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Unique Algebraic Remainders on the Sibṭ’s Commentary on the Yāsamīnīyya
This work is an elaboration of the commentary written by the Egyptian mathematician Sibṭ al-Māridīnī—i.e., a commentary on another commentary—on the urjūzah (versified introduction) to the science of algebra, originally composed by the Berber mathematician and man of letters Abū Muḥammad ‘Abd-Allāh al-Ishbīlī al-Marrakushī, also known as Ibn al-Yāsamīn, who died in 1204 (600 AH). Al-Yāsamīn summarized his mathematical knowledge in a versified treatise known as the Yāsamīnīyya (The treatise by al-Yāsamīn). Around the end of the 15th century, al-Yāsamīn’s verses were the object of a ...
Account of the Composition of the Human Body
Juan Valverde was a Spanish medical anatomist who was born in Amusco, in the present-day province of Palencia, around 1525. He left for Italy around 1542, and later practiced medicine and taught in Rome. He was the great Spanish follower of the new anatomy established by Andreas Vesalius in 1543 with his work De humani corporis fabrica (On the fabric of the human body). Vesalius was responsible for a new vision of the human body in the modern world. Valverde helped to spread this vision through the 16 editions in ...
Commentary on the First Part of Avicenna’s “Canon of Medicine” and “Chapter on the Limbs” by Giano Matteo Durastante
This volume contains a Latin commentary on the first part of Avicenna’s Al-Qānūn fī al-ṭibb (The canon of medicine) by the Italian physician and philosopher Giovanni Battista da Mónte (known as Montano, 1498–1551), published in Venice in 1557. Montano was born in Verona. After first working in Brescia, he taught medicine at the University of Padua. He translated various works from Greek into Latin and wrote numerous commentaries on treatises by Hippocrates, Galen, and Avicenna, most of which were published posthumously by his followers. He ...
Ismāʻīl, the Persian Ambassador of Ṭahmāsp, King of Persia
Melchior Lorck, or Lorichs (1527–circa 1590), was the most brilliant graphic artist in 16th-century Denmark. He was born in Flensburg of distinguished parents; the Danish kings took up residence in the Lorck house when visiting the city. In 1549 King Christian III gave Lorck financial support to go on an educational journey. Lorck’s wanderlust led him throughout Europe and in the end to Vienna, where he gained employment with Emperor Charles V. From 1555 to 1559 Lorck was one of three ambassadors sent by the emperor to Constantinople ...
Emblems: With Many Images from Ancient Works; by Ján Sambucus of Tyrnavia in Pannonia
Emblemata: Cvm Aliqvot Nvmmis Antiqvi Operis (Emblems: with many images from ancient works) is by the notable Slovak poet, polymath, publisher, collector, and university professor Ján Sambucus (also known as János Zsámboki, 1531−84). Born in Trnava (also referred to as Tyrnavia) in western Slovakia, Sambucus was considered to be the outstanding humanistic personality of Central Europe. He maintained contacts with many European scholars, with whom he collaborated in his publishing and collecting activities and his historical research. A substantial part of his life was spent at the imperial court ...
Kaunas Municipal Acts Year Books for 1555–64
At the height of its power in the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ruled over the territory of present-day Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine, and parts of Estonia, Moldova, Poland, and Russia. In the Union of Lublin of 1569, the Grand Duchy and the Kingdom of Poland merged to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The commonwealth had a highly developed legal and administrative system, based on local land courts that decided civil cases involving the gentry and castle courts that dealt with other local matters, including criminal cases. Courts ...
The Special Features of French Antarctica, Otherwise Called America, and of Several Lands and Islands Discovered in Our Time
André Thevet (1516/17-92) was a Franciscan friar who traveled widely and, through his writings, helped to establish cosmographie--as geography was called at the time--as a science in 16th-century France. After making trips to Africa and the Middle East in the 1540s, he was appointed chaplain to the expedition of Nicolas Durand de Villegagnon, which set out from Le Havre in May 1555 to establish a colony in Brazil. The expedition landed near present-day Rio de Janeiro in November of the same year. In January 1556, Thevet fell ill ...
