217 results in English
The Baptistery of Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev
This book is about the baptistery of Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev. The name of the cathedral comes from the sixth-century Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) and means “Holy Wisdom,” rather than dedication to a particular saint. Designed as “the new Constantinople” to represent Eastern Christianity, Saint Sophia in Kiev was first constructed in the 11th century. The baptistery was built into the cloister a few years later and its walls still bear frescoes from the 11th–12th centuries. By the early 20th century, the baptistery was in a ...
West India Islands and the Approaches to the Panama Canal
This large folding map, issued by the London Geographical Institute during World War I, shows the islands of the Caribbean Sea and the approaches to the Panama Canal. The canal had opened to traffic in early 1914, shortly before the outbreak of the war. Protection of the canal against possible sabotage by Germany was a concern of U.S. military planners in World War I and, especially, during World War II. The map shows telegraph lines, undersea cables, and the distances in nautical miles of steamer routes from the key ...
Map of the Meridian Road
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the proposed Meridian Route, running from the U.S.–Canada border in North Dakota to Galveston, Texas, and the U.S.–Mexico border at Laredo. The ...
Map of the Pacific Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Pacific Highway, proposed by the Pacific Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Blaine, Washington, to San Diego, California, a ...
Map of the Rocky Mountain Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Rocky Mountain Highway, proposed by the Rocky Mountain Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Glacier National Park in Montana ...
Map of the Dixie Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Dixie Highway, proposed by the Dixie Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Mackinaw City, Michigan, to Miami, Florida. In ...
Map of the Sunshine Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Sunshine Highway, proposed by the Sunshine Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from the U.S.–Canada border in Washington ...
Map of the Mississippi Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Mississippi Highway, proposed by the Mississippi Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Duluth, Minnesota, to New Orleans, a distance ...
Map of the Great Lakes-Atlantic Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Great Lakes–Atlantic Highway, proposed by the Great Lakes-Atlantic Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Cleveland, Ohio, to Miami ...
Map of the Great Plains Road
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Great Plains Road, proposed by the Great Plains Road Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from the U.S.–Canada border ...
Map of United States Proposed National Highways, 1915
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA proposed a 150,000-mile (241,402-kilometer) network of roads, based on a four-fold system of national, state, county, and town or township highways and roads. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the tentative routes of the most important highways in this network, totaling 100,000 miles (160,934 kilometers) in length. The table at the ...
Map of United States Proposed National Highways System, 1915
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA proposed a 150,000-mile (241,402-kilometer) network of roads, based on a four-fold system of national, state, county, and town or township highways and roads. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows (in red) the tentative routes of the 13 principal transcontinental highways in this network, and the connecting system of other major highways, totaling 100 ...
Map of the Atlantic Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Atlantic Highway, proposed by the Atlantic Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Calais, Maine to Miami, Florida, a distance ...
Map of the Canada–Kansas City–Gulf Road
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Canada–Kansas City–Gulf Road, proposed by the Canada–Kansas City–Gulf Road Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Duluth, Minnesota, to Cameron, Louisiana ...
Map of Proposed National Highways of the United States, 1915
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA proposed a 150,000-mile (241,402-kilometer) network of roads, based on a four-fold system of national, state, county, and town or township highways and roads. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the tentative routes of the most important highways in this network, totaling 100,000 miles (160,934 kilometers) in length. The table at the ...
Korea
This photograph of a Korean woman and her daughter in traditional costume is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Dome Hospital
This is a photograph of the interior of the Dome Hospital in Brighton, on the south coast of Britain. Several buildings in Brighton were converted into hospitals during the First World War to treat the thousands of Indian soldiers who were wounded while fighting in France. The most spectacular of these was the converted Royal Pavilion in Brighton, originally built in the “oriental” style for King George IV in the early 1800s. There were over 680 beds for wounded Indian soldiers in this hospital, and it was “fitted with every ...
Contributed by The British Library
Garvin Papers. Bound Notebook
In April 1915 Second Lieutenant Roland Gerard Garvin of the British Army enrolled in a course of instruction at Staff College in Camberley, Surrey, England. There he attended lectures on tactical instruction, topography, field engineering, administration, organization, military law, and hygiene. One of his lecturers was Major Hubert Conway Rees, who had commanded a battalion during the retreat from Mons in 1914. These notes and drawings by Garvin are from a tour of field works that he made as part of the course and that was led by Major Rees ...
