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Selma Lagerlöf
This photograph by Henry B. Goodwin depicts the Swedish author Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf (1858–1940), the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Goodwin was born the son of a Bavarian landscape painter and originally named Heinrich Buergel. He was a scholar of Old Icelandic and one of the pioneers of portrait photography in Scandinavia. He adopted a new homeland and a new name and contributed to the visual image of contemporary Swedes by becoming the most-renowned society photographer in Sweden in his era. An advocate of ...
The Revolt in Arabia
This historical booklet about the origins of the Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire during World War I was written by Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936), a Dutch professor who specialized in oriental languages and cultures and served as a colonial official in the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia). The booklet is a collection of newspaper articles by Hurgronje that appeared in the newspaper Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant in 1916, after Hurgronje had spent a year conducting research in Mecca and Jiddah. The articles were translated into English and published in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Al-Arab, Volume 1, Number 1, July 4, 1917
The newspaper Al-Arab (The Arabs) was first published in Baghdad on July 4, 1917, some four months after British troops captured the city from the Turks, thereby ending three centuries of Ottoman rule. The paper appeared at a critical period in the history of Iraq. Issued by the British authorities, it served as a mouthpiece for the British administration at a time of rising Iraqi and Arab nationalism. It depicted the Ottomans as foreigners and the British as liberators and sought to advance broader British military and political strategy against ...
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Map Showing Wet Areas on Passchendaele Front
Overprinted in color in the field, this World War I map shows the Allied front line at the Ypres Salient on December 2, 1917. The notorious Battle of Passchendaele (also seen as Passendale) began in July 1917 and culminated in the capture by British and Canadian forces of the village of Passchendaele (West Flanders, Belgium) on November 6. Even though the battle had ended some weeks earlier, an action took place on the night of December 1−2 in the areas to the north and east of Passchendaele village shown ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Bad Child's Book of A.D.C's
The Bad Child’s Book of A.D.C’s is a short manuscript book of ink drawings and verse, probably produced by a British officer working at the General Head Quarters of the British Army in Montreuil Sur Mer, France, in 1917, during World War I. The subjects of the poems and drawings are the aides de camp working at the Allied General Staff. An aide de camp is a military officer who works as personal assistant or secretary to senior army or naval personnel. Among those caricatured was ...
Contributed by The British Library
Chronicles of Cliveden, Volume 1, Issue 1
Chronicles of Cliveden was a journal produced during World War I by the patients at the Duchess of Connaught Canadian Military Hospital in the United Kingdom. The hospital was located at Cliveden, a grand country estate that was the home of Waldorf Astor, the second Viscount Astor, and his wife Nancy. When the war broke out, the Astors offered part of the estate to the Canadian Red Cross, which established the hospital to treat injured Allied soldiers. In the foreword to the first issue of the journal, Colonel W. Langmuir ...
Contributed by The British Library
For the Fallen, and Other Poems
Robert Laurence Binyon (1869–1943) was a poet and art historian who spent his entire career at the British Museum, where he wrote studies of Dutch, British, and Asian art. He published his first poem at the age of 16 and continued to write poetry throughout his life. On September 21, 1914, shortly after the outbreak of World War I, Binyon published, in The Times of London, what would become his most famous poem, the elegy “For the Fallen.” Prophetic of the enormous losses that Great Britain would sustain over ...
Contributed by The British Library
It is Nice in the Surf but What about the Men in the Trenches? Go and Help
This 1917 Australian poster is representative of many used to recruit volunteers to serve with the British forces in World War I. Australian recruitment drives were highly successful and resulted in more than 400,000 men enlisting from a population of fewer than five million. Posters such as this one appealed to the Australian value of “mateship” or comradeship, while others appealed to patriotism. In addition to the young man swimming in the surf, the poster features the emblem of the Win the War League, an organization founded in 1917 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
National War Relief Exhibition
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This poster, published in Pozsony (present-day Bratislava, Slovakia) in 1917, shows a disabled veteran with a prosthetic arm using a scythe to harvest wheat. The text announces the National War Relief Exhibition in Pozsony. The poster was created by Pal Sujan, a popular artist whose portraits and other paintings were widely shown in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Sujan was born in Budapest in 1880, studied art, and worked as an art teacher in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Subscribe to the War Loan! The Army and Navy Expect it from You!
