48 results in English
German Lutheran Church (1861-64), Southwest View, Perm', Russia
This southwest view of the Lutheran Church in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is a city of many ethnic groups and faiths. In 1861, the small Lutheran community, primarily of German origin, was given permission to construct a house of worship on St. Catherine Street ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tokareva House, Built around 1900, Detail of Main Facade, Perm', Russia
This view of the main façade of the Tokareva house at No. 67 Kirov (formerly Permskaia) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm' (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, Perm’ was the center of a large and prosperous merchant community ...
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Tartar District, Ordzhonikidze Street #26, House (Late 19th Century), Perm', Russia
This view of a wooden house at No. 26 Ordzhonikidze (formerly Monastyrskaia) Street, in the Tatar district of Perm', was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, it was the center of a large merchant community, of which ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Irtysh River, Ferry Crossing at Bol'sherech'e, Russia
This photograph of the Irtysh River at Bol'sherech'e was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. The Irtysh, one of Siberia's mighty rivers, is in fact a tributary of the still greater Ob' River. The Irtysh originates in the extreme northwest part of China, near the Mongolian Altai Mountains. Over its length of 4,248 kilometers, it passes through Kazakhstan and western Siberia before its confluence with ...
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Church of the Ascension (St. Theodosius) (1903-10), Southwest View, Perm', Russia
This southwest view of the Perm' Church of the Ascension in the name of St. Feodosii was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, the city's merchant community gave substantial donations for church construction. The donor for ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Gribushin Mansion, Built around 1900, Perm', Russia
This view of the Gribushin House at No. 13 Pokrovskaia (now Lenin) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, the city was the center of a prosperous merchant community in which the Gribushins were ...
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Yegoshikha Cemetery, Church of the Dormition (1905), Southwest View, Perm', Russia
This southwest view of the entrance gate and the Church of the Dormition at the Egoshikha Cemetery in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. The first settlement was located on the small Egoshikha River, near its confluence with the ...
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Kuklin House (1790s; after 1817), Governor's Mansion, Study of Nicholas II, who Lived Here with his Family from August 1917 until mid April, 1918, Tobol'sk, Russia
This photograph of the study of Nicholas II at the Governor General's Mansion in Tobol'sk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Tobol'sk was founded in 1587 by the cossack leader Daniel Chulkov near the confluence of the Tobol' and Irtysh rivers. Thereafter, Tobol'sk became the main administrative center of Siberia until the mid-19th century. A factor in its decline was the routing of the ...
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Noblemen's Assembly (1830), West Facade, Perm', Russia
This photograph of the former Noblemen's Assembly (Dvor'ianskoe sobranie) at No. 20 Sibirskaia (now Karl Marx) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is the largest metropolis on the European side of the Urals. Before the 1917 revolution, it had a significant concentration ...
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Church of the Icon of the Mother of God, from Tokhtarevo Village (1694), East Facade. Reassembled at Khokhlovka Architectural Preserve, Russia.
This photograph of the northeast view of the log Church of the Mother of God from the village of Tokhtarevo (Suksun District, Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated on the Sylva River (a southern tributary of the Kama River), Tokhtarevo was once a flourishing village, as the size and beauty of its church indicate. Built in 1694, the church at Tokhtarevo follows the traditional plan ...
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Church of Transfiguration, from Yanidor Village (1702), Northwest View, Reassembled at Khokhlovka Architectural Preserve, Russia
This northwest view of the log Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior from the village of Yanidor (Cherdyn' District, Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated on the Sypan River (a northern sub-tributary of the Kama River), Yanidor was once a flourishing village, as the size and beauty of its church indicate. Built in 1702, the Church of the Transfiguration follows the traditional plan of ...
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Igoshev House, from Village of Gribany (Mid-19th Century), Reassembled at Khokhlovka Architectural Preserve, Russia
This photograph of a log house (izba) at the V.I. Igoshev farmstead from the village of Gribany (Uinskoe District, Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated on the Teles River (a southern sub-tributary of the Kama River), Gribany was too small to have its own church, but the fertile river lands provided a reasonably secure existence for peasant farmers in the mid-19th century, when this ...
