233 results in English
The Baptistery of Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev
This book is about the baptistery of Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev. The name of the cathedral comes from the sixth-century Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) and means “Holy Wisdom,” rather than dedication to a particular saint. Designed as “the new Constantinople” to represent Eastern Christianity, Saint Sophia in Kiev was first constructed in the 11th century. The baptistery was built into the cloister a few years later and its walls still bear frescoes from the 11th–12th centuries. By the early 20th century, the baptistery was in a ...
West India Islands and the Approaches to the Panama Canal
This large folding map, issued by the London Geographical Institute during World War I, shows the islands of the Caribbean Sea and the approaches to the Panama Canal. The canal had opened to traffic in early 1914, shortly before the outbreak of the war. Protection of the canal against possible sabotage by Germany was a concern of U.S. military planners in World War I and, especially, during World War II. The map shows telegraph lines, undersea cables, and the distances in nautical miles of steamer routes from the key ...
Map of the Meridian Road
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the proposed Meridian Route, running from the U.S.–Canada border in North Dakota to Galveston, Texas, and the U.S.–Mexico border at Laredo. The ...
Map of the Pacific Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Pacific Highway, proposed by the Pacific Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Blaine, Washington, to San Diego, California, a ...
Map of the Rocky Mountain Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Rocky Mountain Highway, proposed by the Rocky Mountain Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Glacier National Park in Montana ...
Map of the Dixie Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Dixie Highway, proposed by the Dixie Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Mackinaw City, Michigan, to Miami, Florida. In ...
Map of the Sunshine Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Sunshine Highway, proposed by the Sunshine Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from the U.S.–Canada border in Washington ...
Map of the Mississippi Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Mississippi Highway, proposed by the Mississippi Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Duluth, Minnesota, to New Orleans, a distance ...
Map of the Great Lakes-Atlantic Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Great Lakes–Atlantic Highway, proposed by the Great Lakes-Atlantic Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Cleveland, Ohio, to Miami ...
Map of the Great Plains Road
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Great Plains Road, proposed by the Great Plains Road Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from the U.S.–Canada border ...
Map of United States Proposed National Highways, 1915
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA proposed a 150,000-mile (241,402-kilometer) network of roads, based on a four-fold system of national, state, county, and town or township highways and roads. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the tentative routes of the most important highways in this network, totaling 100,000 miles (160,934 kilometers) in length. The table at the ...
Map of United States Proposed National Highways System, 1915
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA proposed a 150,000-mile (241,402-kilometer) network of roads, based on a four-fold system of national, state, county, and town or township highways and roads. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows (in red) the tentative routes of the 13 principal transcontinental highways in this network, and the connecting system of other major highways, totaling 100 ...
Map of the Atlantic Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Atlantic Highway, proposed by the Atlantic Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Calais, Maine to Miami, Florida, a distance ...
Map of the Canada–Kansas City–Gulf Road
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Canada–Kansas City–Gulf Road, proposed by the Canada–Kansas City–Gulf Road Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Duluth, Minnesota, to Cameron, Louisiana ...
Map of Proposed National Highways of the United States, 1915
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA proposed a 150,000-mile (241,402-kilometer) network of roads, based on a four-fold system of national, state, county, and town or township highways and roads. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the tentative routes of the most important highways in this network, totaling 100,000 miles (160,934 kilometers) in length. The table at the ...
Korea
This photograph of a Korean woman and her daughter in traditional costume is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Western Motor Car Route Guide
This automobile guide shows the main highway route between Vancouver, Canada, and San Diego, California, circa 1915. The map lists the distance in miles from Vancouver to cities along the way, and highlights in red lettering the major intermediate stops, such as Seattle, Portland, San Francisco (Oakland), Bakersfield, and Los Angeles. Major civic expositions occurring in San Francisco and San Diego in 1915, which stimulated significant motor travel that year, are noted in red as well. Parts of the route include the Pacific Highway as well as follow segments of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Dome Hospital
This is a photograph of the interior of the Dome Hospital in Brighton, on the south coast of Britain. Several buildings in Brighton were converted into hospitals during the First World War to treat the thousands of Indian soldiers who were wounded while fighting in France. The most spectacular of these was the converted Royal Pavilion in Brighton, originally built in the “oriental” style for King George IV in the early 1800s. There were over 680 beds for wounded Indian soldiers in this hospital, and it was “fitted with every ...
