91 results in English
Java and Australia
This manuscript map of Java and the tip of northern Australia is a copy of an earlier work by the Malaysian-Portuguese cartographer Emanuel Godinho de Eredia (1563-1623). In the 16th century, Portugal sent several expeditions to explore the islands south of Malaysia; it is possible that they gained some knowledge about the geography of Australia from these missions. Some scholars have speculated that the Malays had a knowledge of Australia, which Eredia somehow absorbed. The first documented European sighting of Australia was by the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon, in 1606.
El melopeo y maestro: Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Music
Pedro (Pietro) Cerone (1566–1625) was born in Bergamo, Italy. After training as a musician, singer, and priest in Italy, he travelled to Spain as a pilgrim to Santiago de Compostela in about 1593. A year later, mired in poverty and living in Madrid, he came under the protection of Santiago Gratii (Caballero de Gracia), in whose music academy he was able to work. Thanks probably to Caballero de Gracia, he was able to serve in the Royal Chapel of Phillip II and later that of Philip III. Around 1603 ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Fabrica, or Dictionary of Vernacular Arabic and Italian Language
Dominicus Germanus de Silesia (1588–1670) was a German priest and missionary. Born in Schurgast (present-day Skorogoszcz, Poland), he entered the Franciscan order in 1624 and devoted himself to learning Arabic, Persian, and Turkish. In 1630 he went to Palestine as a pastor, where he continued with his language studies. In 1635 he returned to Rome where he joined the Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda de Fide (Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith). In 1636 he became a teacher at the Mission of San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, and ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
New Image of Brazil
This map of Brazil is the work of Willem Blaeu (1571-1638), the founder of a famous Dutch mapmaking dynasty. Blaeu studied astronomy, mathematics, and globe-making with the Danish scholar Tycho Brahe before establishing his mapmaking studio in Amsterdam. In 1633, he was appointed mapmaker of the Dutch East India Company. In 1635, together with his sons Joan and Cornelis, Blaeu published the Atlas Novus (New atlas), an 11-volume work consisting of 594 maps.
Paraguay, or the Province of the Rio de la Plata, with the Adjacent Regions Tucamen and Santa Cruz de la Sierra
This map of Paraguay and the Rio de la Plata basin is the work of Willem Blaeu (1571-1638), the founder of a famous Dutch mapmaking dynasty. Blaeu studied astronomy, mathematics, and globe-making with the Danish scholar Tycho Brahe before establishing his mapmaking studio in Amsterdam. In 1633, he was appointed mapmaker of the Dutch East India Company. In 1635, together with his sons Joan and Cornelis, Blaeu published the Atlas Novus (New atlas), an 11-volume work consisting of 594 maps.
A Most Accurate Picture of Brazil
This early map showing Bahia state in Brazil is the work of Henricus Hondius (died 1638), a member of a famous Dutch mapmaking family. His father, Jodocus Hondius (1563-1612), acquired the plates for Gerard Mercator’s Atlas in 1604, and in 1606 published a new edition of this work. Henricus and his brother-in-law, Jan Jannson (died 1664), published the Novus Atlas (New atlas) in 1637. Dutch maps of the 16th century were marked by illustrated inserts, as seen on this map, and were generally the work of mapmaking families.
The Perfect Pearl of Wonders and the Precious Pearl of Extraordinary Things
Kharīdat al-ʻajā’ib wa farīdat al-gharā’ib (The perfect pearl of wonders and the precious pearl of extraordinary things) by Sirāj al-Dīn Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar Ibn al-Wardī (died 1457) is a compilation of texts on geography, natural history, and other subjects. The geographical texts constitute the bulk of the work. They list and describe different places, with emphasis on the Middle East and North Africa, although sections on China and Europe also are included. The geographical information presented varies greatly in quality, even for those regions that are central to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bill of Sale from Henry Walker to William Shakespeare, 1613
This deed of bargain and sale, dated March 10, 1613, records William Shakespeare's purchase of a gatehouse in the Blackfriars district of London, from Henry Walker, citizen and minstrel of London. Shakespeare paid £80 of the £140 selling price up front, and on the day after the conveyance he mortgaged the remaining £60 back to Walker. William Johnson, citizen and vintner of London, and John Jackson and John Heminge, gentlemen, acted as trustees in Shakespeare's interest. They also were in charge of the sale of the property following ...
