51 results in English
Album of the Coats of Arms of Ukraine
This collection of prints depicts the historic coats of arms and flags of Ukraine. The work is by Mykola Bytynsʹkyĭ (1893–1972), a Ukrainian painter and expert on heraldry. Bytynsʹkyĭ fought in the Ukrainian War for Independence at the end of World War I and later immigrated to Prague where he studied arts and produced several works on heraldry. After World War II, he lived in a displaced persons camp in Germany, before immigrating to Canada. The coat of arms of Ukraine, a trident on a blue shield, was officially ...
Ukrainian Culture: A Short History of the Cultural Life of the Ukrainian People
In the summer of 1918, Ivan Ogienko (1882–1972), a Ukrainian scientist and political, public, and ecclesiastical figure, became a founder and the first president of Kam'ianets'-Podil's'kyi state university (subsequently renamed after him). He later gave a course of lectures on Ukrainian culture at the university, on which this book is based. Part I concerns the history of the culture until the 17th century. It describes the territory of Ukraine, along with song, epic (Cossack) poems and other major literary works, the language, and architecture. Also ...
National Highways Map of the United States
This map, issued in 1918 by the National Highways Association (NHA), shows the 150,000-mile (241,402-kilometer) network of roads proposed by the NHA. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated a “four-fold system” of roads that would include national highways to be built and maintained by the federal government, and systems of state, county, and township or town roads. The map associates the building of roads with national defense and “preparedness” for U.S. involvement in World War I, as symbolized by James Montgomery Flagg’s ...
Hupmobile United America Tour, 1918
This map, issued in 1918 by the National Highways Association (NHA), shows the route of the United America Tour undertaken by the Hupp Motor Car Corporation, under the auspices of the American Automobile Association and the NHA, “for the purpose of pioneering a new good road that would include all capitals and major cities of the U.S.” The tour began in Washington, DC, on August 28, 1916, and was completed, after visits to the capitals of all of the then-48 states, in the same city on January 9, 1917 ...
Al-Arab, Volume 1, Number 1, July 4, 1917
The newspaper Al-Arab (The Arabs) was first published in Baghdad on July 4, 1917, some four months after British troops captured the city from the Turks, thereby ending three centuries of Ottoman rule. The paper appeared at a critical period in the history of Iraq. Issued by the British authorities, it served as a mouthpiece for the British administration at a time of rising Iraqi and Arab nationalism. It depicted the Ottomans as foreigners and the British as liberators and sought to advance broader British military and political strategy against ...
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Map of Western Asia, Circa 1918−20
This map of western Asia produced by the American Geographical Society (AGS) of New York dates from the period immediately after World War I. A similar map in the collection of the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee is thought to have been made by the AGS for the use of the American delegation to the peace negotiations in Versailles in 1918−19. The map shows Turkey, the Arabian Peninsula, Persia (present-day Iran), and Afghanistan. Iraq is still shown as part of Turkey (the Ottoman Empire). The ...
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Lest Liberty Perish from the Face of the Earth - Buy Bonds
In 1917 the United States entered the Great War, as World War I was known at the time. A national propaganda campaign was started to convince Americans to support the war effort. Some of the images used in this campaign have become a permanent part of American cultural iconography, notably J.M. Flagg’s famed 1917 poster of Uncle Sam declaring, “I want YOU.” In addition to recruiting troops to fight, the U.S. government issued “Liberty Bonds” to help finance the war effort. Artists helped the cause by making ...
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Marjory Stoneman Douglas World War I Service Card
Marjory Stoneman Douglas, best known as an environmentalist and author of The River of Grass (1947), served in the United States Navy during World War I, from April 1917 to May 1918. Frank Bryant Stoneman, Marjory’s father and editor-in-chief of the Miami Herald, sent his daughter to cover the story of the first woman in the Miami area to enlist in the armed forces during World War I. Douglas was the first to arrive at the recruiting office, and became the very woman she was sent to report on ...
