42 results in English
The Luminous Treasure with Acceptable Answers to Matters of Faith
Aḥmad ibn ʻAbd al-Laṭīf ibn Aḥmad al-Bashbīshī (1631–85) was an Islamic jurist of the Shāfiʻī school of jurisprudence. He was born and died in the village of Bashbīsh in the region of Al-Mahalla in the Nile delta of Egypt. He studied Islamic jurisprudence in Cairo and taught at the Cairo-based Al-Azhar Mosque, long considered the foremost institution in the Islamic world for the study of Sunni theology. Al-Tuhfa al-Saniyya bi Ajwibat al-Masaa’il al-Mardhiyya (The luminous treasure with acceptable answers to matters of faith) is a collection of writings ...
A Modern Depiction of Ireland, One of the British Isles
Abraham Ortelius (1527-98) was a Flemish engraver and businessman who traveled widely to pursue his commercial interests. In 1560 he became interested in scientific geography during a voyage with Gerardus Mercator. Ortelius’s major work, Theatrum orbis terrarum (Theater of the world), was published in Antwerp in 1570, at the threshold of the golden age of Dutch cartography. Theatrum presented the world in its component parts and reflected an age of exploration, broadened commercial connections, and scientific inquiry. Now considered the world’s first atlas, the original Theatrum was enhanced ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Collection of Poems by Shāhī
Dīvān-i Shāhī (Collection of poems by Shāhī) is a divan (collection) of verse by Amīr Shāhī Sabzavārī (died 1453; 857 A.H.), a prominent Persian poet of the Timurid era who composed in many of the classical forms of Persian poetry. Amīr Shāhī’s poetry belongs to the tradition of Persian mystical love poetry. The collection includes poems composed in the ghazal (a metrical form expressing the pain of loss and the beauty of love), qaṣīda (lyric poem), and rubā’ī (quatrain) forms. Amīr Shāhī was born in Sabzevar (present-day ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Final Concord Between William Shakespeare and Hercules Underhill
The final concord between William Shakespeare and Hercules Underhill is the confirming title to Shakespeare's New Place house in Stratford-upon-Avon, signed Michaelmas 1602. Shakespeare originally purchased New Place in May 1597 from William Underhill. Underhill was poisoned two months later by Fulke Underhill, his oldest son and heir, who was hanged for the crime in 1599. When Hercules Underhill, Fulke's younger brother, came of age, Shakespeare protected his title to New Place by paying him to reconfirm the purchase. As was the custom, three copies of the final ...
Traditional Chinese Medical Methods of Treatment of Smallpox and Measles
This work was compiled by Wan Quan (1495–1580), a famed physician of the Ming dynasty. A native of Luotian, Hubei Province, Wan Quan came from a family of physicians. His works, such as one on Su wen (Basic questions), followed the schools of Zhang Zhongjing, Liu Hejian, Li Dongyuan and Zhu Danxi, the four great physicians of the Jin and Yuan dynasties (1115–1368). At least ten works are known to have been written by Wan Quan. His subjects cover a wide range of topics, including fevers, maintenance of ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Drafts of Letters Sent by Balthasar Moretus I, 1598–1607
The Officina Plantiniana, also known as the Plantin Press or Plantijnse Drukkerij, was established in Antwerp in 1555 by Christopher Plantin (1520–89), the greatest typographer and printer-publisher of his day. The Officina grew to become the largest printing and publishing house in Europe and helped to make Antwerp, along with Venice and Paris, one of the most important centers of printing in the West. Shown here is a volume containing copies of the letters sent by Balthasar Moretus I (1574–1641) during the years 1598–1607. Plantin’s son-in-law ...