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Igoshev House, from Village of Gribany (Mid-19th Century), Interior, Main Room, Khokhlovka, Russia
This interior view of a log house (izba) at the V.I. Igoshev farmstead from the village of Gribany (Uinskoe District, Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated on the Teles River (a southern sub-tributary of the Kama River), Gribany was too small to have a church, but the fertile river lands provided a reasonably secure existence for peasant farmers and craftsmen in the mid-19th century ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Windmill from Shikhiri Village (Mid-19th Century), Reassembled at Khokhlovka Architectural Preserve, Russia
This photograph of a log windmill from the village of Shikhiri (or Shikhari, Ocher District, Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. This stout log structure was built in the mid-19th century by Kuz'ma Rakhmanov, a prosperous peasant from the region of the Ocher River (a western tributary of the Kama River). Constructed with squared pine logs tightly joined in a mortise and tenon (dovetail) technique ...
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Church of the Elevation of the Cross (1747-58), South View, Irkutsk, Russia
This southeast view of the Church of the Elevation of the Cross in the city of Irkutsk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Built in stages from 1747 to 1760 on the Hill of the Cross, the church originally bore the name of its first main altar, dedicated to the Trinity, with a secondary altar dedicated to the Elevation of the Cross. The elongated form combines traditional 17th-century ...
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Church of the Elevation of the Cross (1747-58), Southeast Corner, Irkutsk, Russia
This southeast view of the main structure of the Church of the Elevation of the Cross in the city of Irkutsk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Built in stages from 1747 to 1760 on the Hill of the Cross, the church originally bore the name of its first altar, dedicated to the Trinity, with a secondary altar dedicated to the Elevation of the Cross. The primary altar ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Annuciation (1692), Northeast View, Kargopol', Russia
This northeast view of the Church of the Annunciation in Kargopol' (Arkhangel'sk Oblast') was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Kargopol' is one of the oldest settlements in the Russian north, founded perhaps in the 12th, or even the 11th, century. Its location near Lake Lacha and the source of the Onega River (which flows into the White Sea) enabled Kargopol' to benefit from trade in salt and ...
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Church of the Savior (1706-10), Southwest View, Irkutsk, Russia
This photograph of the Church of the Miraculous Icon of the Savior (Spas Nerukotvornyi) in the city of Irkutsk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. From the time of its first log forts in the 1660s, Irkutsk was destined to be the administrative and commercial center of eastern Siberia. In 1700, Irkutsk became the third Siberian city capable of producing bricks on a large scale. In 1706-10, master ...
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Church of the Savior (1706-10), East View, Irkutsk, Russia
This photograph of the Church of the Miraculous Icon of the Savior (Spas Nerukotvornyi) in the city of Irkutsk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. From the time of its first log forts in the 1660s, Irkutsk was destined to be the administrative and commercial center of eastern Siberia. In 1700, Irkutsk became the third Siberian city capable of producing bricks on a large scale. Shortly thereafter, in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Governor-General's Residence (1814-21). Built by the Merchant M. V. Sibiriakov, the Building Now Serves as Part of Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk, Russia.
This photograph of the former Sibiriakov Mansion in the city of Irkutsk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. From the time of its first log forts in the 1660s, Irkutsk was destined to be the administrative and commercial center of eastern Siberia. In 1700, Irkutsk became the third Siberian city capable of producing bricks on a large scale. This grand residence, with a Corinthian portico, was built in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cathedral of the Nativity of Christ (1552-62, 1652, 1770s), South Panorama from Onega River, with Bell Tower (1767-78), Kargopol', Russia
This south view, from the frozen Onega River, of the church ensemble on Cathedral (or New Market) Square in Kargopol' (Arkhangel'sk Oblast) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Kargopol' is one of the oldest settlements in the Russian north, founded perhaps in the 12th, or even the 11th, century. Its location near Lake Lacha and the origins of the Onega River (which flows into the White Sea ...
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Church of the Resurrection (1686-94), Southwest View, Matigory, Russia
This southwest view of the Church of the Resurrection in the village of Verkhnie Matigory (Arkhangel'sk Oblast) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Made of stuccoed brick with white ornamental details, the Church of the Resurrection was erected in 1686-94 on a bluff above the Matigorka River (a tributary of the Northern Dvina River) by the master builder Fëdor Spiridonov Stafurov. The picturesque arrangement of its volumes ...
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Church of the Resurrection, Interior, with Icon Screen, Matigory, Russia
This view of the icon screen of the Church of the Resurrection in the village of Verkhnie Matigory (Arkhangel'sk Oblast) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. The Church of the Resurrection was built in 1686-94. Its five-tiered 18th-century icon screen (iconostasis) is one of the best preserved in the Russian north and contains a number of ancient icons. Although part of the second tier (Holy Festivals) is ...