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This 1917 poster, created by the influential German designer and graphic artist Lucian Bernhard, appeals to German citizens to help finance the war with their savings. Bernhard was born in 1883, and his original name was Emil Kahn. After studying at the Munich Art Academy, he moved to Berlin where he worked as a commercial artist. He was best known for his innovative advertising posters for German companies. Bernhard emphasized simplicity as ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lake Nahuel Huapí, Argentina
This 1917 photograph of Nahuel Huapí Lake in the Patagonia region of Argentina is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
"The Child at Your Door." 400,000 Orphans Starving, No State Aid Available. Campaign for $30,000,000
The American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief was established in 1915 with the cooperation of the United States Department of State, for the purpose of providing humanitarian relief to Armenians forcibly deported from Anatolia to other parts of the Ottoman Empire during World War I. The Ottoman parliament passed a law by which privately collected funds from the United States could be distributed to displaced Armenians via the U.S. Embassy in Constantinople. The committee, which raised millions of dollars at public rallies and churches, issued this poster as ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kościuszko, Pułaski—They Fought for Liberty in America
This Polish-language poster, produced in Brooklyn, New York, in 1917, shortly after the United States entered World War I, was aimed at the many Polish-speaking immigrants living in the United States at that time. The message— “Kościuszko, Pułaski fought for liberty in America. Can you help America fight for freedom in Poland? Eat less sugar, wheat, meat, fats so that we can support our brothers fighting in the allied armies”—invokes the names of two Poles. Tadeusz Kosciusko and Kazimierz Pulaski fought on the American side in the Revolutionary War ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
4 Reasons for Buying Victory Bonds
This World War I poster, produced in Canada in 1917, depicts “4 reasons for buying Victory Bonds.” The “reasons” are the four most important German civilian and military leaders, whose faces would have been familiar to many Canadians from news reports: Kaiser Wilhelm II, the German emperor; Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg, the chief of the German General Staff; Crown Prince Wilhelm, the son of the emperor and heir to the throne; and Grand Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, commander of the German Navy. Canada, a dominion within the British Empire ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
America's Tribute to Britain
This poster, showing a bald eagle placing a victory wreath on a lion's head, is from 1917, the year that the United States entered World War I on the side of Great Britain. The lion is a traditional symbol of England, the largest of the countries that make up the United Kingdom (the others being Scotland, Wales, and, at this time, Ireland). The symbol goes back to the 12th century, when King Richard I (1157–99), known as Richard the Lionheart, chose three lions as his symbol in battle ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Britishers, Enlist To-day
This World War I poster showing the British flag was published in New York in 1917 and was aimed at encouraging British citizens living in the United States to enlist in the armed forces. The poster lists 280 Broadway in lower Manhattan as the location of a recruitment office. In January 1916, the British Parliament passed the Military Service Act, which went into effect on March 2, 1916. The act specified that men between the ages of 18 and 41 could be called up for service in the army. Men ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Can You Drive a Car? Will You Drive One in France? Immediate Service at the Front!