Chronicle of Japan, Volumes 1 and 2
Nihon shoki (Chronicle of Japan) is the first official Japanese history book, edited by Imperial Prince Toneri and others and completed in the fourth year of the Yōrō era (720). The 30 volumes cover the period from the mythological age to the time of the Empress Jitō (end of the seventh century). The first and second volumes, which deal with the mythological age, have been highly regarded in Japan since ancient times. The oldest existing manuscript of Nihon shoki dates from the Heian period (794−1185). The first published edition ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Statutes and Ordinances of the University, and General Study of the Ciudad de Los Reyes in Peru
Constitvciones y ordenanças de la Vniversidad, y stvdio general de la ciudad de los Reyes del Piru (Statutes and ordinances of the university, and general study of Ciudad de los Reyes in Peru) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1602. Lima was founded in 1535 by the Spanish explorer and conquistador Francisco Pizarro, and was originally called Ciudad de los Reyes (City of Kings). The university in Lima was founded in 1551. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Catholic Indian Creed, in Which the Mysteries of the Faith, Which are Contained in the Three Catholic Creeds, the Apostles’, Nicene, and the Athanasian, are Manifested
Symbolo catholico indiano, en el qval se declaran los myʃterios dela fé, contenidos enlos tres symbolos catholicos, apoʃtolico, Niceno y de S. Athanaʃio (Catholic Indian creed, in which the mysteries of the faith, which are contained in the three Catholic creeds, the Apostles’, Nicene, and the Athanasian, are manifested) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1598. The book contains the texts of the three most important creeds in the Christian church, the Apostle’s Creed, the Nicene Creed, and the Athanasian Creed, in the languages of Quechua and Aymara, along ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Constitutions of This Province of the Twelve Apostles of Peru
Constitvciones de esta provincia de los Doze Apostoles del Perv (Constitutions of this province of the Twelve Apostles of Peru) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1607. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City. This book is part of a collection of 39 first editions in the National Library of Peru, produced at the press between 1584 and 1619. The collection was inscribed ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Sermon by the Reverend Father Diego de Castro on the Death of Father Luis Lopez, Bishop of Quito and Elected Bishop of Charcas, of the Order of Saint Augustine
Sermon en la mverte del maestro Don Fray Lvys Lopez de la Orden de sant Augustin Obispo de Quito se publicó (Sermon by the Reverend Father Diego de Castro on the death of Father Luis Lopez, Bishop of Quito and elected Bishop of Charcas, of the Order of Saint Augustine) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1606. Luis López de Solís was appointed bishop of Quito, Ecuador, in September 1592. He was appointed archbishop of La Plata o Charcas (present-day Bolivia) in July 1605, and he died on July 5 ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Sermon that the Very Reverend Father, Fray Pedro Gutierrez Florez the Inquisition Officer of the Holy Office, Provincial Minister of the Friars Minor, in the Province of Peru and Kingdom of Chile
Sermon que el mvy reverendo padre fray Pedro Gutierrez Florez calificador del Sancto Officio, Miniʃtro Prouincial delos frayles Menores, dela prouincia del Piru y Reyno de Chile (Sermon that the Very Reverend Father, Fray Pedro Gutierrez Florez the Inquisition Officer of the Holy Office, Provincial Minister of the Friars Minor, in the Province of Peru and Kingdom of Chile) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1605. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Report of the Feast Hosted by the Prince of Piedmonte in Valladolid in the Presence of Your Majesty and the Queen Our Lady
Relacion delas fiestas qve delante de sv magestad, y dela reyna nvestra señora hizo, y mantuuo el Principe del Piamonte en Valladolid (Report of the feast hosted by the prince of Piedmonte in Valladolid in the presence of  Your Majesty and the queen our lady) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1605. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City. This book is part ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
New Map of the Wonderful, Large and Rich Land of Guiana...
This hand-colored map of Guiana (present-day French Guyana, Suriname, and Guyana) is the work of Jodocus Hondius (1563-1612), the patriarch of one of the most famous Dutch mapmaking families. The map includes annotations in Dutch about the indigenous peoples of northern South America, along with fantastic illustrations of South American animals. The Amazon and Orinoco rivers are both well depicted on the map.