Contributed by The British Library
Garvin Papers. Bound Notebook
In April 1915 Second Lieutenant Roland Gerard Garvin of the British Army enrolled in a course of instruction at Staff College in Camberley, Surrey, England. There he attended lectures on tactical instruction, topography, field engineering, administration, organization, military law, and hygiene. One of his lecturers was Major Hubert Conway Rees, who had commanded a battalion during the retreat from Mons in 1914. These notes and drawings by Garvin are from a tour of field works that he made as part of the course and that was led by Major Rees ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Russian-Turkish War. The Defeat of the Turks at Sarikamish
This print showing the defeat of the Turks by the Russians at a battle at Sarikamish on the Russian-Turkish border is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “During the Battle of Sarikamish, despite the severe cold and a blizzard, our gallant troops chased the Turks out from their strong positions with amazing tenacity. When the Turkish troops were defeated and began to retreat, leaving their weapons and the wounded behind, our brave soldiers vigorously pursued them. Оne Turkish corps ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Battle with the Turks
This print showing a battle between Cossacks and Turks is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Taking advantage of the night darkness, the Turks, dressed in white cloaks, stole up to the location of the Cossack outpost and attacked the Cossacks with bayonets. At the same time a Kurdish cavalry unit attacked them from the flank. A terrible massacre began. The Cossacks then broke through the lines of the Turks, took the hill, and entrenched themselves. In the morning ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Battle of Ardahan
This print showing the Battle of Ardahan (in present-day Turkey) is from the collection of World War I Russian lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “On the night of December 20, our troops, while fighting, force-marched to Ardahan from two sides—from the west and the north. There was a heavy fog. The Turks, firmly settled in the trenches, met our troops with an outpouring of bullets and shrapnel. Late at night the commanding officer of the western detachment led his troops on an assault of ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Defeat of the Turks near Sarikamish
This print showing a 1914 battle scene near Sarikamish, showing fighting between the Russians and the Turkish army, is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “After fierce battles, the main forces of the Turkish army, having been surrounded by our troops behind Sarikamish, laid down their weapons. This glorious victory of our Caucasian Army, like thunder, struck the German leaders. We defeated two Turkish corps. One of these corps was captured entirely with the corps commanders, three chiefs of ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Defeat of the Germans on the River Bzura
This print showing the defeat of Germans at the river Bzura is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “In three previous battles, the defeated German army was unable to conduct a full and broad offensive against our invincible army along the front line at ​​the river Bzura. The Germans were limited to separate attacks, and as a result, their hordes remained on the left bank of the Bzura. The sacrifices made by the Germans on the Bzura are enormous ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Russian-Turkish War. The Defeat of the Turkish Army at Sarikamish
This print showing an explosion amidst the Turkish army at Sarikamish is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Our glorious Caucasian troops defeated two Turkish corps at Sarikamish. The Ninth Turkish corps is destroyed. The commander of the corps, Iskhan Pasha, chiefs of the 17th, 28th, and 29th divisions, their staff, and more than 100 officers were taken prisoner. The Turks' losses in dead and wounded are enormous.” Lubok is a Russian word for popular prints created from woodcuts ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Battle at Gorodok
This print showing a battle with cavalry at Gorodok (present-day Horodok, Ukraine) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains, in the words of an August 6 report from the General Staff at Saint Petersburg: “At noon on August 4, an Austrian division approached the line at Gorodok-Kuzmin. Our cavalrymen initiated a fight with the enemy at Gorodok, which lasted for five hours. Our fire and cavalry attacks inflicted losses on the enemy. The whole field is covered with the ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Battle at the Austrian Border
This print showing a battle near the village Gopka at the Austrian border is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains, in the words of a report from Odessa: “Our troops reached Gopka on August 13 at night; an intense firing of weapons began. A fierce battle began before dawn and lasted for 18 hours. The battle ended with the defeat of the Austrians, who abandoned many guns. The number of dead and wounded Austrians is 2,000, with 4 ...
Contributed by The British Library
War in the Air: Pegoud's Feat
This print showing an airplane attacking a train and troops on the ground is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Pegoud, a famous French aviator, made two brilliant flights over German territory, reaching nearly 300 versts into the country. His plane had an open cockpit, and his gunner was named Monteignet. While conducting reconnaissance on the location of the German army, Pegoud and Monteignet dropped several grenades and incendiary bombs and fired two projectiles from a 45 millimeter gun ...
Contributed by The British Library
Heroic Feats of General G.'s Division on the Caucasian Front
This print showing a battle on a mountain in thick fog is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “During the famous battles at Sarikamish and Karaurg the division of General G. made very difficult crossings amazingly quickly. General G., following the internal lines of operation, rushed from Kars and decisively defeated the Turks in a battle on the night of December 16. In just one area of the battle alone, the Turks lost about 1,000 men. Having defeated ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Battle with the Germans on the Bzura River
This print showing a battle taking place on the Bzura River is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The second onslaught of the German troops on Warsaw and the Vistula River was stopped along the line of the Bzura River and its tributary, the Rawka River. Further to the south, the line of defense continued along the rivers Pilica and Neda, to the confluence of the latter with the Vistula. The Russian army stood there like an impenetrable wall ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War. Heroic Guards
This print showing two men firing on approaching soldiers is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The newspaper Kievlianin published an article based on a story told by Kozin, a member of the Volynskyi zemstvo [local government]. Kozin said that his estate, located near the Austrian border, was guarded by two men: Zontiev, an Ossetian, and Goi-Murza-Biev, a Circassian. When Kozin left his estate, he gave each of these men a Browning firearm. On July 27, the guards spotted ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War. Air Combat. A Heroic Feat of French Pilot Garros
This print showing the collision of a French airplane and a German airship is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “War creates heroes. A German Dreadnought-Zeppelin airship floated over a French fortress. The predatory enemy was carefully looking for the secret of its defenses. A small airplane took off and quickly surged into the air, controlled by the firm hand of French pilot Garros. Soon the famous pilot soared over the enormous airship. Garros dropped a bomb, but missed ...