The First Folio of Shakespeare
Printed in the large “folio” size, the First Folio is the first collected edition of the plays of William Shakespeare. It was put together after his death in 1616 by two fellow actors, John Heminge and Henry Condell, and was published in 1623. The book contains the complete text of 36 of Shakespeare’s plays. The principal publishers were Edward Blount (1565–1632), a London bookseller and publisher, and Isaac Jaggard (died 1627), son of William Jaggard (circa 1568–1623), a printer and publisher long associated with Shakespeare, who died ...
The Administrative Maps of the Ming Dynasty (Incomplete Copy)
The author of this work was Chen Zushou (died 1637), a late-Ming literary author. A native of Yanling (present-day Changzhou, Jiangsu Province), Chen Zushou received his jin shi degree in 1634 and became, in the following year, an official at the Bureau of Operations, one of the four bureaus in the Ministry of War. In 1636, while working at the ministry, he wrote this book, based on a large number of earlier works and contemporary local records, including maps. The original edition, very rich in content, had three juan in ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Two of the Master Jāmī’s Works on Prosody; Anonymous Treatise on Astronomy
This Persian manuscript dated 1025 AH (1616) contains two works on prosody by Nūr al-Dīn ‘Abd al-Rahmān Jāmī (1414–92), as well as an incomplete, anonymous work on astronomy. Jāmī was a great poet, scholar, and mystic who lived most of his life in Herat, present-day Afghanistan. The 69 leaves of the manuscript are on a variety of papers: thin, pink-colored laid paper (folios 1a−31b); cream-colored laid paper (folios 32a−35b); pink-colored laid paper (folios 36a−37b); cream-color laid paper (folios 38a−40b); light-green-colored laid paper (folios 41a−45b ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Selections from the Shāhnāmeh of the Learned Abū al-Qāsim Firdawsi, May he be Blessed and May his Sins be Pardoned
This manuscript from the early 17th century contains selections from the Shāhnāmeh (Book of kings), the epic-historical work of Persian literature composed at the end of the tenth century by the poet Abū al-Qāsim Firdawsī (940–1020). This beloved epic of pre-Islamic Persia (present-day Iran) was widely read in Persia, Afghanistan, and Central Asia. The manuscript contains three half-page paintings showing different battles. The text is preceded by an introduction and table of contents (folios 1b−6b) and is written in black ink in a nastaʻliq script. The pages are ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tsukishima
Tsukishima is a Kōwaka-mai (dance drama) ballad that dates from the Muromachi period (1336−1573). It is also called Hyōgo or Hyōgo tsukishima. The literal meaning of “tsukishima” is "making an island," and the ballad is based on an episode in which Taira no Kiyomori (1118−81), a general and noble, built a new port in Fukuhara, Hyōgo. The story starts with Kiyomori's decision to build the port. To ensure the success of the construction, 30 people are captured in order to be made human sacrifices to the gods ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Military Epic about the Life of Yoshitsune
Gikei ki tells a fictional story based on the life of Minamoto Yoshitsune, a famous military commander of the 12th century. In the book, Yoshitsune’s elder brother Minamoto Yoritomo, the first shogun in the history of Japan, becomes suspicious of his younger brother’s ambition after his glorious victories in a series of battles. By order of Yoritomo, Yoshitsune is expelled from Kyoto, hounded, and finally forced to commit suicide. The tragic story of Yoshitsune has long been popular in Japan and was often described in novels and dramas ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Diagrams and Explanations of the Wonderful Machines of the Far West, in Three Juan
Yuan xi qi qi tu shuo lu zui (Diagrams and explanations of the wonderful machines of the Far West), often abridged as Qi qi tu shuo (Illustrations and explanations of wonderful machines), was the first book produced in China to introduce Western mechanical engineering. Written in a systematic manner, it is the work of Deng Yuhan, the Chinese name of Johann Schreck (also called Johannes Terentius, 1576−1630), a German-born Jesuit, and Wang Zheng (1571–1644). The book is in three juan. Juan one contains an introduction to the nature ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Hydraulic Machinery of the West, in Six Juan
Tai xi shui fa (Hydraulic machinery of the West) is the first work on Western agricultural hydraulic technology introduced to China. It gathers the essence of European classical hydraulic engineering. The author was Xiong Sanba (Sabatino de Ursis, 1575–1620), an Italian Jesuit missionary, who dictated the texts, which were translated into Chinese by Xu Guangqi (1562−1633) and edited by Li Zhizao (1565−1630). This copy, first published in 1612, has three prefaces at the beginning of the work, written by four Ming authors, one jointly by Cao Zibian ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Report of What Happened to the Royal Navy of the Philippines, and the Victory Achieved Against the Dutch, Who Had Besieged the City of Manila for Six Months