New and Precise Depiction of the Southern Part of America, Which Includes: Brazil, the Carribean, the New Kingdom of Guiana, Castilia del Oro, Nicaragua, the Antilles, and Peru: And Beneath the Tropic of Capricorn, Chile, the Rio de la Plato, Patagonia & the Straits of Magellan
This folding map of South America and the West Indies, printed on two separate sheets, with uncut margins, was engraved for the second edition of the fourth part of Hulsius' collection of voyages, which consists altogether of 26 parts. The "Vierte Schiffart" (Fourth voyage) is an account of Ulrich Schmidel's voyage to Brazil and the Rio de la Plata from 1534 to 1554. In this second edition of the map, three islands have been inserted below the bottom border of the lower map, with the name "Francisci Draco Ins ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Verses in Persian and Chaghatay
This calligraphic fragment includes a number of verses in Persian and Chaghatay Turkish (Turkish spoken in Central Asia). A continuous Persian lyrical poem (ghazal) is written in the top and bottom horizontal rectangular panels. Another ghazal appears written in diagonal in the right and left vertical columns. Both ghazals are by the famous Persian poet Shaykh Sa'di (died 1292) and address moral issues. In the central text panel, verses in Chaghatay Turkish are written in black nasta'liq script on beige paper, surrounded by cloud bands on a gold ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Description of the Coasts, Points, Harbours and Islands of New France
This portolan-style chart on vellum was compiled by Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), the founder of New France, and was originally intended for presentation to the King of France. One of the great cartographic treasures of America, the map offers the first thorough delineation of the New England and Canadian coasts from Cape Sable to Cape Cod, showing Port Royal; Frenchman's Bay; the St. John, St. Croix, Penobscot, and Kennebec Rivers; and Mount Desert Island, which Champlain himself named. The place names and coast line correspond closely to Champlain's ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Concerning the Savages, or, the Voyage of Samuel Champlain, from Brouage, Made in New France in 1603...
This book is an account of Champlain’s first voyage to New France, or Canada, in 1603. Amyar de Chastes, the governor of Dieppe, received from King Henry IV of France a grant of land in Canada, and asked Champlain to accompany him on a voyage to explore the territory. The expedition left Honfleur on March 15, 1603, and reached Tadoussac after a 40-day Atlantic crossing. Champlain first explored some 50-60 kilometers up the Saguenay River. He then proceeded up the Saint Lawrence River to near present-day Montreal. He returned ...
Contributed by John Carter Brown Library
Arabia
This 1616 map is a reprint of a map originally published in 1598 by Jodocus Hondius (1563-1612), a Flemish cartographer and engraver who settled in Amsterdam in about 1593 and established a business that produced globes and the first large maps of the world. The map covers the territory from west of the Gulf of Suez to the eastern side of the Arabian Peninsula, and from the mouth of the Euphrates River to Aden. The only cities indicated on the western coast of the Persian or Arabian Gulf are Qatar ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Manual on Conditions and Contracts, Income and Expenditure
This work by the Turkish poet and historian Mustafā bin Ahmed (1541-99), also known as Ālī Efendi, was written in the year 1599 (1008 A.H.), during the reign of Sultan Mehmed III. It is a selection from a longer work by the same author, and contains 32 chapters on the history of the origin, fall, and territorial extent of 32 dynasties. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register ...
Zemaitija Land Court Year Book for 1604
At the height of its power in the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ruled over the territory of present-day Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine, and parts of Estonia, Moldova, Poland, and Russia. In the Union of Lublin of 1569, the Grand Duchy and the Kingdom of Poland merged to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The commonwealth had a highly developed legal and administrative system, based on local land courts that decided civil cases involving the gentry and castle courts that dealt with other local matters, including criminal cases. Courts ...