Contributed by The British Library
Destruction of the Austrian Squad by Shrapnel Fire During the Capture of the Kyrle Baba Pass in the Carpathian Mountains
This print showing a battle scene with explosions is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “As soon as it was detected by us, the Austrian battery using heavy artillery against Tarnow was silenced by our artillery with shrapnel fire. In Bukovina our advanced units captured the Kyrle Baba Pass, in a battle located on the border with Transylvania and on the highway leading from Cîmpulung to Sighetu Marmaţiei and Dej [present-day Romania].” This picture, like many others in the ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Defeat of the Turks on the Erzurum Front
This print showing a battle scene with cavalry and infantry is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Our infantry units and the glorious Caucasian Cossacks defeated the Turkish army with a lightning-like attack in the direction of Erzurum. All of the Turkish regiments from the 28th and 29th Divisions lost almost half of their men. Two battalions were completely destroyed. The 102nd Regiment and the 23rd and 24th Cavalry Regiments also had heavy losses. The regiments of the 34th ...
Contributed by The British Library
Australia has Promised Britain 50,000 More Men; Will You Help Us Keep that Promise
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. Australia fought on the side of its “mother country,” Great Britain. Australian soldiers suffered heavy casualties in the Gallipoli campaign and in the trenches on the Western front. Casualties led to recruiting drives intended to attract new enlistments. This poster by an unidentified artist appeals to the strong sense of loyalty to Britain felt by the Australian people. It shows a kangaroo in front of number 50,000 and in the background ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
French-Canadians: Enlist!: Re-form the Salaberry Riflery Regiments
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This recruitment poster from Canada was directed at French-speaking Canadians, with the warning that “England, bulwark of our liberties, is threatened.” The call to re-form the Salaberry rifle regiments refers back to the War of 1812 between Britain and the United States, when Major Charles de Salaberry, a member of a distinguished Quebec family, was given command of a new regiment, recruited from among French Canadians, to defend against a possible American ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bushmen and Sawmill Hands Wanted. Join the 224th Canadian Forestry Battalion
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This poster by an unknown artist appeals to men with logging and sawmill experience to join a new military unit being formed in Canada. In 1916, the British government asked the government of Canada to recruit a specialized forestry battalion for service in Britain and France, where forestry skills were in short supply. In a period of six weeks, over 1,600 men were recruited for the unit, which was assigned such ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Fight for Her. Come with the Irish Canadian Rangers Overseas Battalion, Montreal
In World War I, many Irish immigrants to Canada volunteered to serve in the Canadian armed forces. To assist with recruitment, the Canadian government established a purely Irish battalion, the Irish Canadian Rangers 199th Overseas Battalion. Based in Montreal, the unit began signing up volunteers in the winter of 1915–16. Also known as the Duchess of Connaught's Own Irish Rangers, after their royal patron, wife of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and the governor-general of Canada, the rangers sailed for Europe in December 1916, and made a triumphal ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The German Colonists in the Brazilian State of Espirito Santo
In May 1910, the Verein für Sozialpolitik (Association for Social Policy), an influential organization of German economists based in Berlin, decided to commission a series of studies on the colonization and settlement of tropical regions by Europeans, with the goal of determining whether and under what conditions such colonization was economically and socially sustainable. The studies were to assist in the development of the German overseas empire, and German East Africa in particular. Each study was to include an overview of a particular region of settlement; analyses of its economy ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Deposit Your Gold for France. Gold Fights for Victory
This World War I poster, published in Paris in 1915, urges French citizens to deposit their gold coins “for France,” using the slogan “Gold fights for victory." Gold was needed by the French government to purchase wartime supplies from the United States and other countries, hence the appeal for citizens to transform their gold coins into bank deposits. The focal point of the poster, the gold coin embossed with the emblematic and iconic Gallic rooster (le coq gaulois) shown to be crushing a German soldier, epitomizes this idea. The poster ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Convicts Leased to Harvest Timber
This early-20th-century photograph shows the harsh working conditions for African-American prisoners caught up in the convict labor system of the state of Florida, which had a notorious reputation for its severe penal labor system. Throughout the American South, African-Americans were far more likely than whites to be incarcerated for minor crimes, and imprisonment and forced labor were tools used by local and state governments to enforce Jim Crow racial restrictions. Agreements between correctional institutions and private corporations such as lumber companies and turpentine manufacturers enabled companies to use convict labor ...
"A Happy New Year to Our Gallant Soldiers!" You Can Make It Certain If You Join Now
This poster created in early 1915, designed and printed by Johnson, Riddle & Company for the Parliamentary Recruiting Committee in the United Kingdom, shows British soldiers marching toward victory in World War I. After Britain declared war on Germany on August 4, 1914, posters such as this were used to encourage men to enlist in the armed forces. The optimistic visual imagery promised victory in the new year, provided enough men joined the fight. In the early months of the conflict, many people in Britain believed that the war would be ...
Contributed by Library of Congress