Contributed by The British Library
Australia has Promised Britain 50,000 More Men; Will You Help Us Keep that Promise
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. Australia fought on the side of its “mother country,” Great Britain. Australian soldiers suffered heavy casualties in the Gallipoli campaign and in the trenches on the Western front. Casualties led to recruiting drives intended to attract new enlistments. This poster by an unidentified artist appeals to the strong sense of loyalty to Britain felt by the Australian people. It shows a kangaroo in front of number 50,000 and in the background ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
French-Canadians: Enlist!: Re-form the Salaberry Riflery Regiments
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This recruitment poster from Canada was directed at French-speaking Canadians, with the warning that “England, bulwark of our liberties, is threatened.” The call to re-form the Salaberry rifle regiments refers back to the War of 1812 between Britain and the United States, when Major Charles de Salaberry, a member of a distinguished Quebec family, was given command of a new regiment, recruited from among French Canadians, to defend against a possible American ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bushmen and Sawmill Hands Wanted. Join the 224th Canadian Forestry Battalion
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This poster by an unknown artist appeals to men with logging and sawmill experience to join a new military unit being formed in Canada. In 1916, the British government asked the government of Canada to recruit a specialized forestry battalion for service in Britain and France, where forestry skills were in short supply. In a period of six weeks, over 1,600 men were recruited for the unit, which was assigned such ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Fight for Her. Come with the Irish Canadian Rangers Overseas Battalion, Montreal
In World War I, many Irish immigrants to Canada volunteered to serve in the Canadian armed forces. To assist with recruitment, the Canadian government established a purely Irish battalion, the Irish Canadian Rangers 199th Overseas Battalion. Based in Montreal, the unit began signing up volunteers in the winter of 1915–16. Also known as the Duchess of Connaught's Own Irish Rangers, after their royal patron, wife of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and the governor-general of Canada, the rangers sailed for Europe in December 1916, and made a triumphal ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The German Colonists in the Brazilian State of Espirito Santo
In May 1910, the Verein für Sozialpolitik (Association for Social Policy), an influential organization of German economists based in Berlin, decided to commission a series of studies on the colonization and settlement of tropical regions by Europeans, with the goal of determining whether and under what conditions such colonization was economically and socially sustainable. The studies were to assist in the development of the German overseas empire, and German East Africa in particular. Each study was to include an overview of a particular region of settlement; analyses of its economy ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Deposit Your Gold for France. Gold Fights for Victory
This World War I poster, published in Paris in 1915, urges French citizens to deposit their gold coins “for France,” using the slogan “Gold fights for victory." Gold was needed by the French government to purchase wartime supplies from the United States and other countries, hence the appeal for citizens to transform their gold coins into bank deposits. The focal point of the poster, the gold coin embossed with the emblematic and iconic Gallic rooster (le coq gaulois) shown to be crushing a German soldier, epitomizes this idea. The poster ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Convicts Leased to Harvest Timber
This early-20th-century photograph shows the harsh working conditions for African-American prisoners caught up in the convict labor system of the state of Florida, which had a notorious reputation for its severe penal labor system. Throughout the American South, African-Americans were far more likely than whites to be incarcerated for minor crimes, and imprisonment and forced labor were tools used by local and state governments to enforce Jim Crow racial restrictions. Agreements between correctional institutions and private corporations such as lumber companies and turpentine manufacturers enabled companies to use convict labor ...
