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Art of Ancient Rus’-Ukraine
This book is a short history of the art of Ancient Rus’, the medieval polity centered on Kiev, which flourished from the 9th to the 13th centuries, and which formed the basis for much of later Russian and Ukrainian culture. Topics covered include the influences of the Varangians and of Eastern Orthodoxy, the importance of Christianity, wooden architecture, churches and monasteries in Kiev, art and architecture in the historic city of Chernigov, and the arts of enamel and icon painting. Particular attention is paid to Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev ...
Contributed by
National Parliamentary Library of Ukraine
Sir Eric Drummond
Sir Eric Drummond (1876–1951) was the first secretary-general of the League of Nations. Educated at Eton College, Drummond entered the British Foreign Office in 1900. He rose to become private secretary to Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey in 1915–16 and continued in that position under Grey’s successor, Arthur Balfour, in 1916–18. As a member of the British delegation to the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 he was involved in the drafting of the Covenant of the League of Nations. With strong backing from British and American ...
Contributed by
United Nations Office at Geneva Library
Al-Arab, Volume 1, Number 1, July 4, 1917
The newspaper Al-Arab (The Arabs) was first published in Baghdad on July 4, 1917, some four months after British troops captured the city from the Turks, thereby ending three centuries of Ottoman rule. The paper appeared at a critical period in the history of Iraq. Issued by the British authorities, it served as a mouthpiece for the British administration at a time of rising Iraqi and Arab nationalism. It depicted the Ottomans as foreigners and the British as liberators and sought to advance broader British military and political strategy against ...
Contributed by
Iraqi National Library and Archives
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The Interpreter of Arabic Literature and Its History
Al-Wasit fi-al-Adab al-‘Arabi wa-Tarikhih (The interpreter of Arabic literature and its history) is a textbook in Arabic literature approved for use by the Egyptian Ministry of Education in the various schools under its jurisdiction, namely all teacher-training institutes and secondary schools. The authors were religious and literary figures. The better known of the two, Shaykh Ahmad al-Iskandarī, was born in Alexandria, pursued his studies at al-Azhar, and became a teacher in the schools of al-Fayyūm and other areas around Cairo. He was appointed to the faculty of Cairo University ...
Contributed by
Qatar National Library
Author Books, or Handicraft Models of “The Roses of Hercules” by Tomás Morales
Tomás Morales (1884−1921) was one of the main poets of the Hispanic modernist movement. His major work Las rosas de Hércules (The roses of Hercules) was written under the influence of French Symbolism and the works of the greatest representative of literary modernism in the Spanish language, the Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío (1867−1916). Morales’s work offers a singular vision of the poetic outlook of the first quarter of the 20th century, in which mythology and aesthetics contribute to a richly varied language, sometimes intense and sometimes delicate ...
Contributed by
Cabildo of Gran Canaria, Canary Islands
Portrait of the Poet Tomás Morales
Shown here is a portrait of Tomás Morales (1884−1921), one of the main poets of the Hispanic modernist movement. The image is by painter and photographer Tomás Gómez Bosch (1887−1980) a friend of the poet’s. The portrait bears less resemblance to traditional photographs than to a charcoal drawing, because Gómez Bosch modified the photograph with a gum bichromate process. This process was developed during the second half of the 19th century, and was used by Gómez Bosch between 1912 and 1919. Gómez Bosch drew on the light-sensitive ...
Contributed by
Cabildo of Gran Canaria, Canary Islands
Understanding the Truth, Issue 1, January 1, 1918
Têgeyştinî Rastî (Understanding the truth) was a semiweekly newspaper published by the command of the British army in Iraq in 1918–19. At the time, Britain was at war with the Ottoman Empire, which had ruled Iraq since the 16th century. When British forces began advancing north toward the Iraqi Kurdistan region in the spring of 1918, the paper became the mouthpiece of the British Empire, propagandizing in support of British positions when dealing with political, social, and cultural issues. The paper sold for one ana, or four fils, a ...
Contributed by
Iraqi National Library and Archives
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Kusae, on the Basis of British and German Nautical Charts / by E. Sarfert
This map of the volcanic island of Kosrae in the western Pacific is by Ernst Gotthilf Sarfert, a German ethnographer who participated in the German South Sea Expedition of 1908–10 and spent four months on Kosrae in 1909, studying the island and its people. Kosrae comprises one of the four states of the Federated States of Micronesia, the others being Pohnpei, also a single volcanic island; Truk, a group of 14 volcanic islands; and Yap, a group of four islands and 13 coral atolls. These islands are all part ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Attention! The German Viper is Taken. It is Now Necessary to Pull Out the Poisonous Teeth!
