43 results in English
El melopeo y maestro: Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Music
Pedro (Pietro) Cerone (1566–1625) was born in Bergamo, Italy. After training as a musician, singer, and priest in Italy, he travelled to Spain as a pilgrim to Santiago de Compostela in about 1593. A year later, mired in poverty and living in Madrid, he came under the protection of Santiago Gratii (Caballero de Gracia), in whose music academy he was able to work. Thanks probably to Caballero de Gracia, he was able to serve in the Royal Chapel of Phillip II and later that of Philip III. Around 1603 ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Paraguay, or the Province of the Rio de la Plata, with the Adjacent Regions Tucamen and Santa Cruz de la Sierra
This map of Paraguay and the Rio de la Plata basin is the work of Willem Blaeu (1571-1638), the founder of a famous Dutch mapmaking dynasty. Blaeu studied astronomy, mathematics, and globe-making with the Danish scholar Tycho Brahe before establishing his mapmaking studio in Amsterdam. In 1633, he was appointed mapmaker of the Dutch East India Company. In 1635, together with his sons Joan and Cornelis, Blaeu published the Atlas Novus (New atlas), an 11-volume work consisting of 594 maps.
Bill of Sale from Henry Walker to William Shakespeare, 1613
This deed of bargain and sale, dated March 10, 1613, records William Shakespeare's purchase of a gatehouse in the Blackfriars district of London, from Henry Walker, citizen and minstrel of London. Shakespeare paid £80 of the £140 selling price up front, and on the day after the conveyance he mortgaged the remaining £60 back to Walker. William Johnson, citizen and vintner of London, and John Jackson and John Heminge, gentlemen, acted as trustees in Shakespeare's interest. They also were in charge of the sale of the property following ...
Trevelyon Miscellany, 1608
Thomas Trevilian, or Trevelyon, a London craftsman of whom little is known, created his miscellany in 1608 when he was about the age of 60. The bulky manuscript of 290 double-sided folios contains texts and images appropriated from books, woodcuts, and engravings of his day. Part one of the manuscript (leaves 3–36) consists of historical and practical information: a time line; an illustrated calendar; moralizing proverbs; a series of computational tables and astronomical diagrams; lists of families linked to William the Conqueror; distances between London and cities around the ...
Two of the Master Jāmī’s Works on Prosody; Anonymous Treatise on Astronomy
This Persian manuscript dated 1025 AH (1616) contains two works on prosody by Nūr al-Dīn ‘Abd al-Rahmān Jāmī (1414–92), as well as an incomplete, anonymous work on astronomy. Jāmī was a great poet, scholar, and mystic who lived most of his life in Herat, present-day Afghanistan. The 69 leaves of the manuscript are on a variety of papers: thin, pink-colored laid paper (folios 1a−31b); cream-colored laid paper (folios 32a−35b); pink-colored laid paper (folios 36a−37b); cream-color laid paper (folios 38a−40b); light-green-colored laid paper (folios 41a−45b ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Selections from the Shāhnāmeh of the Learned Abū al-Qāsim Firdawsi, May he be Blessed and May his Sins be Pardoned
This manuscript from the early 17th century contains selections from the Shāhnāmeh (Book of kings), the epic-historical work of Persian literature composed at the end of the tenth century by the poet Abū al-Qāsim Firdawsī (940–1020). This beloved epic of pre-Islamic Persia (present-day Iran) was widely read in Persia, Afghanistan, and Central Asia. The manuscript contains three half-page paintings showing different battles. The text is preceded by an introduction and table of contents (folios 1b−6b) and is written in black ink in a nastaʻliq script. The pages are ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Tales of Ise
Ise monogatari (The tales of Ise) is a collection of some 125 brief episodes, combining elements of prose and poetry, that dates from the early Heian period (9th−10th centuries). The protagonist is believed to be modeled on Ariwarano Narihira (825−80), a handsome aristocrat who had many romantic affairs. The main character’s romances, friendships, heartbroken wandering life, and various other stories are narrated in a style that owes much to waka (literally, Japanese poems). The work had a great influence on later Japanese literature, including Genji monogatari (The ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Report of What Happened to the Royal Navy of the Philippines, and the Victory Achieved Against the Dutch, Who Had Besieged the City of Manila for Six Months