Relacion del svceso dela armada real de Philipinas, y vitoria que alcanço delos Olandeʃes, que tuuieron ʃitiada ʃeys meʃes ala Ciudad de Manila se publicó (Report of what happened to the royal navy of the Philippines, and the victory achieved against the Dutch, who had besieged the city of Manila for six months) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1619. The book deals with the events of October 1616−April 1617, when a fleet of Dutch ships blockaded the entrance to Manila Bay, before being driven off by a Spanish ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
The Fortunate Victory of Spain Against Forty Enemy Ships that Were on the Shore and Coast of the City of Valencia on April 4
Vitoria felicissima de Eʃpaña contra quarenta nauios de enemigos que andavan en la playa y Coʃta de la ciudad de Valencia a quatro de Abril (The fortunate victory of Spain against forty enemy ships that were on the shore and coast of the city of Valencia on April 4) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1618. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Report of All that Has Happened in Rome, Naples, Venice, Genoa, Sicily, France, Germany, England, and Malta
Relacion de avisos de todo lo qve ha svcedido en Roma, Napoles, Venecia, Genova, Sicilia, Francia, Alemania, Inglaterra, y Malta (Report of all that has happened in Rome, Naples, Venice, Genoa, Sicily, France, Germany, England, and Malta) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1618. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City. This book is part of a collection of 39 first editions in ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Synodical Constitutions of the Archdiocese of Ciudad de los Reyes in Peru
Constitvciones sinodales del Arçobispado de los Reyes en el Pirv (Synodical constitutions of the archdiocese of Ciudad de los Reyes in Peru) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1614. Lima was founded in 1535 by the Spanish explorer and conquistador Francisco Pizarro, and was originally called Ciudad de los Reyes (City of Kings). The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City. This book is ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
The Art of the Aymara Language: A Compendium of Phrases in the Same Language and Their Equivalent Meanings in Spanish
Arte de la lengua aymara, con vna silva de phraʃes de la miʃma lengua, y ʃu declaración en romance (The art of the Aymara language: A compendium of phrases in the same language and their equivalent meanings in Spanish) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1612. The book is by Ludovico Bertonio (1555−1628), an Italian Jesuit missionary who labored among the Aymara Indians of southern Peru and Bolivia, and who wrote several important works about the Aymara language. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
The Art of the Quechua Language
Arte de la lengva qvichva (The art of the Quechua language) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1619. The book is by Diego de Torres Rubio (1547−1638), a Spanish-born Jesuit priest who came to Peru in 1579, where he devoted himself to the study of Indian languages, especially Aymara and Quechua. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City. This book is part ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Constitutions of the Province of San Antonio de los Charcas Issued and Received in the Provincial Chapter Celebrated in the Convent of Saint Francis of the City of La Paz
Constitvciones de la provincia de Sant Antonio de los Charcas hechas y recebidas en el capitulo prouincial celebrado en el Conuento de San Francisco dela Ciudad dela Paz (Constitutions of the province of San Antonio de los Charcas issued and received in the Provincial Chapter celebrated in the Convent of Saint Francis of the city of La Paz) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1616. San Antonio de los Charcas was a province of the Viceroyalty of Peru, located in what is now Bolivia. The provincial capital was La Paz ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Legal Allegation and Decision to Examine and Approve the Miracles on Record of the Very Pious Man Father Francis Solano, Member of the Seraphic Franciscan Order
Allegatio ivris, et consilium pro examinandis et approbandis miraculis religio fissimi viri Francisci Solano Seraphici Franciscani ordinis alumni (Legal allegation and decision to examine and approve the miracles on record of the very pious man Father Francis Solano, member of the Seraphic Franciscan Order) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1612. Saint Francis Solano (1549−1610) was a Spanish-born Franciscan friar who came to South America in 1589, where he worked for 20 years as a missionary among the Indians of northwestern Argentina and Paraguay. He was canonized in 1726 ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Truthful Report of a Letter Sent by Father Prior of the Order of Santo Domingo of the City of Ubeda to the Abbot of San Salvador of Granada
Relacion verdadera de vna carta qve embio el padre prior dela orden de ʃanto Domingo, de la ciudad de Vbeda, al Abad mayor de ʃan Saluador dela Ciudad de Granada (Truthful report of a letter sent by Father Prior of the order of Santo Domingo of the city of Ubeda to the abbot of San Salvador of Granada) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1617. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Decree of Our Most Holy Father Pope Paul V in Favor of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God