The Cradle of the War: The Near East and Pan-Germanism
The Cradle of the War: The Near East and Pan-Germanism is a study of the origins of World War I. The author, Henry Charles Woods (1881−1939), argues that the main cause of the conflict was “the Pan-German desire for domination from Hamburg to the Persian Gulf.” The book offers an overview of political and military developments in the Near East (defined as the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor), with chapters on Serbia and Montenegro, Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, and Albania. Later chapters cover military highways in the Balkans, the ...
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Subscribe to the 8th War Loan
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This poster, published in Vienna in 1918, shows a little girl reaching through a number "8" to deposit a coin into a pile below, an advertisement for the eighth war loan being raised by Austria-Hungary, Germany’s chief ally in the war. The artist who designed the poster was Alfred Offner. Born in Czernowitz in 1879, Offner was a painter and graphic artist who was associated with the Vienna Secession, a group ...
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Union Bank, 8th War Loan; Peace Through Victory
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This poster, published in Vienna in 1918, is an advertisement for the eighth war loan being raised by Austria-Hungary, Germany’s chief ally in the war. It shows a young woman offering a bowl of coins at an altar decorated with the Austrian coat of arms. The artist was Thomas Fasche, who created several other World War I posters, but about whom little is known.
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Togo: The Hugues Le Roux Mission
Robert Charles Henri Le Roux (1860–1925), better known by his pen name of Hugues Le Roux, was a French writer and journalist who specialized in travel literature and books about the French colonies. Close to French official circles, he helped to build support in France for the idea that France had a unique civilizing mission (mission civilisatrice) in the less-developed parts of the world. In 1918–19, Le Roux produced for the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs a series of small books on the French colonies in Africa, as ...
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Manifesto to the Czechoslovak People in America
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. “'Manifest k Ceskoslovenskému lidu v Americe!" (Manifesto to the Czechoslovak people in America) is one of a series of posters created by Vojtech Preissig (1873-1944) that encouraged Czech and Slovak volunteers to fight with the Czechoslovak Legion against Austria-Hungary and Germany to further the cause of an independent Czechoslovakia. Preissig was a Czech artist living in the United States. The poster was designed and printed at the Wentworth Institute in Boston and ...
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Now Slovakia Arises. It's Pulling off Its Shackles
This World War I poster showing soldiers and the Slovak coat of arms is one of a series by Czech artist Vojtěch Preissig (1873–1944) urging Czech and Slovak volunteers living in the United States to fight with the Czechoslovak Legion against Germany and Austria-Hungary. The Czech lands and Slovakia were at that time part of Austria-Hungary and leaders of the national independence movement believed that the cause of an independent Czechoslovak state could be furthered by fighting on the Allied side. In December 1917, the government of France approved ...
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Why M.C.A.?: German Prisoners of War, World War One, before Y.M.C.A. Hut
This original ink-and-wash cartoon from World War I by Bruce Bairnsfather (1888-1959) depicts German prisoners of war lounging before a hut with a YMCA (Young Men’s Christian Association) sign. The cartoon is on a grey board. The witty holograph caption is on the back. Bairnsfather was a British army officer who was trained as an artist; while serving on the Western front in 1914-15, he made drawings of war scenes that were published in British magazines. He is best known as the creator of “Old Bill,” a fictional character ...
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Understanding the Truth, Issue 1, January 1, 1918
Têgeyştinî Rastî (Understanding the truth) was a semiweekly newspaper published by the command of the British army in Iraq in 1918–19. At the time, Britain was at war with the Ottoman Empire, which had ruled Iraq since the 16th century. When British forces began advancing north toward the Iraqi Kurdistan region in the spring of 1918, the paper became the mouthpiece of the British Empire, propagandizing in support of British positions when dealing with political, social, and cultural issues. The paper sold for one ana, or four fils, a ...
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My Dear Home, I Love You, You’re a House for Each of Us and Home for All of Us
This World War I poster, published in 1918, shows a Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) hut set in the woods, with soldiers outside relaxing and playing games. A red and blue YMCA sign is visible over the door. At the bottom of the poster is a quotation, “My dear home, I love you, you’re the house for each of us and home for all of us,” which is attributed to a poilu (French slang for a front-line soldier). The YMCA was founded in 1844 by George Williams, a ...