Relacion del svceso dela armada real de Philipinas, y vitoria que alcanço delos Olandeʃes, que tuuieron ʃitiada ʃeys meʃes ala Ciudad de Manila se publicó (Report of what happened to the royal navy of the Philippines, and the victory achieved against the Dutch, who had besieged the city of Manila for six months) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1619. The book deals with the events of October 1616−April 1617, when a fleet of Dutch ships blockaded the entrance to Manila Bay, before being driven off by a Spanish ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
The Fortunate Victory of Spain Against Forty Enemy Ships that Were on the Shore and Coast of the City of Valencia on April 4
Vitoria felicissima de Eʃpaña contra quarenta nauios de enemigos que andavan en la playa y Coʃta de la ciudad de Valencia a quatro de Abril (The fortunate victory of Spain against forty enemy ships that were on the shore and coast of the city of Valencia on April 4) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1618. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Report of All that Has Happened in Rome, Naples, Venice, Genoa, Sicily, France, Germany, England, and Malta
Relacion de avisos de todo lo qve ha svcedido en Roma, Napoles, Venecia, Genova, Sicilia, Francia, Alemania, Inglaterra, y Malta (Report of all that has happened in Rome, Naples, Venice, Genoa, Sicily, France, Germany, England, and Malta) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1618. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City. This book is part of a collection of 39 first editions in ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Synodical Constitutions of the Archdiocese of Ciudad de los Reyes in Peru
Constitvciones sinodales del Arçobispado de los Reyes en el Pirv (Synodical constitutions of the archdiocese of Ciudad de los Reyes in Peru) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1614. Lima was founded in 1535 by the Spanish explorer and conquistador Francisco Pizarro, and was originally called Ciudad de los Reyes (City of Kings). The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City. This book is ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Commentaries and Questions on the Complete Logic of Aristotle and of the Subtle Doctor John Duns Scotus
Commentarii ac quaestiones in universam Aristotelis ac subtilissimi doctoris Ihoannis Duns Scoti logicam (Commentaries and questions on the complete logic of Aristotle and of the subtle doctor John Duns Scotus) was published in Lima, Peru in 1610. John Duns Scotus (died 1308) was a Franciscan priest and scholastic theologian and philosopher whose writings had great influence on both religious and secular thought in Europe. He was known by the Latin surname “Doctor Subtilis.” The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606 ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
The Art of the Aymara Language: A Compendium of Phrases in the Same Language and Their Equivalent Meanings in Spanish
Arte de la lengua aymara, con vna silva de phraʃes de la miʃma lengua, y ʃu declaración en romance (The art of the Aymara language: A compendium of phrases in the same language and their equivalent meanings in Spanish) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1612. The book is by Ludovico Bertonio (1552−1625), an Italian Jesuit missionary who labored among the Aymara Indians of southern Peru and Bolivia, and who wrote several important works about the Aymara language. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
The Art of the Quechua Language
Arte de la lengva qvichva (The art of the Quechua language) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1619. The book is by Diego de Torres Rubio (1547−1638), a Spanish-born Jesuit priest who came to Peru in 1579, where he devoted himself to the study of Indian languages, especially Aymara and Quechua. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City. This book is part ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Constitutions of the Province of San Antonio de los Charcas Issued and Received in the Provincial Chapter Celebrated in the Convent of Saint Francis of the City of La Paz
Constitvciones de la provincia de Sant Antonio de los Charcas hechas y recebidas en el capitulo prouincial celebrado en el Conuento de San Francisco dela Ciudad dela Paz (Constitutions of the province of San Antonio de los Charcas issued and received in the Provincial Chapter celebrated in the Convent of Saint Francis of the city of La Paz) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1616. San Antonio de los Charcas was a province of the Viceroyalty of Peru, located in what is now Bolivia. The provincial capital was La Paz ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Legal Allegation and Decision to Examine and Approve the Miracles on Record of the Very Pious Man Father Francis Solano, Member of the Seraphic Franciscan Order