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Log Church of the Epiphany (1787), Northeast View with Bell Tower, Oshevensk, Russia
This northeast view of the log Church of the Epiphany at Oshevenskoe (Kargopol' District, Arkhangel'sk Oblast) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Oshevenskoe, located along the right bank of the Chur'iuga River, developed near the Dormition Monastery, which was founded by the monk Alexander Osheven in 1453. This large village consisted of three hamlets, each with its own name. The Church of the Epiphany presided over ...
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Church of the Presentation of the Virgin (1688-93), Southwest View, Sol'vychegodsk, Russia
This southwest view of the Cathedral of the Presentation of the Virgin in Sol'vychegodsk (Arkhangel'sk Oblast) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. This spectacular church was built for the Presentation Monastery, founded in 1565 by the Stroganov family as part of their trading compound at Sol’vychegodsk. Construction began in 1688, with the support of Grigorii Stroganov, soon to become prominent in the reign of Peter ...
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Cathedral of the Annunciation (1560-84), East View, Sol'vychegodsk, Russia
This east view of the Cathedral of the Annunciation at Sol'vychegodsk (Arkhangel'sk Oblast) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located near the confluence of the Vychegda and Northern Dvina rivers, Sol’vychegodsk (Salt of the Vychegda) is in an area of many salt springs. In the 16th century, Sol’vychegodsk became the center of vast trading operations owned by the Stroganovs, whose wealth was based on ...
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Cathedral of the Annunciation (1560-84), Interior, View East toward Icon Screen (Late 17th Century), Sol'vychegodsk, Russia
This interior view of the Cathedral of the Annunciation at Sol'vychegodsk (Arkhangel'sk Oblast) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located near the confluence of the Vychegda and Northern Dvina rivers, Sol’vychegodsk (Salt of the Vychegda) became, in the 16th century, the center of vast trading operations owned by the Stroganovs, whose wealth was based on salt. The patriarch of the dynasty, Anika (Ioannikii) Stroganov (1497-1570 ...
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Church of the Dormition (1674), West Facade, Varzuga, Russia
This southwest view of the Church of the Dormition at Varzuga (Murmansk Oblast) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Varzuga is located on the south shore of the Kola Peninsula, 22 kilometers from where the Varzuga River enters the White Sea. By the mid-15th century, Varzuga was a notable outpost in the White Sea territory of the medieval trading center of Novgorod. Varzuga had strong ties with the ...
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Dormition Cathedral Ensemble, West View, Vilikii Ustiug, Russia
This view northeast across the Sukhona River of the cathedral ensemble at Velikii Ustiug (Vologda Oblast), was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located where the Sukhona and Iug rivers merge to form the Northern Dvina River, the town derives its name from "mouth of the Iug," with the epithet veliki (great) added at the end of the 16th century, in recognition of the city's importance. This network ...
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Dormition Cathedral Ensemble, West View, Velikii Ustiug, Russia
This northeast view across the Sukhona River of the cathedral ensemble at Velikii Ustiug (Vologda Oblast), was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located where the Sukhona and Iug rivers merge to form the Northern Dvina River, the town derives its name from "mouth of the Iug," with the epithet velikii (great) added at the end of the 16th century, in recognition of the city's importance. This network ...
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Cathedral of St. Prokopii of Ustiug, Interior, Upper Tiers of Icon Screen, Velikii Ustiug, Russia
This interior view, east toward the iconostasis, of the Cathedral of Saint Prokopii of Ustiug at Velikii Ustiug (Vologda Oblast) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Saint Prokopii was a 13th-century German merchant who converted to Orthodoxy in Novgorod in the 1240s and eventually moved to remote Ustiug, where he undertook a 30-year period of self-abnegation as a iurodivyi (Fool in Christ). Accounts of miracles accumulated after his ...
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Spaso-Sumorin Monastery, Church of the Ascension (1796-1801 and 1825), East Facade, Tot'ma, Russia
This east view of the Church (sobor) of the Ascension at Savior-Sumorin Monastery near Tot'ma (Vologda Oblast) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located on the Sukhona River, Tot’ma had become a major center of salt refining by the middle of the 16th century. Monasteries in the Vologda area received tax exemptions from Moscow for salt production, and the Savior-Prilutskii Monastery sent one of its monks ...
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St. Cyril (Kirill)-Belozersk Monastery, Southeast Panorama, with Siverskoe Lake, Kirillov, Russia
This southeast view across Lake Siverskoe of the Saint Kirill Belozersk Monastery (Vologda Oblast) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Formally dedicated to the Dormition of the Virgin, the monastery was founded in 1397 by Kirill (1337-1427), a monk of noble birth who had served at the Simonov Monastery in Moscow. The monastery's importance as a religious center and as a fortress on Muscovy's northern flank ...