Decreto de Nvestro Sanctissimo Padre el Papa Pavlo V. en favor dela Immacvlada Concepción dela Sanctiʃsima Virgen Madre de Dios y Señora Nueʃtra (Decree of our most holy father Pope Paul V in favor of the Immaculate Conception of the blessed Virgin Mary, mother of God) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1618. This one-page decree concerns the Immaculate Conception, the doctrine promulgated by the Roman Catholic Church, which holds that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was born without sin. The first printing press in South America was established in ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Decree of Francisco de Borja, Prince of Esquilache, Viceroy of Peru, 1617
Don Francisco de Boria Principe de Esqvilache Conde de Mayalde Gentilhombre dela Camara del Rey Nueʃtro ʃeñor ʃu Vírrey lugar teníente, Gouernador, y Capitan General (Francisco de Borja, prince of Esquilache, count of Mayalde, gentleman of the Our Lord’s royal chamber, his lieutenant viceroy, governor, and captain general) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1617. It is a one-page decree by Francisco de Borja y Aragón, prince of Esquilache (1582−1658), a Spanish nobleman and official who was viceroy of Peru in 1615−21. The first printing press in ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Literary Program, Which Dr. Ivan de Soto Rector of the Royal College of Lima Ordered to be Published in [Preparation for the] Coming of His Excellency Sir Francisco de Borja
Ivsta literaria qve mando pvblicar el doctor Ivan de Soto rector dela real Vniversidad de Lima enla venida del Excelentissimo Señor Don Francisco de Boria (Literary Program, which Dr. Ivan de Soto rector of the Royal College of Lima ordered to be published in [preparation for the] coming of his excellency Sir Francisco de Borja) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1615. This one-page document is a program prepared in anticipation of the arrival in Lima of Francisco de Borja y Aragón, prince of Esquilache, the Spanish nobleman and official ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Constitutions of the Province of the Twelve Apostles of Peru, 1617
Constitvciones dela provincia delos Doze Apostoles del Pirv (Constitutions of the province of the Twelve Apostles of Peru) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1617. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City. This book is part of a collection of 39 first editions in the National Library of Peru, produced at the press between 1584 and 1619. The collection was inscribed on the ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Ordinances Issued by the Marquis of Cañete, Viceroy of the Kingdom of Peru, as a Remedy for the Excesses that the Judges of the Natives Commit When They Deal and Bargain with the Indians and the Damages as well as the Grievances that the Indians Endure
Ordenanzas qve el Señor Marqves de Cañete Visorey de eʃtos reynos del Piru mando hazer (Ordinances issued by the Marquis of Cañete, viceroy of the Kingdom of Peru) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1614. As indicated by the title, these ordinances were an attempt by the viceroy to crack down on the oppression of the indigenous population at the hands of the Spanish colonizers. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Catechism in the Spanish Language and Quechua: Ordered by Authority of the Provincial Council of Lima in the Year 1583
Catecismo en la lengva Española y qvichva: Ordenado por auεtoridad del Concilio Prouincial de Lima el año de 1583 (Catechism in the Spanish language and Quechua: Ordered by authority of the provincial council of Lima in the year 1583) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1613. The council had recommended the preparation of pedagogical materials, including catechisms, in Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara to instruct the indigenous people of Peru in the Christian faith. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606 ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Labyrinth of Terrestrial and Naval Commerce, in Which the Types of Merchandise and Forms of Contracting on the Land and Sea are Briefly and Concisely Treated, in a Useful and Productive Manner for Merchants
Labyrintho de comercio terrestre y naval (Labyrinth of terrestrial and naval commerce) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1617. Written by Juan de Hevia Bolaños (1570−circa 1623), a legal scholar who was born in Spain but lived much of his life in Lima, the book is compendium of the laws and customs regulating commerce in different countries of the world. Intended for practical use by mariners and merchants, it was the first such book published in the Western hemisphere. The first printing press in South America was established in ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Art and Vocabulary in the Common Language of Peru Called Quechua and in the Spanish Language: The Most Extensive and Elegant as of the Present
Arte, y vocabvlario enla lengva general del Perv llamada Quichua, y en la lengua Eʃpañola. El mas copioso y elegante, que haʃta agora ʃe ha impreʃʃo (Art and vocabulary in the common language of Peru called Quechua and in the Spanish Language: The most extensive and elegant as of the present) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1614. The book provides an extensive overview of Quechua, the predominant language spoken by the Inca people, with an introduction covering pronunciation and grammar, followed by a dictionary of Quechua words with their ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Book of the Life and Miracles of our Lord Jesus Christ in Two Languages, Aymara and Romance, Translated from the Book Compiled by Alonso de Villegas