A Modern and Quite Precise Depiction of America (or the Fourth Part of the World)
In 1554, Diego Gutiérrez was appointed principal cosmographer to the king of Spain in the Casa de la Contratación. The crown commissioned the Casa to produce a large-scale map of the western hemisphere, often called the “fourth part of the world.” The purpose of the map was to assert Spain’s claims to new world territories against the rival claims of Portugal and France. Spain claimed all lands south of the Tropic of Cancer, which is shown prominently. The map was engraved by the famous Antwerp engraver Hieronymus Cock, who ...
The Most Memorable Strange Tales Observed from the Birth of Jesus Christ to Our Century
After studying law in several French universities, Pierre Boaistuau (1517–66) spent much time travelling throughout Europe in the service of different ambassadors, which gave him the chance to examine the curiosities of the contemporary world. Upon his return to Paris, he wrote and published his complete works in the brief period between 1556 and 1560. His books were the origin of two dominant genres in the second half of the 16th century: the histoires tragiques (tragic stories) and the histoires prodigieuses (strange tales). Histoires prodigieuses (Strange tales) was the ...
A Current and Precise Description of Portugal, Which Was Once Lusitania, by Fernando Alvarez Seco
Fernando Alvares Seco (fl. 1561-85) was a Portuguese mathematician and cartographer who made the first known map of Portugal. It was engraved by Sebastiano del Re and published in Rome in 1561. Abraham Ortelius (1527-98) later reprinted the map in his Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theater of the world), which was first published in May 1570. Ortelius was a cartographer and map publisher from Antwerp. From 1564 to 1570, he made maps of his own, but in 1570 turned to publishing the Theatrum. Known as the world’s first atlas, this ...
Yunnan Provincial Civil Examination Materials
This work is a collection of Yunnan provincial civil examination records, in one juan and four volumes, dated the 34th year (1555) of the Jiajing reign (1522–66) of the Ming dynasty. The civil examination system in China began in the first half of the seventh century and continued with various modifications until its abolition in 1905 in the late Qing dynasty. Its purpose was to train and select qualified officials to form an efficient bureaucracy to administer the vast nation under the emperor. The system was designed to reward ...
The Drawing of the Modern Geography of the Whole Africa
This rare map from 1564 printed on eight copperplates is the finest and most important large-scale map of Africa produced in the 16th century. Earlier maps were mostly printed from woodcuts; copperplates allowed the engraver to reproduce much more detail and finesse. The map was made by the Italian cartographer, engineer, and astronomer Giacomo Gastaldi (circa 1500–66) and engraved by Fabricius Licinus (circa 1521–65). The map depicts a stippled sea, ships, and sea creatures, both real and mythical. The interior is covered by mountains that are shaded on ...
Comment on the Lights of Revelations
This Ottoman manuscript is a ḥāshiyah (gloss) on the commentary on the Qur’an entitled Anwār al-tanzīl, which was composed by ‘Abd Allāh al-Bayḍawī, who died in about 685 AH (1286 AD). The gloss was written by Kemalpaşazade (died 940 AH [1533 AD]), and the present copy was transcribed from the author's holograph in 966 AH (1558 AD) by ‘Uthmān ibn Manṣūr. The text is written in Turkish Nasta’līq script in black ink, with the words qāla (I said) and aqūlu (I said), being indicators of quotations, in ...
Soldiers with Cannon Gathered outside Village, Circa 16th Century
This 1564 engraving is a print from an original work by the great German artist Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528). It depicts mercenary troops known as Landsknechte, literally “servants of the country,” gathered near a large cannon on a road outside a village in the valley. These figures have been identified as Ottoman Turks, who began to appear with increasing frequency in European engravings of the late 15th–early 16th century, following the capture of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453. The Dürer print includes heraldic symbols of Nuremberg on the ...
Book of the Holy Gospel of Our Lord and God Jesus Christ
The first printing of the Syriac New Testament appeared thanks to the patronage of Ferdinand I, to whom a long preface is dedicated to begin the book. Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter (1506-1557) and Moses of Mardin, on whose handwriting the Syriac type for the book was based, were the forces behind the work. This Syriac type was produced by Kaspar Kraft under the direction of the French Orientalist Guillaume Postel (1510-1581). This edition of the New Testament has James, 1 Peter, and 1 John, but not the other General Epistles or ...