Zemaitija Land Court Year Book for 1599
At the height of its power in the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ruled over the territory of present-day Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine, and parts of Estonia, Moldova, Poland, and Russia. In the Union of Lublin of 1569, the Grand Duchy and the Kingdom of Poland merged to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The commonwealth had a highly developed legal and administrative system, based on local land courts that decided civil cases involving the gentry and castle courts that dealt with other local matters, including criminal cases. Courts ...
An Arabic Translation of the Astronomical Tables of Ulugh Beg
This manuscript contains a 15th–16th century translation from Persian into Arabic by Yaḥyā ibn Alī al-Rifā‘ī of the introduction of the celebrated zīj (astronomical tables or records of daily occurrences) by Ulugh Beg (1394–1449). In the introduction to his work, al-Rifā‘ī states that he undertook the project at the behest of Egyptian astronomer Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Abū al-Fatḥ al-Ṣūf ī al-Miṣrī (died circa 1494), who was involved in studying and revising Ulugh Beg's zīj for Cairo's geographical coordinates. The present manuscript copy of ...
Great Universal Geographic Map
Matteo Ricci was born in Macerata, Italy, in 1552. In 1571, he entered the Society of Jesus and began his novitiate at the College of Rome, where he studied theology and philosophy as well as mathematics, cosmology, and astronomy. In 1577, Ricci asked to be sent as a missionary to Asia. He arrived in Portuguese Goa (present-day India) in September 1578, where he was ordained in July 1580. He worked in Goa and in Cochin (present-day Kochi, India) for four years, until he was summoned to join the fledgling Jesuit ...
Instruments for the Restoration of Astronomy
Tycho Brahe (1546–1601) was a Danish astronomer who built the best observatory in Europe and set a new standard for accurate celestial observations in the era before the invention of the telescope. His noble birth enabled him to pursue his true interests in the humanities and the sciences, particularly astronomy. He became adept at designing scientific instruments and making observations during his early travels in Europe. Upon his return to Denmark he won favor with King Frederick II, who provided him with monetary support to continue his astronomical researches ...
Contributed by Smithsonian Institution
Military Penal Codes in Xuanyun Region: Public Notices
The prefaces to this work, written by two contemporaries, Wang Shiqi (1551–1618), a military strategist, and Du Chengshi (who gained his jin shi degree in 1601), an official at the Bureau of Justice, indicate that the author was Wu Yunzhong, a late 16th–early 17th century military strategist. Wu’s name, with a brief biography, was mentioned in a local history entitled Caozhou Fu zhi (Gazetteer of Caozhou Prefecture), according to which, after Wu Yunzhong received his jin shi degree in 1598, he became a vice censor in chief ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Memorials of Lü Xinwu
Memorials were personal memoranda presented by officials to the emperor, often with proposals for action. They were one of the chief media for communication between the emperor and his officials. The memorials provide insight into the range of views held at the time on various subjects, and are important historical sources. This is a collection of memorials by Lü Kun (1536–1618), style name Xinwu. Lü Kun was a scholar and thinker who achieved his jin shi degree in 1574 at age of 38, after he had observed the period ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Letter Confirming Nobility
This manuscript from Mexico City is the record of testimony offered by Sebastián Vizcaíno (1550?-1615) in 1597-1600 to prove the noble status of his wife, Magdalena Martínez Orejón, and her brother, Francisco Martínez Orejón. Vizcaíno was a prominent Mexico City merchant and an explorer of Baja California. The proofs of nobility were important to defend Vizcaíno's brother-in-law, Francisco Martínez Orejón, in a lawsuit that put him in debtor's prison. The text is written in an italic style in black ink within ruled frames, on both sides of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Liturgy
This late-16th-century manuscript is what is called in Arabic a Qundāq (from the Greek word kontakion), that is, a liturgical book. The text is partly in Arabic, partly in Syriac, a dialect of Aramaic once spoken in many of the lands of the Fertile Crescent. The manuscript is extensively rubricated, but the black ink has bled in many places. Of special interest here is that the Syriac script in this codex is of the variety known as Melkite, which is rather more angular than the more commonly seen Serto script ...