Allegatio ivris, et consilium pro examinandis et approbandis miraculis religio fissimi viri Francisci Solano Seraphici Franciscani ordinis alumni (Legal allegation and decision to examine and approve the miracles on record of the very pious man Father Francis Solano, member of the Seraphic Franciscan Order) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1612. Saint Francis Solano (1549−1610) was a Spanish-born Franciscan friar who came to South America in 1589, where he worked for 20 years as a missionary among the Indians of northwestern Argentina and Paraguay. He was canonized in 1726 ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Constitutions of This Province of the Twelve Apostles of Peru
Constitvciones de esta provincia de los Doze Apostoles del Perv (Constitutions of this province of the Twelve Apostles of Peru) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1607. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City. This book is part of a collection of 39 first editions in the National Library of Peru, produced at the press between 1584 and 1619. The collection was inscribed ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Sermon by the Reverend Father Diego de Castro on the Death of Father Luis Lopez, Bishop of Quito and Elected Bishop of Charcas, of the Order of Saint Augustine
Sermon en la mverte del maestro Don Fray Lvys Lopez de la Orden de sant Augustin Obispo de Quito se publicó (Sermon by the Reverend Father Diego de Castro on the death of Father Luis Lopez, Bishop of Quito and elected Bishop of Charcas, of the Order of Saint Augustine) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1606. Luis López de Solís was appointed bishop of Quito, Ecuador, in September 1592. He was appointed archbishop of La Plata o Charcas (present-day Bolivia) in July 1605, and he died on July 5 ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Sermon that the Very Reverend Father, Fray Pedro Gutierrez Florez the Inquisition Officer of the Holy Office, Provincial Minister of the Friars Minor, in the Province of Peru and Kingdom of Chile
Sermon que el mvy reverendo padre fray Pedro Gutierrez Florez calificador del Sancto Officio, Miniʃtro Prouincial delos frayles Menores, dela prouincia del Piru y Reyno de Chile (Sermon that the Very Reverend Father, Fray Pedro Gutierrez Florez the Inquisition Officer of the Holy Office, Provincial Minister of the Friars Minor, in the Province of Peru and Kingdom of Chile) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1605. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Truthful Report of a Letter Sent by Father Prior of the Order of Santo Domingo of the City of Ubeda to the Abbot of San Salvador of Granada
Relacion verdadera de vna carta qve embio el padre prior dela orden de ʃanto Domingo, de la ciudad de Vbeda, al Abad mayor de ʃan Saluador dela Ciudad de Granada (Truthful report of a letter sent by Father Prior of the order of Santo Domingo of the city of Ubeda to the abbot of San Salvador of Granada) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1617. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Report of the Feast Hosted by the Prince of Piedmonte in Valladolid in the Presence of Your Majesty and the Queen Our Lady
Relacion delas fiestas qve delante de sv magestad, y dela reyna nvestra señora hizo, y mantuuo el Principe del Piamonte en Valladolid (Report of the feast hosted by the prince of Piedmonte in Valladolid in the presence of  Your Majesty and the queen our lady) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1605. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City. This book is part ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Belgium as a Lion
In the 16th and 17th centuries, maps of the Low Countries frequently were drawn in the form of a lion, known by its Latin designation, Leo Belgicus. The “Belgian” lion usually included all of the 17 provinces variously referred to as the Netherlands or the Low Countries, even though the seven provinces of the north broke away in 1581 to form the Dutch Republic. Symbols of Dutch patriotism, these maps often appeared in 17th-century Dutch paintings, hanging on the walls of inns or private homes, as in Jan Vermeer’s ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Description of the Coasts, Points, Harbours and Islands of New France
