The Book of Calixto and Melibea and of the Old Whore Celestina
La Celestina is undoubtedly one of the greatest bestsellers in Spanish literature. It is said to have been printed in more than 200 early editions, although fewer than half of these have survived. The work, by Fernando de Rojas (died 1541), began as a comedy in 16 acts, which was extended to 21 acts in the tragicomedy, which became the popular version. In addition to being published throughout Spain, the Spanish text was printed in Lisbon, Rome, Venice, Milan and Antwerp. Early translations into Italian, French, German, English, and Dutch ...
Contributed by
National Library of Spain
Abū Ma‘shar’s Eight Treatises Regarding the Great Conjunctions, the Annual Revolutions, and Their Origins
Ja‘far ibn Muḥammad al-Balkhī (787–886), known as Abū Ma‘shar (and as Albumasar in the Latin West), was one of the most-renowned astronomers of the Middle Ages. His fame in Europe rested upon numerous Latin translations of his astronomical works from the original Arabic. He was born in the Persian city of Balkh (present-day Afghanistan), on 20th of Ṣafar, 171 AH (August 10, 787). He most likely received his early education in Balkh prior to moving to Baghdad, as his works are often colored by a distinct Persian ...
Contributed by
Qatar National Library
The muscles of the left leg, seen from the front, and the bones and muscles of the right leg seen in right profile, and between them, a patella. Drawing by Michelangelo Buonarroti, ca. 1515-1520.
These drawings of the human leg are by the artist Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564), whose studies of anatomy are recorded by his earliest biographers, Vasari (1550) and Condivi (1553). Michelangelo reportedly first dissected a cadaver in Florence around 1495, after he had been commissioned to sculpt a crucifix of wood for the church of Santo Spirito. The prior of the church gave him rooms in which he could, by dissection, learn how to render convincingly the muscles of the dying Christ. His last witnessed dissection occurred in Rome in 1548. Such ...
Contributed by
Wellcome Library
Ninety-Five Theses
Martin Luther’s Disputatio pro declaratione virtutis indulgentiarum of 1517, commonly known as the Ninety-Five Theses, is considered the central document of the Protestant Reformation. Its complete title reads: “Out of love and zeal for clarifying the truth, these items written below will be debated at Wittenberg. Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology and an official professor at Wittenberg, will speak in their defense. He asks this in the matter: That those who are unable to be present to debate with us in speech should ...
Contributed by
Berlin State Library - Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation
The Heroic Life of Sir Theuerdank
Among the many endeavors undertaken by the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I (1459–1519) to further his legacy was his plan of an epic retelling of his own life story in the form of several works. Of these, only Die geuerlicheiten vnd einsteils der geschichten des loblichen streytparen vnd hochberümbten helds vnd Ritters herr Tewrdannckhs (The heroic life of Sir Theuerdank) was finished. Johann Schönsperger, a printer in Nuremberg, did the first, very small print run in 1517, to be delivered to other princes and sovereigns after the Emperor's ...
Contributed by
Bavarian State Library
New Methods in Medicine
Symphorien Champier (circa 1472–circa 1535) was a French physician and a pioneer in the fields of medical history and medical bibliography. He was born in Saint-Symphorien and studied medicine at Montpellier. After serving as personal physician to the duke of Lorraine, he settled in Lyon, where he practiced medicine and founded L’Ecole des médicins de Lyon (The Medical School of Lyon). Lyon was a major publishing center for medical books in 16th-century Europe, and Champier produced a number of works on medicine. Practica nova in medicina (New methods ...
Contributed by
Qatar National Library
Theoretical and Practical Book by Al-Zahrawi
Abu al-Qasim Khalaf Ibn Abbas al-Zahrawi (936–1013), known in the West as Albucasis, was born in the city of Zahra, near Cordoba, Spain. Regarded as one of the greatest of the Arab physicians, he excelled in the fields of internal medicine, surgery, and ophthalmology. His best known work is his encyclopedia of medicine, Al-tasreef liman ajiza an al-taaleef (The method of medicine), generally referred to as the Al-Tasreef, which included sections on surgery, medicine, orthopedics, ophthalmology, pharmacology, and nutrition. The work described more than 300 diseases and their treatments ...
Contributed by
Qatar National Library
Rule of Our Holy Father Benedict
This copy of the Rule of Benedict is accompanied by the essential documents important for monks of the Congregation of Santa Giustina in Padua, Italy, one of the major 15th-century reform movements among Benedictines in Europe. Included are the constitutions of the congregation, which explain their interpretation and the application of Benedict's sixth-century rule to the congregation’s own time and place, special privileges accorded to the congregation by the pope, and policies related to the Benedictine nuns who were affiliated with the congregation. Saint Benedict (circa 480–547 ...
Contributed by
Hill Museum & Manuscript Library