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Tonhalle: Exhibition of Works by German Prisoners of War Interned in Switzerland
This poster advertises an exhibition of artwork by interned German prisoners of war at the Tonhalle in Zurich, Switzerland, in May–June 1918. The location, times of opening, and the entry fee of 20 pfennigs are indicated. Exhibition proceeds were to benefit a Bavarian organization that assisted prisoners of war. The poster features the image of a German soldier who seems to be lost in thought, seated in front of the symbol for the Red Cross. Under arrangements worked out by the Red Cross in late 1914 and implemented starting ...
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For the Country, My Eyes. For Peace, Your Money
This World War I poster, published in Turin, shows a blinded Italian soldier with bloodstained bandages wrapped around his eyes. Like most belligerents in World War I, Italy had to raise funds to support its war effort by issuing war bonds, which were essentially interest-bearing loans that citizens made to the government. The appeals to patriotism and to the sacrifices by the soldiers at the front are typical of war bond posters produced in Italy and other countries. This poster was created by artist Alfredo Ortelli and advertises the Consolidated ...
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"Times Are Hard Your Majesty - You Leave Us Nothing to Do"
This U.S. World War I propaganda poster shows a devil, accompanied by two smaller devils, telling Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany that he was leaving them with no work to do. On the left is shown the home of the devils, a cave with its opening covered with cobwebs, over which hangs a sign, “To Let.” Using a word from the Hebrew Bible identified with Hell, the cave is called the “Gehenna Apartments.” The Kaiser has a bloody sword extending from beneath his cape. Also shown is the Kaiser ...
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American Library Association, Library War Service
When the United States entered World War I in 1917, the American Library Association established a Committee on Mobilization and War Service Plans, which was invited by the Department of War’s Commission on Training Camp Activities to provide library services to U.S. soldiers and sailors in the United States and overseas. ALA's wartime program became known as the Library War Service and was directed by Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Congress. Between 1917 and 1920, ALA mounted two financial campaigns and raised $5 million from public donations, erected ...
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America's Answer: The Second Official United States War Picture
This World War I poster advertises the film America’s Answer, which was made by the Division of Films of the Committee on Public Information, a government body established in the United States to foster public unity and generate support for the war. The committee was headed by muckraking journalist George Creel (1876–1953). The film, which was released in U.S. theaters on July 14, 1918, is a documentary (part of the Following the Flag to France series) about the arrival in France of the first half-million American troops ...
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Weapons for Death -- Weapons for Life! Subscribe to the Victory Loan
This World War I poster from Italy shows two young men working at a forge, making a plow. The caption calls on Italians to subscribe to the victory loan. Like most belligerents in World War I, Italy had to raise funds by issuing war bonds, which were essentially interest-bearing loans that citizens made to the government. Campaigns supported by posters such as this had two purposes. One was to urge citizens to lend money to the government to finance the war. The other was to promote patriotic fervor in support ...
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Battles Give Way to Sports in A.E.F.
This World War I recruiting poster shows scenes of military life in France, featuring sporting and recreational events with soldiers of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF). The text states: “How would you like to be with Uncle Sam's privileged tourists? Why worry about the hot weather or a job? Take a cool and comfortable ocean voyage. See Hawaii, Panama, or the Philippines, and better yourself by attending the Vocational Schools. Earn - Learn - Travel. Enlist in the U.S. Army.” The photographs show pole vaulting, boxing, swimming, a mule race ...
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God Strikes at an Injustice with a Thunderbolt, and a Young Man with Bullets
This World War I poster showing a man with an axe and a rifle joining a battle is one of a series by the Czech artist Vojtěch Preissig (1873–1944) that encouraged Czech and Slovak volunteers living in the United States to join the Czechoslovak Legion to fight against Austria-Hungary and Germany. The Czech lands and Slovakia were at that time part of Austria-Hungary and leaders of the national independence movement believed that the cause of an independent Czechoslovak state could be furthered by fighting on the Allied side. Preissig ...
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Britain Expects Every Son of Israel to do His Duty
This 1918 World War I recruiting poster was designed to encourage Jewish immigrants to Canada to enlist in the Canadian armed forces to help the Allied war effort against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Underlining British sympathy for the oppressed Jewish populations of central and eastern Europe, the poster shows a soldier cutting the bonds from a Jewish man, who strains to join a group of soldiers running in the distance and says, "You have cut my bonds and set me free—now let me help you set others free!" The message ...