This portolan-style chart on vellum was compiled by Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), the founder of New France, and was originally intended for presentation to the King of France. One of the great cartographic treasures of America, the map offers the first thorough delineation of the New England and Canadian coasts from Cape Sable to Cape Cod, showing Port Royal; Frenchman's Bay; the St. John, St. Croix, Penobscot, and Kennebec Rivers; and Mount Desert Island, which Champlain himself named. The place names and coast line correspond closely to Champlain's ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Manual Vocabulary of the Spanish and Mexican Languages: In Which are Contained the Words, Questions, and Answers Commonly and Usually Found in the Treatment and Communication Between Spaniards and Indians
This work, published in Mexico City in 1611, is the first edition of the most important and most frequently reprinted Spanish work on Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs. It contains both a Spanish-Nahuatl (pages 1-100) and a Nahuatl-Spanish (pages 101-160) dictionary, in which the Nahuatl words are spelled out phonetically. Classical Nahuatl, the language of the Aztec Empire, was written with a pictographic script. About 1.5 million people in Mexico still speak dialects of Nahuatl that are descended from the language spoken by the Aztecs.
Contributed by John Carter Brown Library
Two Illustrations from "Selected Arias of the Yuan Dynasty"
These prints from around 1615 show two figures from Yuan-dynasty (1279-1368) poetry. The right-hand picture illustrates a play about Zheng Kongmu, a law clerk, and Song Bin, a young man who accidentally killed a man. Zheng recognizes Song Bin as an honorable man and convinces the judge not to execute him. Instead, he is exiled to a penal colony where he has many adventures, including meeting up with and helping Zheng Kongmu when he himself runs afoul of the law by killing a woman who mistreated his children. The other ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Arabia
This map of 1616, with Latin place names, is a reprint of a work by Jodocus Hondius (1563-1612), a Flemish cartographer and engraver who settled in Amsterdam in about 1593 and established a business that produced globes and the first large maps of the world. The place names on the map are unclear. “Coromanis” is shown on many older maps as located in present-day Kuwait, but here is shown as lying beyond “Catiffa,” or Al Qatif. “Luna,” on the coastal belt of the Arabian Gulf, could be Ras Tanurah, located ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Conquest of the Malukus
This is the first edition, published in Madrid in 1609, of a work that recounts in detail the struggle among Portugal, Spain, and local kings and sultans for control of the Maluku (Moluccan) Islands in the 16th century. Also called the Spice Islands, the Maluku are part of present-day Indonesia. Among the individuals who figure in the story are the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, the English privateer Sir Francis Drake, and King Tabariji of Ternate. The author of this work, Bartolomé Leonardo de Argensola (1562-1631), was a priest who served ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
An Arabic Translation of the Astronomical Tables of Ulugh Beg
This manuscript contains a 15th–16th century translation from Persian into Arabic by Yaḥyā ibn Alī al-Rifā‘ī of the introduction of the celebrated zīj (astronomical tables or records of daily occurrences) by Ulugh Beg (1394–1449). In the introduction to his work, al-Rifā‘ī states that he undertook the project at the behest of Egyptian astronomer Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Abū al-Fatḥ al-Ṣūf ī al-Miṣrī (died circa 1494), who was involved in studying and revising Ulugh Beg's zīj for Cairo's geographical coordinates. The present manuscript copy of ...
Description of the New Route to the South of the Strait of Magellan Discovered and Set in the Year 1616 by Dutchman Willem Schouten de Hoorn
In June 1615, Dutch navigators Jacob Le Maire (circa 1585–1616) and Willem Corneliszoon Schouten (circa 1567–1625) set out in two ships, the Eendracht and the Hoorn, from the Dutch port of Texel. Their goal was to find a new route to the Moluccas Islands, Europe’s main source of pepper in the lucrative spice trade with the East Indies, and in so doing avoid the trade monopoly of the Dutch East Indies Company. They sailed south of the Strait of Magellan and on January 24, 1616, discovered a ...