This World War I poster shows the proud figure of Liberty strongly fending off Death as she protects a wounded soldier, who rests on the back of a vehicle. It was used to recruit American ambulance drivers for service at the front in France. The American Field Service (AFS) originated in 1914, shortly after the outbreak of war, when young Americans living in Paris began volunteering to drive ambulances at the American Hospital of Paris. Members of the AFS were present at every major battle in France and carried more ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Don't
This World War I poster, published in London in 1917, consists entirely of text, with a list of activities that British citizens were asked by the government to avoid in order to conserve scarce resources for the war effort. The text reads: “1. Don't use a motor car or motor cycle for pleasure purposes. 2. Don't buy new clothes needlessly. Don't be ashamed of wearing old clothes in war time. 3. Don't keep more servants than you really need. In this way you will save money ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dr. Uncle Sam is Now in Charge of Our Industrial Troubles
This World War I poster touts the role of the federal government in promoting industrial cooperation by portraying Uncle Sam as a doctor, who administers the medicine of "Co-operation" to patients identified as "Wage Earner" and "Wage Payer," as the quack doctor of "Agitation" leaves and a nurse, "The Public," sweeps up “Agitator’s Acid,” “Legislative Ether,” and “Spirits of Discontent.” A tiny bird comments, "A real doctor on the job now!" The text further explains that the prescription, “a Victory Tonic, called Co-operation,” will cure strife and win the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Exhibition of Moroccan Art
This World War I poster advertises an exhibition of Moroccan art for the benefit of wounded Moroccan soldiers. It shows a wounded soldier standing over a seated Moroccan artisan, who is painting a ceramic bowl. Moroccan units fought as part of the French Army from the early days of the war, beginning with the participation of the Moroccan Brigade in the September 1914 Battle of the Marne. In all, 37,300 Moroccan soldiers, all of them volunteers, fought with the French forces in Europe. The number of Moroccan soldiers wounded ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Following the Paths of Our Fathers in the Ranks of the Polish Army for Motherland and Freedom
This World War I poster shows a winged knight on a horse, heading into battle. The text, in English and Polish, encourages men of Polish origin living in the United States to enlist in the Polish army. Poland had been partitioned by Russia, Prussia, and the Austrian Empire in 1795, and its sovereignty was not restored until 1918. Thus, there was no independent Poland during World War I. But many Poles believed that the cause of national independence could be furthered by supporting Britain, France, and Russia against the Central ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Day for the African Army and the Colonial Troops
This World War I poster showing French soldiers fighting alongside black soldiers from Africa celebrates the participation of troops from the French colonies and overseas territories during the war. More than 480,000 such troops were deployed by France in Europe over the course of the war, including 134,300 soldiers from West Africa, 172,800 from Algeria, 60,000 from Tunisia, 37,300 from Morocco, 34,400 from Madagascar, 2,100 from the Somali coast, and 44,000 from Indochina. Initially, most colonial troops were volunteers, but as the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lest They Perish. Campaign for $30,000,000. American Committee for Relief in the Near East: Armenia-Greece-Syria-Persia
The American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief was established in 1915 with the cooperation of the United States Department of State, for the purpose of providing humanitarian relief to Armenians forcibly deported from Anatolia to other parts of the Ottoman Empire during World War I. The Ottoman parliament passed a law by which privately collected funds from the United States could be distributed to displaced Armenians via the U.S. embassy in Constantinople. This poster, showing a woman carrying a baby on her back surrounded by the rubble of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Italy Has Need of Meat, Wheat, Fat, and Sugar
This Italian-language poster, produced in Brooklyn, New York, in 1917, shortly after the United States entered World War I, was aimed at the many Italian-speaking immigrants living in the United States at that time. Illustrated with a portrait of an Italian army officer, the poster declares that “Italy has need of meat, wheat, fat, and sugar” and urges people to conserve these foods so that supplies can go to “our people and to the Italian troops.” The poster was sponsored by the U.S. Food Administration, a government agency established ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Many Peoples - One Nation
During World War I, President Woodrow Wilson and other U.S. political leaders were concerned about disunity among the American people. They were particularly anxious that so-called hyphenated Americans, Americans born abroad or of foreign heritage, might prove disloyal. For example, Irish-Americans might be bitter at British rule in Ireland or German-Americans could be sympathetic to Germany. In response, U.S. leaders launched a widespread “Americanization” campaign involving both government agencies and private organizations. This poster, with the slogan “Many peoples - one nation. Let us unite to Americanize America,” was ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Poles! Kościuszko and Pułaski Fought for the Liberty of Poland and Other Nations. Follow Their Example. Enlist in the Polish Army!
This World War I poster invokes the memory of two illustrious Poles who fought in the American Revolution, Tadeusz Kościuszko (1746–1817) and Kazimierz Pułaski (1747–79), to encourage men of Polish origin living in the United States to enlist in the Polish army. Poland had been partitioned by Russia, Prussia, and the Austrian Empire in 1795, and its sovereignty was not restored until 1918. There thus was no independent Poland during World War I. But many Poles believed that the cause of national independence could be furthered by supporting ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
For the Freedom of the World. Subscribe to the National Loan at the Banque Nationale de Crédit
This World War I poster issued by the French Banque Nationale de Crédit urges French citizens to purchase war bonds, “for the freedom of the world.” An image of the Statue of Liberty appears on the horizon, an allusion to the entry into the war of the United States on April 6, 1917. The participation of the United States gave a lift to the people of France, who by this time had suffered huge casualties in battles with Germany and had expended much of the nation’s wealth to fight ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Send the Eagle's Answer: More Ships
This poster, issued by the publication section of the Emergency Fleet Corporation in Washington, D.C., shows a large, colorful eagle flying above ships setting sail for a distant shore in flames. The Emergency Fleet Corporation was established under congressional mandate by the United States Shipping Board in April 1917, ten days after the United States declared war on Germany. Its purpose was to acquire, maintain, and operate the merchant ships that were needed to transport American troops and their supplies to France. The bald eagle as a symbol of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Share
Sponsored by the Jewish Relief Campaign, this World War I poster features a monumental female figure wearing a hat reminiscent of the U.S. flag. She is offering the bounty of America—a tray laden with food—to the destitute women and children of Europe. The skyline of New York City and the Statue of Liberty are in the background, and the word “share” appears in large type at the top of the poster. The American Jewish Relief Committee was established on October 14, 1914, by three prominent members of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Subscribe to the National Loan
This World War I poster, published in northern Italy in 1917, urges Italians to subscribe to the national loan to help finance the war. The poster shows a classical female figure, representing Italy, wearing a crown and armor and draped in the Italian flag, holding a sword toward a Nordic warrior coming over the mountains. After entering the war on the side of the Allies in May 1915, Italy mainly engaged in fighting the forces of the Central Powers, Austria-Hungary and Germany, along its mountainous northeastern frontier with Austria. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Verdun, Road to Y.M.C.A. Canteen
On February 21, 1916, Germany launched its attack on the French fortress city of Verdun, beginning what was to be one of the longest and bloodiest battles of World War I. The French defenders at first fell back and by February 25 the Germans had captured the outer fortress of Douaumont. By June 6 they had taken another fort, at Vaux, but they never managed to take Verdun. The fighting finally ended in stalemate in December of that year. The official French history of the war set total French casualties ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Welcome Noble Belgium
This 1917 poster shows Belgium and the United States greeting each other in front of the flags of these two countries, marking the U.S. entry into World War I. Belgium is represented by a woman holding the coat of arms of the kingdom, which features a lion (Leo Belgicus) and the national motto: L’Union fait la force (Unity makes strength). The United States is represented by the figure of “Columbia,” the female personification of America that was widely used in the late 19th and early 20th century and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Winter in Panama with the U.S. Army
This World War I recruitment poster for the U.S. Army features a drawing of a ship transiting the Panama Canal and photographs of training exercises conducted in Panama. Under a treaty concluded with Panama in 1903, the United States was given permanent control over a zone of land 16 kilometers (10 miles) wide and about 64 kilometers (40 miles) long across the Isthmus of Panama, for the purpose of building, operating, and defending the Panama Canal. This strip of land, known as the Panama Canal Zone, was the site ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Subscribe to the 7th War Loan
This World War I poster, published in 1917, urges citizens of Austria-Hungary to subscribe to the latest war bond. It depicts a woman, representing the Austro-Hungarian Empire, holding a flag. The name of the sponsoring bank is given at the bottom. Like the other belligerents, Austria-Hungary relied heavily on the sale of bonds to its citizens to finance its participation in the war. The country issued its first war bond in November 1914, at a five percent rate of return with a five-year maturity. Thereafter bonds were issued at six-month ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
We Must Fight to the End!