"A Happy New Year to Our Gallant Soldiers!" You Can Make It Certain If You Join Now
This poster created in early 1915, designed and printed by Johnson, Riddle & Company for the Parliamentary Recruiting Committee in the United Kingdom, shows British soldiers marching toward victory in World War I. After Britain declared war on Germany on August 4, 1914, posters such as this were used to encourage men to enlist in the armed forces. The optimistic visual imagery promised victory in the new year, provided enough men joined the fight. In the early months of the conflict, many people in Britain believed that the war would be ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
3 A.M. in a London Station Hut
This poster, produced by an unknown publisher in England in 1915, shows a Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) facility for soldiers, with men sleeping on couches, in chairs, and on the floor in the middle of the night. The YMCA was founded in 1844 by George Williams, a worker in the London drapery trade who was concerned about the welfare of his fellow workers. The YMCA spread to other British cities in the 1840s and became a global organization in the 1850s. During World War I, the YMCA provided ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
3,000,000 Belgians are Destitute in Belgium. They Must Not Starve. Support the Local Fund
This poster, designed by British illustrator John Hassall (1868–1948) and issued in 1915 for the National Committee for Relief in Belgium (London), depicts a personified image of Britannia offering solace to a mother and her children. The text calls attention to three million destitute Belgians and urges British citizens to contribute to their relief. In the early weeks of World War I, the German military marched through Belgium on its way into France. Germany soon occupied most of Belgium, a densely populated country that relied on imports for most ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Woman Stands Disconsolate, as Another Bends over a Dead Soldier; A House Burns in the Background
This 1915 poster by Welsh artist Gerald Spencer Pryse (1882–1956) depicts a disconsolate woman, a second woman bending over a dead soldier, and a house burning in the background, all before a colorless, empty sky. Pryse created many lithographic posters based on his experiences in the British army in France and Belgium during World War I, where he served as a dispatch rider and became a decorated British officer. He later gained an official appointment as a war artist, although he had been producing lithographs all along. Pryse witnessed ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Help Us Win! The Commercial Bank of Italy
Published in Milan, Italy, sometime between 1915 and 1918, this poster shows an Italian soldier holding his bayoneted rifle in one hand and pointing off to the viewer’s right with the other. Behind him a fire rages. The text urges citizens to “Help us win!” and advertises the latest subscription for war bonds sold through the Commercial Bank of Italy. Like most belligerents in World War I, Italy had to raise funds by issuing war bonds, which were essentially interest-bearing loans that citizens made to the government. Campaigns supported ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Appeal to Women. Make Every Penny Do the Work of Two. Put Your Savings in the War Loan
During World War I, the British government relied heavily on loans to finance the cost of the war. The Treasury issued its first war loan in November 1914 at an interest rate of 3.5 percent, followed by a second loan in June 1915 at 4.5 percent. Citizens were exhorted to forgo consumption and put their savings into the loans. This 1915 poster, showing ribbons linking Wedgewood-style plaques that depict soldiers and military scenes, appears aimed at affluent women with savings to spare. The poster was issued by the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Are YOU in This?
This 1915 poster, published in London for the Parliamentary Recruiting Committee, shows soldiers and other citizens busy with war work, as a well-dressed man looks on pensively. The man is clearly being urged to enlist. Until March 2, 1916, when the Military Service Act introduced conscription, Great Britain’s World War I army was comprised entirely of volunteers, and many of the most famous wartime posters were recruitment appeals. The Parliamentary Recruiting Committee was set up following the outbreak of war in August 1914. A cross-party organization chaired by the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
At the Front! Every Fit Briton Should Join Our Brave Men at the Front. Enlist Now
Until March 2, 1916, when the Military Service Act introduced conscription, Great Britain’s World War I army was comprised entirely of volunteers. Many of the most famous wartime posters were recruitment appeals. This 1915 poster, published in London for the Parliamentary Recruiting Committee, shows cavalry in battle, with horses reacting to an explosion in the foreground. It calls upon every physically and mentally fit Briton to enlist. The Parliamentary Recruiting Committee was set up following the outbreak of war in August 1914. A cross-party organization chaired by the prime ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Boys are Doing Splendidly in Egypt, Mesopotamia, France. Another Bahamas Contingent Will be Sailing Soon. Roll Up Men. Make it the Best. God Save the King!
This World War I poster, published in Kingston, Jamaica in 1915, was used to recruit volunteers for the British West Indies Regiment (BWIR), which was established late that year by the British War Office. The regiment ultimately was composed of 12 battalions, which served in different theaters of the war, including Egypt and Palestine, Mesopotamia, France and Flanders, and Italy. The poster appeals to imperial patriotism by showing a small portrait of King George V, who supported formation of the regiment. A total of 397 officers and 15,204 men ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Back Them Up. Invest in the War Loan
This 1915 poster issued in London by the Parliamentary War Savings Committee shows a well-dressed, prosperous man reaching into his pocket as he watches soldiers and artillery pass by in the background. The caption reads: "My duty." During World War I, the British government relied heavily on loans to finance the cost of the war. The Treasury issued its first war loan in November 1914 at an interest rate of 3.5 percent, followed by a second loan in June 1915 at 4.5 percent. The Parliamentary War Savings Committee ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Daddy, What Did You Do in the Great War?
Until the entry into force, on March 2, 1916, of the Military Service Act introducing conscription, Great Britain’s World War I army was comprised entirely of volunteers. Many of the most famous wartime posters were recruitment appeals. This 1915 poster, designed and printed by Johnson, Riddle & Company of London for the Parliamentary Recruiting Committee, shows a father in the comfort of his postwar home, being asked by his children, “Daddy, what did YOU do in the Great War?” Commercial advertising in mass-circulation newspapers and magazines was a well-developed industry ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Give Your Money for Victory: Victory Means Peace
This World War I poster urges Italians to contribute their money to the cause of victory, which will bring peace. The poster shows a cannon resting on a pile of coins, pointing upwards toward the mountains. After entering the war on the side of the Allies in May 1915, Italy mainly engaged in fighting the forces of the Central powers (Austria-Hungary and Germany) along its mountainous northeastern frontier with Austria-Hungary. This poster was sponsored by the Banca Italiana di Sconto (Italian Discount Bank), a financial institution that was founded in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
In Belgium the Belgians are Hungry. Artistic Raffle
This World War I poster, showing a group of hungry Belgians waiting with food pails, advertises a raffle to raise money for food relief in Belgium. During the early weeks of the war, the German military marched through Belgium on its way into France. Germany soon occupied most of the densely populated country, which relied on imports for much of its food supply. By the winter of 1914–15, millions of Belgians faced starvation. Large-scale private relief efforts were organized in other European countries and in the United States and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
English Village Scene
This World War I poster, commissioned by the London subway authority, features an idyllic English village scene and the text of the poem “A Wish” by Samuel Rogers that paint an idealized picture of English country life. The caption reads: “The Underground Railways of London, knowing how many of their passengers are now engaged on important business in France and other parts of the world, send out this reminder of home. Thanks are due to George Clausen, R.A. for the drawing.” The contrast between the English idyll and the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Enlist
The British-owned passenger liner Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine off the southern coast of Ireland on May 7, 1915, while en route from New York to Liverpool. Of 1,959 people on board, only 764 survived. Among those drowned were 128 Americans. The incident caused outrage in the United States and nearly led to a break in relations between the United States and Germany, which was only averted when the German government pledged to limit future submarine attacks on civilian and neutral ships. This poster, issued by the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
For the Glory of Ireland
This World War I recruiting poster, published in Dublin in 1915, shows a woman holding a rifle. She gestures to a distant shore in flames labeled "Belgium," as she addresses a man with a walking stick. The caption reads: “Will you go or must I?” Appeals to manly pride, often voiced by women, were a common device used in posters aimed at encouraging men to enlist. The title, “For the Glory of Ireland,” appeals to national pride. Until 1922, when the southern counties seceded to form the Irish Free State ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Irish Canadians. Enlist in an Irish and Canadian Battalion. 199th Battalion C.E.F. Irish Canadian Rangers
This World War I recruiting poster from Canada shows two soldiers, one presumably Canadian, the other Irish, shaking hands, as one points to the motto, "Small nations must be free." The background features the maple leaf and shamrocks, symbols, respectively, of Canada and Ireland. The address of the recruiting office and the name of commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel H.J. Trihey, are given at the bottom of the poster. During the war, many Irish immigrants to Canada volunteered to serve in the Canadian armed forces. To assist with recruitment, the Canadian ...
Contributed by Library of Congress