This 1919 poster, made in Italy just after the close of World War I, shows a hand strangling a snake decorated with the German Iron Cross. The text reads: “Attention! The German viper is taken! It is now necessary to pull out the poisonous teeth!” Italy and Germany were allies during World War II, but they were enemies during World War I. Italy entered the war on the side of Britain and France on May 23, 1915, by declaring war on Austria-Hungary. Under the terms of a secret treaty concluded ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
The Danger of Bolshevism
Following the Bolshevik (i.e., Communist) takeover of Russia in November 1917, it was widely thought that other European countries might fall to the communists. Seeking to capitalize on widespread economic misery in the aftermath of the German defeat in World War I, the Communist Party of Germany attempted several unsuccessful takeovers of the country in 1919–21. This 1919 poster warns Germans about the danger of a communist coup. It shows a skeleton wrapped in a black cloak with a bloody knife held in its teeth. In the background ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Education, Training
This 1919 poster shows education and training being conducted at the ordnance operations, maintenance, and repair schools at the Raritan Arsenal in Metuchen, New Jersey. Photographs show classes receiving instruction in ten different skills or trades necessary to the U.S. Army at that time: machinist, blacksmith, welding, automobile mechanic, tractor mechanic, small arms and machine guns, explosives, artillery mechanic, saddler, and woodworking. The arsenal was part of the U.S. Army Ordnance Department, which traced its origins to the Board of War and Ordnance established in 1776 to supply ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Future Ship Workers -- A One-armed Welder
This poster, produced in 1919, shortly after the end of World War I, is from an exhibit of the U.S. Red Cross Institute for Crippled and Disabled Men and the Red Cross Institute for the Blind. The illustrations show a scene in which disabled men are taught welding, and another where a man with a partially amputated arm operates a welding torch. The captions read, “Disabled men are taught oxy-acetylene welding in the Red Cross Institute for Crippled and Disabled Men, New York City,” and “His good arm enables ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Give the World the Once over in the United States Navy
This colorful recruiting poster issued by the Press Navy Recruiting Bureau in New York in 1919 shows sailors as tourists in India, riding an elephant and taking snapshots. The text urges young men to join the U.S. Navy as a way to see the world. Between 1914 and the end of World War I, the U.S. Navy added nearly 80 vessels, mostly destroyers and submarines, and needed manpower to operate these ships. This poster is by James Henry Daugherty (1889–1974), a painter and illustrator who produced posters ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
In France, Two Popular Trades Taught Disabled Soldiers Are Cabinet-Making and Tailoring
This poster, produced in 1919, shortly after the end of World War I, is from an exhibit of the U.S. Red Cross Institute for Crippled and Disabled Men and the Red Cross Institute for the Blind. The poster shows two scenes in which disabled soldiers in France are being taught useful skills to enable them to find employment after discharge from military service: "Disabled Serbians working in the carpentry shop at Lyons, France," and "A tailoring class in Paris taught by a one-legged instructor." The United States suffered more ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
India Restores Her War Cripples to Self-Support
This 1919 poster, created for an exhibit of the Red Cross Institute for Crippled and Disabled Men and the Red Cross Institute for the Blind in India, features scenes of disabled Indian Army veterans of World War I, who had learned to support themselves by becoming automobile mechanics and carpenters. Queen Mary’s Technical School, shown here, was established in 1917 by Lady Marie Willingdon, the wife of governor of Bombay (present-day Mumbai) province, Lord Willingdon, to assist Indian soldiers wounded in the war. The Indian Army was a major ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Is Schleswig Danish? Schleswig is German!
This 1919 poster shows a map of the province of Schleswig and indicates the numbers of German and Danish speaking voters in 1912, the time of the last elections to the German Reichstag (parliament). Also shown are four views of the province: a farmhouse, a church in a town, a river or canal, and a coastal view. The text argues that the south of the province is “pure German,” and that the “majority of the population is German and feels German.” Schleswig had been an object of rivalry between Germany ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Don't Be Fooled, Stay with Germany!
This poster, published in Berlin in 1919, shows a Polish man sitting on a Polish border gate and gesturing to a couple to go to Poland. Behind him are clouds forming an image of a man with plenty to eat. The couple on the German side of the border walks by; the arm of the German man is raised as if to shield the couple from the image, and the text warns, “Don't be fooled, stay with Germany!” Following the defeat of Germany and Austria-Hungary in World War I ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Down with Bolshevism. Bolshevism Brings War and Destruction, Hunger and Death
This poster was published in Berlin shortly after World War I by an organization called the Vereinigung zur Bekämpfung des Bolschewismus (Union for the Struggle against Bolshevism). The poster shows a man struggling with a snake above text that reads: “Down with Bolshevism. Bolshevism brings war and destruction, hunger and death.” The term “Bolshevism,” derived from the Russian word for majority, referred to the faction that split off from the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party in 1903 and seized power in Russia under the leadership of Vladimir I. Lenin (1870 ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Carry the 'Ideal' Waterman Pen, the Weapon of Peace
This 1919 advertisement for the “Ideal” Waterman pen features a woman in classical garb holding a giant fountain pen in her right hand and in her left a document labeled “Treaty of Peace.” The Treaty of Versailles, negotiated that year at the Paris Peace Conference, was signed using a solid gold Waterman pen, and this poster was an attempt to associate a commercial product with the historic event. The Waterman Pen Company was founded in New York in 1884 by Lewis Edson Waterman (1837–1901), inventor of the capillary feed ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
This is What the Polish Emigrants Look Like
This 1919 poster was produced as part of the campaign to convince ethnic Germans in Upper Silesia to vote to keep the province German after World War I. The poster appeals to German voters by depicting destitute ethnic Germans leaving Poland. The complete text reads: “This is what the Polish emigrants look like, and you'll look like this too if Silesia becomes part of Poland. Upper Silesians! Stay with the new Germany!” Located in present-day southwestern Poland, Upper Silesia was originally a Polish territory that over the centuries passed ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Borneo
This early-20th century map of Borneo shows infrastructure developments on the island, in large part associated with the growth of the rubber industry. Indicated on the map are railroads, overland telegraph lines, and submarine telegraph lines linking the British-controlled northern part of Borneo to Singapore and connecting the Dutch-controlled south to other parts of the Dutch East Indies, such as Java and the Celebes. The map is by Edward Stanford Ltd., a London map seller and publishing house established in 1853 by Edward Stanford (1827-1904) and known for its London ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress