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Mikhail Vrubelʹ (1856–1910) was a Russian painter known for his unusual style, which synthesized elements of native Russian art with Western and Byzantine influences. Born in Omsk to a Polish father and a Russian mother, he moved to Saint Petersburg in 1874 to study law. He abandoned his legal studies and in 1880 entered the Academy of Fine Arts. In a career cut short by mental illness and blindness, Vrubelʹ produced a body of work that included church murals and mosaics, book illustrations, stage sets, watercolors, and oil paintings ...
To Modest Ment͡synsʹkyĭ from Prisoners of the Wetzlar Camp
This publication, dedicated to the opera tenor Modest Omeli͡anovych Ment͡synsʹkyĭ (1875–1935), was produced by the prisoners from the Wetzlar camp for whom Ment͡synsʹkyĭ gave a performance in February 1916. It contains essays and poems dedicated to Ment͡synsʹkyĭ as well as the program of his performance and the lyrics of the songs he sang, which included poems by Taras Shevchenko and Ivan Franko. During World War I, more than a million Russian army soldiers were taken prisoner, of whom several hundred thousand were ethnic Ukrainians. The ...
Map of the Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1916, shows a proposed highway across the southern United States linking Miami and Los Angeles. Tentatively named the Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway, the proposed route was to be ...
National Highways Preliminary Map of the State of Minnesota
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1916, shows 2,600 miles of national highway proposed for Minnesota. The NHA employed engineers to plan routes with the aim of maximizing the share of each state ...
Map of Proposed National Highways for Michigan, 1916
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1916, shows 3,400 miles (5,472 kilometers) of national highway proposed for Michigan. The NHA employed engineers to plan routes with the aim of maximizing the share ...
General Map of the Turkish War Theater
This map, published in Berlin in July 1916, shows the Turkish theater of World War I. It is based on an 1884 map in French of the Asian provinces of the Ottoman Empire by German geographer and cartographer Heinrich Kiepert (1818–99). The map contains additional notes in German and its coverage of existing and projected railroads is updated to 1916. The Ottoman territories, shown in pink, include present-day Turkey, Cyprus, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan, as well as Saudi Arabia. The Ottoman Empire, or Turkey as it was ...
Plant Oils! Plant Sunflowers and Poppies, and You Then Create German Oils and Serve the Fatherland!
This World War I poster shows a sign, with a songbird perched on it, in a bed of poppies and sunflowers. The text on the sign encourages the planting of sunflowers and poppies to produce oil and provides the address in Berlin of the War Committee for Oils and Fats, where seeds and instructions for planting can be obtained. Germany suffered severe shortages of food during the war because of the British blockade, which sharply cut imports of food and fertilizers. Efforts were made to increase domestic production to make ...
From Flies and Filth to Food and Fever
The Florida Bureau of Health issued this broadside in 1916. It reflects the increasing awareness on the part of health institutions in the early 20th century of the microbial sources of disease, and it illustrates the efforts of state and local health agencies to combat what was seen as a primary cause of disease: unsanitary living conditions. Rendered in a style similar to the wall hangings and kitchen calendars produced for homes by advertisers, the illustrations depict the interaction between pests and food. The broadside reflects the early efforts of ...
Images and Sketches from Turkey in the World War
This World War I poster advertises an exhibition of artwork from Turkey by the Austro-Hungarian artist Wilhelm Victor Krausz (1878–1959), organized to benefit soldiers wounded in the war. The poster shows a mosque on a hillside in the distance, surrounded by trees. Krausz was active in Turkey, an ally of Austria-Hungary and Germany, during the war, and is known for his portraits of Turkish officers and Turkish scenes, including his portrait of Colonel Mustafa Kemal Bey, the future President Kemal Atatürk. This poster is from the Rehse-Archiv für Zeitgeschichte ...
Columbia Calls. Enlist Now for U.S. Army
This World War I recruiting poster shows the symbolic figure of Columbia, a poetic name for and female personification of the United States, holding a U.S. flag and a sword while standing on top of a globe. In the lower right of the poster is the text of a patriotic poem, “Columbia Calls.” According to a story in the New York Times published on June 3, 1917, the design of the poster and the poem, both by Frances Adams Halsted (Mrs. E. Bayard Halsted), dated from 1916, when Halsted ...
Serbian Concert and Exhibition
This World War I poster advertises a concert and art exhibition to take place in Paris on June 17–18, 1916, for the benefit of Serbia. The poster depicts a classical female figure with a crown of thorns around her feet, presumably representing Serbia, and lists the officers and members of the organizing committee for the event. The president of the committee was Princess Alexis Karageorgevitch, a non-reigning member of the Serbian royal family. The Kingdom of Serbia suffered heavy military and civilian losses during the war. The European conflict ...