This World War I poster shows German men working in a field. One of them is being threatened by an African soldier as a French officer looks on. The text at the bottom of the poster proclaims that if Britain and France were to win the war, the Germans would lose not only their property and prosperity but their personal freedom. The text goes on to explain that French senators had stated in parliament that the Germans would work as slaves after the war. Germany, the poster concludes, had to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Territory of Hawaii Registration Day July 31
The Selective Service Act, signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson on May 19, 1917, required all male U.S. citizens and resident aliens from age 21 to 30 to register for the draft. On the day of registration, June 5, 1917, 9,660,000 young men presented themselves at local selective service boards, where they were asked to give their name, address, age, distinguishing physical features, and reason, if any, for claiming exemption. Three additional registrations took place, on June 5, August 24, and September 12 of 1918. Hawaii ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The $3,000,000,000 Punch
This World War I poster shows Uncle Sam, a personification of the United States, in a coat labeled "Liberty Bond," punching the German ruler, Kaiser Wilhelm II. The intended message is that Americans can deal a blow to the enemy by purchasing bonds to finance the war effort. The U.S. government issued bonds, also called Liberty Bonds, in 1917 and 1918, raising a total of $21.5 billion. Many of the bonds were bought by banks and financial institutions as investments, but a massive public relations campaign was mounted ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Frenchwoman in War-time
This World War I poster, published in Paris in 1917, depicts the many roles of French women during the war. One woman is shown working in a factory, another at home nursing her child, and a third working in a field, helping to replace farm labor lost to the armed forces. In the background appears a large silhouette of a woman, the personification of “Victory.” French women made up over 40 percent of the French workforce during the war, and more than two million were recruited into positions in heavy ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The War of Munitions. How Great Britain Has Mobilised Her Industries
This 1917 poster, showing 14 vignettes of the British armaments industry and armed forces, provides detailed information about the mobilization of national human and industrial resources by Great Britain during World War I. It notes that there “are 2 ½ million persons engaged on Government work in Munition trades, of whom nearly half a million are women.” Figures are given regarding huge increases in the production of bombs, machine guns, ammunition, and heavy guns, and in the number of national arsenals. The poster also provides information about the growth and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Above All
This U.S. World War I propaganda poster shows the devil dressed as a German soldier sitting on a mound of skulls; a bloodied sword rests at his feet. The title, Über alles (Above all), is a play on the words of the Deutschlandlied, a patriotic song that was sung by German soldiers in World War I, and which in 1922 became the official national anthem of Germany. The words "Deutschland, Deutschland über alles" (Germany, Germany above all) were written in 1841 by the German poet August Heinrich Hoffmann von ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
One Last Effort and We Will Get Them
This poster, published in Paris in 1917, shows American soldiers following a French infantryman as they climb up a rock. Perched at the top are the imperial eagle and the Iron Cross, symbols of Germany. The American soldiers wear khaki uniforms and the distinctive leggings of the soldiers of the American Expeditionary Forces. The French soldier wears the blue greatcoat and the famous Casque Adrian (Adrian helmet), which was introduced in 1915 as the first modern steel helmet used by any army. The text urges a “last effort” to defeat ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The American Ambulance in Russia
This World War I poster, published in New York circa 1917, solicits funds for a volunteer American ambulance company in Russia. American ambulance services on the Western front in France were extensive and well-organized; this poster advertises a much smaller effort on what was then the Eastern front of the war. The poster shows a medieval Russian soldier on horseback carrying a Russian flag, with a caption, in Russian, stating: “Military loan. Forward for the Motherland.” The illustration is signed by the artist, A.O. Maksimov. Russia was at this ...
Contributed by Library of Congress