Libro dela vida y milagros de Nvestro Señor Ieʃu Chriʃto en dos lenguas, aymara, y romance, traducido de el que recopilo el licenciado Alonso de Villegas (Book of the life and miracles of our Lord Jesus Christ in two languages, Aymara and Romance [i.e., Spanish], translated from the book compiled by Alonso de Villegas) was published in Juli, Peru, in 1612. The book is an extended life of Christ, in 51 chapters, printed in two columns, with Aymara on the left, and Spanish on the right side of the ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Dictionary of the Aymara Language: First and Second Part
Vocabvlario dela lengva aymara: Primera y segvnda partes (Dictionary of the Aymara language: First and second parts) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1612. The book is by Ludovico Bertonio (1555−1628), an Italian Jesuit missionary who labored among the Aymara Indians of southern Peru and Bolivia, and who wrote several important works about the Aymara language. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Report of the Obsequies that his Excellency Don Juan de Mendoza y Luna, Marquis of Montesclaros, Viceroy of Peru, Held in Honor of the Death of Our Lady Queen Margarita
Relacion delas exequias q el ex.mo s.r D. Iuan de mendoça y luna Marques de Montesclaros, virrei del Piru hizo enla muerte dela Reina Nuestra S. Doña Margarita (Report of the funeral that his excellency Don Juan de Mendoza y Luna, marquis of Montesclaros, viceroy of Peru, held in Honor of the Death of Our Lady Queen Margarita) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1613. The book is an account of the memorial services organized in Lima by the viceroy of Peru to mark the death, the previous ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Music for the Feast of Saint George
During the 1432 session of the General Court of the Principality of Catalonia, held in Barcelona, it was decided that a chapel to Saint George should be constructed at the Palau de la Diputació del General (Palace of the Principality of Catalonia, now called Palau de Generalitat de Catalunya, or Palace of Government of Catalonia). Saint George is the patron saint of the Diputació del General. At the end of the 16th century, the new chapel—today known as Saint George’s Hall—was built in order to accommodate the ...
Sketch of Mälaren Lake and Neighboring Areas
This engraved map of Lake Mälaren is the only extant copy of one of the first maps printed in Sweden. It was drafted by Andreas Bureus in 1614 and is regarded as a forerunner to his map of the Nordic countries of 1626. It has a dedication in Latin from Bureus to his patron Jacob van Dijk: “This small map I bequeath in the stead of a map of the whole world; I shall provide you an engraved map of the entire northern reaches of the world at a subsequent ...
New and Detailed Sketch of the Arctic Lands, by Andreas Boreus, the Swede
Andreas Bureus (1571–1646) is known as the father of Swedish cartography. He embarked upon a career in the Royal Chancellery in 1602 and was entrusted with several important missions in the service of the state. In 1628 he was assigned the task of founding what was to become the Swedish National Land Survey. In 1624 he was made a member of the Swedish nobility with the name Anders Bure. Bureus completed this map of the Nordic countries in 1626 after several years of collecting data. It was printed on ...
Image of the City of Constantinople, Which the Turks Call Istanbul, Portrayed as it is in Reality
This panoramic view of Constantinople in 1616 is from the collection of cityscapes and broadsheets that once belonged to the Swedish statesman Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (1622−86). Numerous mosques, monuments, and other landmarks are labeled in Latin. Below the engraving of the city, which is by Pieter van den Keere (also seen as Petrus Kaerius, 1571−circa 1646), is a portrait of Emperor Constantine and a separately printed description in 16 columns. ‏The Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie Collection consists of 187 engravings from the late 1500s ...
Danzig, Nowadays a Very Crowded Market Town for the North, the West, and the Whole World
This panoramic view of Danzig (present-day Gdańsk) in 1617 is from the collection of cityscapes and broadsheets that once belonged to the Swedish statesman Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (1622−86). ‏In the upper-left corner appear the coat of arms of Poland; in the upper-right hand corner, the coat of arms of Danzig. Below is a separately printed key in both Latin and German. At the bottom of the engraving is a description of the city, addressed to the reader, printed in 13 columns, in Latin and in German ...
The Very Large Portuguese City of Lisbon, a Most Famous Market Town for the Whole East and West India
This panoramic view of Lisbon in 1619 is from the collection of cityscapes and broadsheets that once belonged to the Swedish statesman Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (1622-86). ‏The coat of arms of Portugal is in the upper-left corner; the coat of arms of Lisbon on the right. At the bottom of the engraving is a description of the city, printed in 16 columns, in French and in Latin. The Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie collection consists of 187 engravings from the late 1500s and early 1600s. The prints ...