrusse rivers. Already in the 4th century, it was the site of a Roman fort. In 963, Siegfried, Count of Ardennes and founder of the state of Luxembourg, built a castle on the same location. The walled town grew up around the castle, and the fortifications were strengthened over the course of centuries. This map, by Mattheus Seuter (1678-1756), shows both the fortifications and, in ...
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Library of Congress