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St. Cyril (Kirill)-Belozersk Monastery, Southwest Panorama, with Siverskoe Lake, Kirillov, Russia
This southwest view across Lake Siverskoe of the Saint Kirill Belozersk Monastery (Vologda Oblast) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Formally dedicated to the Dormition of the Virgin, the monastery was founded in 1397 by Kirill (1337-1427), a monk of noble birth who had served at the Simonov Monastery in Moscow. The monastery's importance as a religious center and as a fortress on Muscovy's northern flank ...
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St. Cyril (Kirill)-Belozersk Monastery, Dormition Cathedral (1497), with Church of St. Cyril (1780s) (Left), Church of St. Vladimir (1554) (Right), and Church of St. Epiphanius (1645), East View, Kirillov, Russia
This east view of the Cathedral (sobor) of the Dormition and attached structures at the Saint Kirill Belozersk Monastery (Vologda Oblast) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Formally dedicated to the Dormition of the Virgin, the monastery was founded in 1397 by Kirill (1337-1427), a monk of noble birth from Moscow. The monastery's importance as a religious center and as a fortress on Muscovy's northern flank ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
St. Cyril (Kirill)-Belozersk Monastery, Church of the Transfiguration over the Water Gate (1595), Interior, View East with Icon Screen, Kirillov, Russia
This interior view of the Church of the Transfiguration over the Water Gate at Saint Kirill Belozersk Monastery (Vologda Oblast) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Formally dedicated to the Dormition of the Virgin, the monastery was founded in 1397 on the north shore of Lake Siverskoe by Kirill (1337-1427), a Muscovite monk canonized in 1547. The monastery soon acquired significance as a major religious center with connections ...
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Church of John the Baptist in Roshchenie (1710-17), Interior, Northwest Corner, with Frescoes, Vologda, Russia
This northwest view of the interior of the Church of the Decapitation of John the Baptist in Roshchen'e (a district in Vologda) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Before the founding of Saint Petersburg in 1703, Russia depended on a northern route through the White Sea for trade with western Europe. One of the most important centers on this route was Vologda, founded in the 12th century ...
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Church of John the Baptist in Roshchenie (1710-17), Interior, Southeast Corner, with Frescoes, Vologda, Russia
This southeast view of the interior of the Church of the Decapitation of John the Baptist in Roshchen'e (a district in Vologda) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Before the founding of Saint Petersburg in 1703, Russia depended on a northern route through the White Sea for trade with western Europe. One of the most important centers on this route was Vologda, founded in the 12th century ...
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Cathedral of St. Sophia and Dormition (1681-86), (right), and Cathedral of the Intercession (1743-46;1850-67), (left), East View, Tobol'sk, Russia
This photograph of the east view of the St. Sophia Cathedral ensemble in Tobol'sk (western Siberia) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Founded in 1587 at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers, Tobol'sk was for some two centuries the de facto Siberian capital and, as of 1620, the center of the vast Eparchy of Siberia. This exalted position was reflected in the main cathedral ...
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Church of the Archangel Michael (1745-54), South View, Tobol'sk, Russia
This photograph of the southwest view of the Church of the Archangel Michael in Tobol'sk (western Siberia) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Founded in 1587 at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers, Tobol'sk was for some two centuries the de facto Siberian capital and, as of 1620, the center of the vast Eparchy of Siberia. Among the city's imposing 18th-century "Siberian baroque ...
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Tobol'sk Kremlin, Merchants' Court (Gostinnyi Dvor), (1703-05), South View, Tobol'sk, Russia
This photograph of the Merchants' Court (Gostinnyi dvor) in Tobol’sk, was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Tobol'sk was founded in 1587 at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers. Peter the Great attached much significance to the development of Tobol'sk as a base for Russian expansion in Siberia. In 1708, he designated Tobol’sk as the administrative center for the Province of Siberia, which ...
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Cathedral of the Icon of the Sign (1768-1801), Early 20th Century, South View, Tiumen', Russia
This photograph of the south façade of the Cathedral of the Icon of the Sign (Znamenie) in the western Siberian city of Tiumen' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Founded in 1586 on the site of a Tatar settlement at the confluence of the Tiumenka and Tura rivers, Tiumen' is considered the oldest permanent Russian settlement in Siberia. Until the 19th century, it existed in the shadow of ...
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