The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha
In 1829, the Spanish scholar and bibliographer Vicente Salvá determined that this book was the true editio princeps (first printed edition) of the first volume of El ingenioso hidalgo don Quixote de la Mancha (The ingenious gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha). Until then, it had been considered a second edition, printed in the same year. Encouraged by the success of other fictional works, such as Mateo Alemán’s Guzmán de Alfarache (The life of Guzman de Alfarache), Francisco de Robles, printer to the king, bought the rights to publish ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
New Hydrographic Map of the Sea and New Southern Lands: Made by the Cosmographer and Mathematician Emanuel Godinho de Eredia
This hydrographic map is the work of Malaysian-Portuguese cartographer Emanuel Godinho de Eredia (1563-1623). At the turn of the 17th century, the Portuguese were exploring southeast Asia from their base in Malacca, searching for the “Islands of Gold” that figured prominently in Malaysian legends. Around 1602, the Viceroy of Portuguese India commissioned an expedition around the islands south of Malaysia and India.  Eredia served as a soldier and engineer on the mission and completed this map around the same time. His work, however, is suspected to be based more on ...
Description of the Eight Pageants Held during the Games on the Occasion of the Christening of Princess Elisabeth of Hesse, 1596
In 1596 Landgrave Moritz of Hesse (1572–1632) celebrated the christening of his daughter, Elisabeth von Hessen-Kassel (1596–1625), with four days of lavish games, tournaments, and fireworks. This manuscript was compiled and executed by an unknown hand. It details the costumes of eight inventions (pageants) accompanying the central Ringelrennen (game of skills as a late variant of the medieval tournament games), which took place on August 27, 1596. Each pageant presents an allegorical or mythological motif, using an abundance of 165 finely detailed fantastic costumes. The eight pageants presented ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Description of the Christening of Lady Elisabeth of Hesse
In 1596 Landgrave Moritz of Hesse (1572–1632) celebrated the christening of his daughter, Elisabeth von Hessen-Kassel (1596–1625), with four days of lavish games, tournaments and fireworks. Two years later, the artist, engraver, and publisher Wilhelm Dillich (1571–1650) created and published a richly decorated description of these festivities in two volumes. The lavish illustrations mostly detail the costumes and decorations of the various pageants, with many of the attendees dressed as historical, allegorical, or mythological characters. The copy preserved in the Bavarian State Library was hand-colored by Dillich ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Conrad Grünenberg’s Armorial
Conrad Grünenberg was an important burgher and knight and a descendant of a patrician dynasty from Konstanz, located on Lake Constance in southwestern Germany. There is no evidence for the exact date of his birth or death. His name first appears when he is mentioned as a builder commissioned by the town of Konstanz in 1442. Grünenberg occupied himself with heraldry and composed an armorial that came to bear his name. Several copies later were produced from Grünenberg’s original autograph copy, one of which is this splendid manuscript from ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Book of Attire of the Court of Duke William IV and Albert V of Bavaria, 1508 - 1551
The first part of this manuscript, which originally was compiled and used as a heraldic reference by the chancellery of the estates of Bavaria, contains a partial copy of the so-called Hofkleiderbuch (Book of attire). It features finely executed illustrations of military and civil costumes, liveries, and war ensigns in use between 1508 and 1551 at the court of the Bavarian dukes, William IV (born 1493, reigned 1508–50) and his son, Albert V (born 1528, reigned 1550–79). The second part of the manuscript primarily shows a variety of ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Hieroglyphs: Commentaries on the Sacred Letters of the Egyptians and Other Peoples
Hieroglyphica by the Italian humanist Pierio Valeriano (1477–1560), also known by the Latinized version of his name, Pierius Valerianus, is the first modern study of Egyptian hieroglyphs. Originally published in Basel, Switzerland, in 1556, the book became very popular in Europe. It was reprinted in the 16th and 17th centuries and translated from the original Latin into French and Italian. This Latin edition was published in Lyon, France, in 1602. Valeriano partly based his book on the Hieroglyphica of Horapollo, who is said to have been an Egyptian priest ...
