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This chasoslovets (book of hours or horologion) is the first book printed by the first Bulgarian printer, Iakov (Jacob) Kraikov. It is a collection of prayers, eulogies, saints’ lives, and apocrypha that both served as a daily handbook for priests and was valued by lay readers in search of knowledge and enlightenment. Kraikov printed the book in Venice, at the largest Slavic Cyrillic printing-house for Serbs and Bulgarians in the city, which he acquired in 1566. The selection of font, typesetting, pagination, and the rich artful decoration (more than 30 ...
Contributed by
National Library of Bulgaria
The Swallow’s Message, Huaiyuantang Edition with Commentaries and Punctuations
Ruan Dacheng (circa 1587–1646) was a well-known late-Ming poet and dramatist from an influential family in Huaining, Anhui Province, and also a corrupt politician of unsavory reputation. He received his jin shi degree in 1616. While in office, he allied with Wei Zhongxian (1568–1627), a powerful eunuch, and was dismissed after the eunuch’s downfall. He retired to his native town, and later to Nanjing, and began writing poetry and drama. In 1644 he joined the court of the Ming loyalist Southern Ming (1644–62) regime, and rose ...
Contributed by
National Central Library
General Business Ledger of the Plantin Press, 1563–67
The Officina Plantiniana, also known as the Plantin Press or Plantijnse Drukkerij, was established in Antwerp in 1555 by Christopher Plantin (1520–89), the greatest typographer and printer-publisher of his day. The Officina grew to become the largest printing and publishing house in Europe and helped to make Antwerp, along with Venice and Paris, one of the most important centers of printing in the West. Shown here is the general business ledger of the press for the period 1563–67, when Plantin had to provide his financial partners with a ...
Contributed by
Museum Plantin-Moretus/Print Room
Emblems: With Many Images from Ancient Works; by Ján Sambucus of Tyrnavia in Pannonia
Emblemata: Cvm Aliqvot Nvmmis Antiqvi Operis (Emblems: with many images from ancient works) is by the notable Slovak poet, polymath, publisher, collector, and university professor Ján Sambucus (also known as János Zsámboki, 1531−84). Born in Trnava (also referred to as Tyrnavia) in western Slovakia, Sambucus was considered to be the outstanding humanistic personality of Central Europe. He maintained contacts with many European scholars, with whom he collaborated in his publishing and collecting activities and his historical research. A substantial part of his life was spent at the imperial court ...
Contributed by
Slovak National Library
A New Depiction of the Whole of Hungary
This rare map of Hungary was produced by Matthias Zündt in 1567. Zündt (circa 1498–1572) was an engraver, sculptor, and goldsmith from Nuremberg who produced 13 copper-plate engraved maps and views between 1565 and 1571. The map originally appeared in six sheets arranged together. It shows colorful views of important cities, kingdoms, provinces, and bordering countries. Episcopal churches and Turkish religious buildings are shown, reflecting the fact that at the time one-third of the country was ruled by the Turks. Pastoral life is depicted through illustrations of cattle, shepherds ...
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University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries
The Drawing of the Modern Geography of the Whole Africa
This rare map from 1564 printed on eight copperplates is the finest and most important large-scale map of Africa produced in the 16th century. Earlier maps were mostly printed from woodcuts; copperplates allowed the engraver to reproduce much more detail and finesse. The map was made by the Italian cartographer, engineer, and astronomer Giacomo Gastaldi (circa 1500–66) and engraved by Fabricius Licinus (circa 1521–65). The map depicts a stippled sea, ships, and sea creatures, both real and mythical. The interior is covered by mountains that are shaded on ...
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University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries
Painting of the Governor, Mayors, and Rulers of Mexico
This 16th-century pictographic manuscript, written in Mexico, contains the declarations of the defendants and witnesses in an investigation into charges of misrule and abuse against Viceroy Don Luis de Velasco and other Spanish authorities in New Spain, as Mexico was then called. The investigation was carried out in 1563–66 by Don Jeronimo de Valderrama, who was sent to Mexico for this purpose by order of Philip II of Spain. The people and their statements are represented through pictographs, followed by an explanation in Nahuatl and Castilian Spanish for the ...
Contributed by
National Library of Spain
This early map of Brazil is by Jacopo Gastaldi (circa 1500-circa 1565), a Piedmontese cartographer who worked in Venice and rose to the position of cosmographer of the Venetian Republic. Gastaldi produced maps and illustrations for parts of Delle Navigationi et Viaggi (Travels and voyages), a compilation of travel writings by the Venetian diplomat and geographer Giovanni Battista Ramusio (1485-1557). Ramusio’s work contained more than 50 memoirs, including the writings of Marco Polo.
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Soldiers with Cannon Gathered outside Village, Circa 16th Century
This 1564 engraving is a print from an original work by the great German artist Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528). It depicts mercenary troops known as Landsknechte, literally “servants of the country,” gathered near a large cannon on a road outside a village in the valley. These figures have been identified as Ottoman Turks, who began to appear with increasing frequency in European engravings of the late 15th–early 16th century, following the capture of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453. The Dürer print includes heraldic symbols of Nuremberg on the ...
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Brown University Library