Serbia Day. June 25, 1916
This World War I poster, published in Paris in 1916, depicts a scene in late 1915 from the Serbian theater of the war, in which the remnants of the Serbian army and accompanying civilian refugees were forced across the borders into Montenegro and Albania. Invading forces from Austria-Hungary and Germany had pushed deep into Serbia, where they occupied the capital city of Belgrade. One of the major engagements of the campaign took place at Kosovo, the scene of a battle in 1389 between a medieval Serbian army and an invading ...
Serbia Day. June 25, 1916
This World War I poster, published in Paris in 1916, shows a group of Serbian civilians and soldiers as they head into the mountains. When invading forces from Austria-Hungary and Germany pushed into Serbia in 1915, they occupied the capital city of Belgrade, and drove the remnants of the Serbian army and accompanying civilian refugees across the borders into Montenegro and Albania. One of the major engagements of the campaign took place at Kosovo, the scene of a battle in 1389 between a medieval Serbian army and an invading Ottoman ...
Serbia Day, June 25, 1916. Anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo
This World War I poster, published in Paris in 1916, depicts a scene in late 1915 from the Serbian theater of the war, in which the remnants of the Serbian army and accompanying civilian refugees were forced across the borders into Montenegro and Albania. Invading forces from Austria-Hungary and Germany had pushed into Serbia, where they occupied the capital city of Belgrade. One of the major engagements of the campaign took place at Kosovo, the scene of a battle in 1389 between a medieval Serbian army and an invading Ottoman ...
Lamp Day, Friday, May 12th. Buy a Lamp on Lamp Day for Women's Service in War Time
This World War I poster, published in London in 1916, advertises Lamp Day, May 12, when citizens were asked to purchase a lamp for women's service in war time. The poster depicts a lamp of the type used by Territorial Force Nursing Service (TFNS). The text also appeals for volunteers to “help to sell the lamps. Apply 58 Victoria Street, S.W.” The TFNS was established in 1908 under the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act of 1907 for the purpose of providing nurses to military hospitals in the event ...
We'll Get Them! The 2nd National Defense Loan. Subscribe
This World War I poster, published in Paris in 1916, shows a French soldier with a gun in one hand, and the other hand raised, urging on his comrades. The text calls upon French citizens to subscribe to the second national defense loan, one of four issued by the French government during the course of the war. This is one of the best-remembered French posters of the many hundreds produced during the war, and was created by Abel Faivre (1867–1945), a well-known illustrator and cartoonist. In a career that ...
This World War I poster, published in London by the Central Committee for National Patriotic Organisations, shows Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany and King Ferdinand I of Romania arguing while examining a map. The caption reads: “The two forces. Kaiser: ‘So you, too, are against me! Remember, Hindenburg fights on my side.’ King of Roumania: ‘Yes, but freedom and justice fight on mine.’” Romania was at first a neutral non-belligerent, but on August 27, 1916, it declared war on Germany’s main ally, Austria-Hungary. Under a secret treaty signed earlier ...
Special Edition of Universal Current Events: Latest Views of Our Boys in the Service
This poster shows Uncle Sam (a representation of the United States) standing next to a soldier, each with an arm around the other's shoulders. In the background is a camp of military tents, with a U.S. flag planted and waving back and forth. The poster was produced by The Hegeman Print, a New York-based printer that produced a series of World War I propaganda posters, including ones featuring official war films. American soldiers in World War I were popularly known as “doughboys,” a term of obscure origin that ...
Württemberg War Exhibition, Stuttgart, May-September 1916
This World War I poster from Germany shows a sword, with an eagle perched on its hilt, plunged into a mound of earth. Below, a man plows the earth and a woman sows seeds. In the background are flames and smoke from factories. The text announces a war exhibition organized by the Württemberg Red Cross, under the auspices of the king and queen of Württemberg and the Royal Württemberg War Ministry. The poster reflects the complex political structure of Imperial Germany. Württemberg was a kingdom (formerly a duchy) that became ...
This 1916 poster shows an early tank; below the image, a lengthy text in Chinese explains the purpose of a tank, the history of its invention, and its role in "the European war." Tanks were first developed by the British during World War I as a way to break the stalemate of trench warfare on the Western front. The vehicles first saw action in the Battle of the Somme in France in September 1916. Early tanks had limited mobility and suffered frequent mechanical breakdowns, but they heralded a revolution in ...
Letter from Gabriela Mistral, 1916, Santiago, Chile, to Manuel Magallanes Moure, Concepción, Chile
Gabriela Mistral (1889–1957), the pseudonym of Lucila Godoy Alcayaga, was an educator, diplomat, and poet, who in 1945 became the first Latin American author to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Born in the northern city of Vicuña, Chile, Mistral developed an early interest in poetry, literature, the Bible, and the natural environment, particularly that of her childhood town of Monte Grande. Largely self-educated, she began working at age 15 as a teacher’s aide to support herself and her mother, and in 1910 she obtained a teaching certificate ...