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Type of Item
Brief Principles of the Arabic Language
Philippo Guadagnoli (1596–1656) was a Franciscan priest and Italian orientalist. A native of Magliano in the province of Tuscany, he joined the Franciscan order in 1612 and devoted himself to studying Arabic and other languages of the Middle East. He served as professor of Arabic and Aramaic at Università “La Sapienza” in Rome. His writings include an Arabic translation of the Bible (said to have taken him 27 years to complete) and a polemical work entitled Apologia pro Religione Christiana (In defense of the Christian religion), published in Rome ...
Reprint Edition of the General Introduction to Calendrical Astronomy
This work originally was written by Wang Yingming (died 1614) and was thought to be the first work of a Chinese scholar influenced by Western learning, as Wang was greatly influenced by Li Zhizao (1565–1630), the official and scholar who undertook the translation of several works by European Jesuit missionaries to China. The manuscript was completed in 1612. It was first published by Wang’s son Wang Yang in 1639. Shown here is a reprinted edition, published in 1646 by Jiguge, the largest publishing house established in Changshu in ...
Zemaitija Castle Court Year Book for 1646–47
At the height of its power in the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ruled over the territory of present-day Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine, and parts of Estonia, Moldova, Poland, and Russia. In the Union of Lublin of 1569, the Grand Duchy and the Kingdom of Poland merged to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The commonwealth had a highly developed legal and administrative system, based on local land courts that decided civil cases involving the gentry and castle courts that dealt with other local matters, including criminal cases. Courts ...
Arithmetic Conventions for Conversion Between Roman [i.e. Ottoman] and Egyptian Measurement
This treatise, written on ten folio pages for an Ottoman official and patron of books known as Ismā‘īl Afandī, is on the inter-conversion of units of measurement. It is a useful guide for merchants and others engaged in the measurement of quantities. It provides instructions for converting arṭāl (plural of raṭl) into uqaq (plural of auqiya), and back; darāhim (plural of dirham) into mathāqīl (plural of mithqāl) and back; and converting the number of Ottoman (referred to as Roman, rūmī) loading bags into the number of Egyptian loading bags ...
Geographic Chart of the Kingdom of Chile
This map by the Chilean Jesuit priest Alonso de Ovalle (1601–51) appears in his book Histórica Relación del Reyno de Chile (Historical narration about the kingdom of Chile), considered the first history of the country. The map is the result of a major descriptive effort begun during Ovalle’s first trip to Europe, as “Procurator” of Chile, in 1641. At the time, the Jesuits needed support for their missionary work in the south of Chile, and Ovalle was commissioned to recruit help and raise money. Answering the need for ...
Journal of New Netherland 1647. Written in the Years 1641, 1642, 1643, 1644, 1645, and 1646
Willem Kieft (1597–1647) was a Dutch merchant who was appointed by the West India Company as director-general of New Netherland in 1638. Kieft instituted a harsh policy toward the Indians of the colony, whom he attempted to tax and drive from their land. In 1643, a contingent of soldiers under Kieft attacked a Raritan village on Staten Island in a dispute over pigs allegedly stolen from a Dutch farm. This led to the bloody, two-year conflict known as Kieft’s war, which raged in parts of what is now ...
Prosperity of the West India Company
This pamphlet of 1642 contains a number of proposals to increase the profits of the Dutch West India Company for the benefit of its shareholders. The company was established in 1621 under a charter granted by the States-General, the governing body of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. Similar to the Dutch East India Company, which was founded in 1602 to promote trade with Asia, the West India Company was granted a 24-year monopoly on all trade by Dutch merchants and inhabitants in a region that included the Americas and ...
Illustrated Poem of Li Sao
This work is an illustrated edition of the Qing dynasty of the poem Li sao (Departing sorrow) by Qu Yuan, who lived circa 343-277 BCE. It was illustrated by Xiao Yuncong (1596-1673), a famed early Qing painter, and was engraved by Tang Yongxian. According to Wang Zhongmin in A descriptive catalog of rare Chinese books in the Library of Congress (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1957) Pan Zuyin (1830-90), a late Qing man of letters and linguist and Qing official, reissued the work and rebound it in four volumes, but ...
Description of Malta
Della descrittione di Malta (Description of Malta) was published during the first era of printing on the island of Malta. At the time, Malta was ruled by a religious order, the Order of the Hospital (also known as the Knights of Malta), which held the island as a fief from the Holy Roman Emperor. Because the order was exempt from the authority of the local bishop, there were often conflicts about ecclesiastical jurisdiction. To adjudicate between the order and the bishop, in 1561 the pope ordered a resident inquisitor to ...