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British Propaganda Poster Intended for Chinese Muslim Audience
This rare World War I poster, issued by the British in China, was intended to discredit Germany among Chinese Muslims. It shows a portrait of German Imperial Governor Heinrich Schnee and a copy of a letter by him, written in German, directing the suppression of Islam in Africa. The poster also shows two photographs of Fort Moshi (in present-day Tanzania; at that time, German East Africa) where the letter was said to have been found by the British. The Chinese text of the poster explains the anti-Islamic activities of the ...
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Compagnie Algérienne. Subscribe. Liberation Loan
This poster from 1918, the last year of World War I, advertises the “Liberation Loan” issued by the French government. Parts of France had been occupied by Germany since 1914, and by 1918, the exhausted French people were hoping for victory and the liberation of occupied territory. Algeria was an overseas territory administered as an integral part of France, and this poster was commissioned by an Algerian financial institution, the Compagnie Algérienne, seeking subscribers to the loan. The poster shows an Algerian man, presumably a warrior, on horseback. Around 500 ...
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Dawn after Darkness!
This 1918 poster is one of a series of six lithographs by artist Alexander Oscar Levy (1881–1934) made toward the end of World War I. These lithographs celebrated the U.S. victory and commemorated the sacrifices made by the U.S. armed forces during the war. This poster shows the allegorical figure of Liberty leading troops to victory; in the foreground are German prisoners of war and refugees. The text of a separate poster advertising the set of prints declared: “This tribute to our American heroes who made the ...
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Your Fatherland is in Danger, Register!
This poster, produced in Germany shortly after the end of World War I, was used to recruit volunteers to the Garde-Kavallerie-Schützen-Division (Horse Guards Rifle Division), one of the German Freikorps units formed after the national defeat of November 1918. It depicts a German infantryman holding a grenade in one hand and a rifle in the other. He stares at the viewer; in the background are a barbed wire fence and flames rising into the sky. The text urges men to enlist, and explains the benefits of serving, including field pay ...
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National Loan. Société Générale. For the Greatest Effort
This World War I poster, made during the final year of the four-year conflict, shows a French soldier strangling the imperial German eagle. The soldier has a look of fierce determination, even as the eagle bites his hand. The poster calls upon citizens to subscribe to the latest war loan as a way to achieve victory. As in all belligerent countries, France relied heavily on the willingness of citizens to lend money to the government by buying war bonds. France issued four national defense loans during the course of the ...
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It is Essential that the Last Blows Achieve Victory! Subscribe to the War Loan!
This World War I poster showing a medieval warrior about to slay a roaring lion was published by the newspaper of the German Tenth Army in 1918. It calls upon Germans to subscribe to the latest German war loan as a way of achieving final victory over the Allies, which included Britain, France, and the United States. The Tenth Army was formed in 1915 from units transferred from the Western front and played a major role in battles on the Eastern front with Russia, which by late 1917 had been ...
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Faith in Canada. Use It All for Victory Bonds
This World War I poster, created by an unknown artist, shows a treasure chest and silhouettes of soldiers in the background. It was issued by Canadian authorities to promote the sale of Victory Bonds. As part of the British Empire, the Dominion of Canada was automatically engaged in the conflict and made a major contribution to the British war effort. A Canadian Expeditionary Force was hastily formed in the late summer and early fall of 1914, and on October 3, 1914, the first contingent of 33,000 Canadian soldiers sailed ...
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He Is Piling up His Thrift Stamps, Are You? Buy Thrift Stamps
This World War I poster, produced in Canada in 1918, promotes Thrift Stamps, a form of wartime savings directed especially at children. The poster, by an unknown artist, shows a squirrel hiding nuts in a tree. The caption reads, “He is piling up his Thrift Stamps, are you?” Canada, a dominion within the British Empire, was a major combatant on the Allied side during World War I. To raise money for the war, countries sold interest-bearing war bonds. Canada began calling its war bonds “Victory Bonds” (or “Victory Loans”) in ...