Contributed by National Library of Chile
Principles and Practice of Eastern Medicine
Donguibogam (Principles and practice of Eastern medicine) is an encyclopedia of medical knowledge and treatment techniques compiled and edited by Heo Jun, with the collective support of other medical experts in Korea. Heo Jun, a court physician, received a royal command to write a medical book to assist people suffering from famine brought about by war and drought during the rule of King Seonjo (1552–1608, reigned, 1567–1608). Heo Jun himself picked the proper medicinal herbs, which were native to the Korean Peninsula. He conducted human clinical trials to ...
Contributed by National Library of Korea
The Starry Messenger Showing Forth Great and Truly Wonderful Sights, as Well as Suggesting to Everyone, but Especially to Philosophers, Things to be Pondered
Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) was an Italian astronomer, mathematician, physicist, philosopher, and inventor. He revolutionized the sciences in the Western world by using mathematics and experimental evidence in the study of natural phenomena. Born in Pisa, Galileo studied in Pisa and Florence and in 1589 was appointed to the chair of mathematics at the University of Pisa. In 1591 he moved to the University of Padua, where he completed much of his most important scientific work. In late 1609, Galileo perfected a telescope of 30x magnification, with which he quickly ...
Works of Galileo Galilei, Part 2, Volume 13, Floats: Fragments and First Drafts Related to the Treatise "Of Things that Float on Water"
This fragmentary work elaborates on earlier studies undertaken by the Italian scientist, philosopher, and mathematician Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) on the Greek mathematician and physicist Archimedes of Syracuse (circa 287 BCE–circa 212 BCE). This study contains notes about the theories of buoyancy and floatation, which Galileo later gathered in a more coherent form in his treatise Discorso… intorno alle cose che stanno in sù l’acqua (Discourse on floating bodies), published in Florence in 1612. As with his more prominent work of astronomy, Sidereus Nuncius (Starry messenger), Galileo’s ...
Works of Galileo Galilei, Part 3, Volume 12, Astronomy: Discourse on the Comets Produced by him at the Florentine Academy During his Very Consulship
Three comets appeared in the skies over Europe in 1618, a phenomenal series of events that ignited a debate about the nature of these celestial bodies and the implications of their appearance for the Aristotelian theory that celestial bodies were unchanging and “incorruptible.” In 1619, the Jesuit astronomer and mathematician Orazio Grassi published under a pseudonym his treatise on the comets, in which he upheld the established view of celestial bodies as unchangeable and orbiting the Earth. Already under attack for his defense of the theories of Copernicus, Galileo Galilei ...
Works of Galileo Galilei, Part 4: Astronomical Works, that is, all that Appertains to the Copernican System, and to the Project on Longitudes, Volume 1, Astronomy
This codex contains important manuscripts in which Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) defended the Copernican theory that the Earth moves around the sun, which he had confirmed by observation with the telescope he had designed, which offered greatly enhanced magnification compared to older telescopes. The principal documents in the volume are letters, dating from 1614-15, to his friend and student Benedetto Castelli, to the Jesuit priest Piero Dini, and to the grand duchess of Tuscany, Christina of Lorraine. In each of these letters, Galileo discussed the relationship between scientific theory and ...