The Khamsah of Amīr Khusraw Dihlavī
This is a deluxe copy of the Khamsah (quintet) of Amīr Khusraw Dihlavī (circa 1253–1325), who was India’s foremost Sufi poet who wrote in Persian. His quintet is a retelling of the five stories by 12th-century poet Nizāmī Ganjavī. The manuscript was written in nasta‘līq script by one of the greatest calligraphers of the Mughal atelier, Muhammad Husayn al-Kashmīrī, who was honored with the epithet Zarrīn Qalam (Golden Pen). This copy of Dihlavī's Khamsah probably was produced in Lahore (present-day Pakistan) in the late 16th century ...
Contributed by Walters Art Museum
Collection of Poems by Hasan Dihlavī
This is an illuminated and illustrated Mughal copy of a dīvān (collection of poems) by the eminent poet and hagiographer of Islamic India, Hasan Dihlavī, who died in about 1338. The manuscript was written in nasta‘līq script by ‘Abd Allāh Mushkīn Qalam (Amber-Scented Pen), in Allāhābād in 1011 AH (1602 AD), according to the colophon on folio 187a, although the illustration on that page identifies the calligrapher as Mir `Abd Allah Katib. Both were celebrated royal calligraphers. Abd Allāh Mushkīn Qalam worked in Allāhābād for Prince Salim, who later ...
Contributed by Walters Art Museum
View of Santo Domingo under Siege, 1585-1586
This hand-colored engraved plate by Johann Theodor de Bry (born in Liège in 1561, died in Frankfurt-am-Main in 1623), is from the German edition of de Bry’s Grands voyages (Great voyages), an enterprise begun by de Bry’s father, Theodor de Bry (1528–98). The work ultimately consisted of ten illustrated volumes on the colonization of the Americas. This 1599 engraving is a bird's-eye panoramic view showing the city, harbor, and river of Santo Domingo (present-day Dominican Republic), with the fleet of the English privateer Sir Francis Drake ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
"Nourishment for the Ailing" and "Nourishment for the Healthy"
This volume contains copies of two works by Najīb al-Dīn Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn ‘Alī ibn ‘Umar al-Samarqandī: Aghdhīyat al-marḍā (Nourishment for the ailing) and Aghdhīyat al-aṣiḥḥa’ (Nourishment for the healthy). Al-Samarqandī was a Persian scientist who lost his life during the cataclysmic Mongol invasions of the early 13th century. He appears to have died during the siege of Herat in 1222. He was a famous physician and the author of many medical texts. Nothing more is known of his life. The frontispiece of each of the books ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The Sea of Gems
Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf al-Harawī, who flourished in the late 15th–early 16th centuries, was a physician and author of at least two medical treatises, including this lexicon Baḥr al-jawāhir (The sea of gems). It is a medical dictionary arranged alphabetically, covering anatomical and pathological terms and concepts and medicinal substances. The colophon gives the composition date as 924 AH (1518 AD). This manuscript was copied in 1601 in a clear medium-sized naskh script with some rubrication. The manuscript was a gift of Harvey Cushing (1869–1939), a Yale-educated neurosurgeon, whose ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
New Geographic Map of the Interior of Malaca
This map showing the Strait of Malacca and the interior of the Malay Peninsula is the work of Malaysian-Portuguese cartographer Emanuel Godinho de Eredia (1563-1623). At the turn of the 17th century, the Portuguese were exploring southeast Asia from their base in Malacca, searching for the “Islands of Gold” that figured prominently in Malaysian legends. Around 1602, the viceroy of Portuguese India commissioned an expedition around the islands south of Malaysia and India. Eredia served as a soldier and engineer on the mission and completed this map around the same ...