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Historical Concert for the Benefit of Widows and Orphans
This poster by the Hungarian designer and graphic artist Josef von Divéky (1887–1951) advertises a January 1918 concert for the benefit of the widows and orphans of Austro-Hungarian soldiers killed in World War I. It shows five military musicians in uniforms from different historical periods; the coat of arms of Austria-Hungary is at the top. The emperor and empress of the Austro-Hungarian Empire are listed as patrons of the concert, which was organized with the support of the Ministry of War. Austria-Hungary suffered an estimated 1,100,000 killed ...
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Joan of Arc Saved France. Women of America, Save Your Country--Buy War Savings Stamps
This World War I poster, issued by the United States Department of the Treasury, urges women to buy war savings stamps to help finance the war effort. The War Savings Stamps (W.S.S.) program aimed to instill patriotism in citizens as well as raise funds. Stamps were available in 10-cent and 25-cent versions, and were bought by school-age children and other small savers. This poster invokes the figure of Joan of Arc (circa 1412–31), the traditionally recognized patriot and martyr of France who led the fight against the ...
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Peace on the Enemy's Terms
This World War I poster from France shows Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany pointing a dagger at a woman (representing Romania), while he shows her the Traité de Paix (peace treaty) and simultaneously steps on a man (representing Russia). In late 1917, after the Russian army had all but collapsed and the communists had taken power, the new Russian government signed an armistice favorable to Germany. Defeated and isolated on the eastern front, Russia’s erstwhile ally Romania had no choice but to conclude a similar armistice with the Germans ...
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Lend the Way They Fight. Buy Bonds to Your Utmost
This World War I poster, showing an American infantryman hurling a hand grenade at German soldiers in a trench, invokes the image of Americans in combat on the Western front in France to urge citizens at home to purchase bonds to finance the war. The United States government issued bonds, also called Liberty Bonds, in 1917 and 1918, raising a total of $21.5 billion for the war effort. Many of the bonds were bought by banks and financial institutions as investments, but a massive public relations campaign was mounted ...
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For Your Country. Subscribe to the Loan. Crédit Foncier d'Algérie et de Tunisie
This World War I poster, sponsored by the Crédit Foncier d'Algérie et de Tunisie, a financial institution serving Algeria and Tunisia, urges people to subscribe to the fourth national loan, issued by the French government in 1918. The poster shows Algerian and Tunisian soldiers on horses charging into battle. France recruited troops from its overseas territories and colonies, and between 1914 and 1918, the French army deployed 172,800 soldiers from Algeria and 60,000 soldiers from Tunisia to Europe. Initially, most colonial troops were volunteers, but as the ...
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For the Return, Subscribe. 4th National Loan. Crédit Foncier d'Algérie et de Tunisie
This World War I poster, sponsored by the Crédit Foncier d'Algérie et de Tunisie, a financial institution serving Algeria and Tunisia, urges people to subscribe to the fourth national loan, issued by the French government in 1918. The poster shows a ship steaming into the beautiful harbor of Algiers, with Algerian women and children overlooking the harbor and as they await the return of their husbands, fathers, and brothers. The poster implies that victory in the war and the return of the men to Algeria will be hastened by ...
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Remember We Must Feed Daddy Too
This World War I poster, issued by the Canada Food Board, promotes food conservation. The illustration shows a young mother feeding a boy on her lap from a sparsely-stocked table, while a vignette of a soldier with his rifle raised appears in the background, as if in her imagination. The words, “Remember we must feed Daddy too” appear below the image, set in quotation marks. A major producer and exporter of meat, grains, and other foodstuffs, Canada ramped up output during the war to help meet the needs of Britain ...
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Save the Serbians from Cholera
This World War I poster, issued in New York in 1918 to raise funds for the Franco-Serbian Field Hospital of America, shows the figure of Death reaching down from storm clouds to menace a devastated populace. Of all the belligerents on either side in the war, Serbia suffered the highest number of military deaths as a share of the population: 22.7 percent killed of all males between the ages of 15 and 47, and 5.7 percent killed of the total population. War-related casualties were compounded by the effects ...
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