Mirror of the Cruel and Horrible Spanish Tyranny Perpetrated in the Netherlands, by the Tyrant, the Duke of Alba, and Other Commanders of King Philip II
This volume, published in the Netherlands in 1620, contains French translations of two earlier works detailing Spanish crimes and atrocities in both Europe and the New World. The first part is an abridged version of Oorsprong en voortgang der Nederlandtscher beroerten (Origin and progress of the disturbances in the Netherlands) by Johannes Gysius (died 1652), first published anonymously in 1616. The second part is a translation of Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias (A short account of the destruction of the Indies), written by Bartolomé de las Casas ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Summary of Astronomy
Tian wen lue (Summary of astronomy) is a well-known work by Yang Manuo, the Chinese name of Father Manuel Dias (1574–1659), also known as Emanuel Diaz. Diaz, a Portuguese Jesuit missionary, arrived in China in 1610 and reached Beijing in 1613. He also spent time in Macao, Shaochuan, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Fuzhou, and other cities. He died in Hangzhou during the reign of the Qing dynasty Shunzhi emperor. Commonly known by its Latin title, Explicatio Sphaerae Coelestis, the book was first published in 1615. This copy is the original edition ...
Contributed by National Central Library
The Peony Pavilion
The play Mu dan ting huan hun ji  (The peony pavilion) is by Tang Xianzu (1550–1616), a native of Linchuan, Jiangsu Province. Tang achieved the degree of jin shi in 1583 and assumed several posts, but he was demoted as a consequence of a memorial he wrote. Later reinstated as district magistrate of Shuichang, Zhejiang Province, Tang retired from this position in 1598. As a dramatist, he enjoyed great popularity, but his unpublished manuscripts were supposedly burnt by his sons. Four of his plays with the theme of dreams ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Depictions of Metals, Minerals, Insects and Plants
Jin shi kun chong cao mu zhuang (Depictions of metals, minerals, insects, and plants) was painted by Wen Shu (1594–1634), a great-great-granddaughter of Wen Zhengming (1470–1559), one of the greatest Ming dynasty painters, calligraphers, and scholars. Married to Zhang Jun, also a painter, and residing in Hanshan, Wen Shu was surrounded by nature and excelled in painting birds, flowers, plants, insects, and butterflies. She spent a number of years copying thousands of illustrations from books of traditional Chinese medicine in the imperial collection. Zhang Jun’s handwritten preface ...
Contributed by National Central Library
The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha
In 1829, the Spanish scholar and bibliographer Vicente Salvá determined that this book was the true editio princeps (first printed edition) of the first volume of El ingenioso hidalgo don Quixote de la Mancha (The ingenious gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha). Until then, it had been considered a second edition, printed in the same year. Encouraged by the success of other fictional works, such as Mateo Alemán’s Guzmán de Alfarache (The life of Guzman de Alfarache), Francisco de Robles, printer to the king, bought the rights to publish ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
A Modern Map of Spain
Nova Hispaniae Descriptio (A modern map of Spain) is the first map bordered by cartouches, one of the most attractive developments of 17th century Dutch cartography. Cartouches were used to supplement the geographical information provided by a map as well as to add aesthetic appeal. In this map, which is based on a plate made by Gerard Mercator (1512–94), the cartographic image is surrounded by plans, city views, and characters in the dress of the day. The top margin includes views of the cities of Alhama, Granada, Bilbao, Burgos ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Four Books on the Nature and Virtues of Plants and Animals for Medicinal Purposes in New Spain
Francisco Hernández de Toledo (1514–87) was a court physician, who in 1570 was ordered by King Philip II of Spain to embark on a scientific mission to New Spain (as Mexico was then called) to study the medicinal plants of the New World. For seven years Hernández traveled throughout the country, collecting specimens and gathering information on how plants were used by indigenous physicians. He returned to Spain in 1577 with 16 volumes of notes and with numerous illustrations made by three indigenous painters who assisted him in his ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Chibcha Dictionary and Grammar
This manuscript is a glossary with prayers, confessions, and sermons in the Chibcha language. It was compiled by an unknown hand, most likely in the mid-16th century (as suggested by the style of handwriting). The work was used by missionaries in the evangelization of the Muisca, the Chibcha-speaking people who lived in the central highlands of New Granada. The Spanish learned early in their colonial role that to accomplish their religious and other objectives they needed to communicate with the people in their native languages. As early as 1580 the ...