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Ukrainian People in the Past and Present
This book is the first volume of what became a two-volume, Russian-language encyclopedia of the Ukrainian people. The authors of the articles were prominent Ukrainian and Russian scholars. They included S. Rudnitskii, who wrote about geography of Ukraine; O. Rusov, V. Ohrimovich and S. Tomashevskii, who wrote about population statistics; F. Vovk, whose article was on anthropological and ethnographic features specific to the Ukrainians; and O. Shakhmatov, who contributed a history of the Ukrainian language. The book includes numerous illustrations. World War I interrupted the production of the encyclopedia, but ...
A Collection from the Archaeological Museum, Used for Teaching in the Women's Advanced Courses in Kiev
This book contains an extended essay about and eight illustrations of the clothes and decorations worn by women in ancient Russia. The information is based on archeological excavations of kurgans, or burial mounds, containing domestic objects from the ancient Slavs. The objects depicted are from the Archaeological Museum in Kiev. As indicated in the title, the book was used for teaching courses for women in Kiev. Advanced courses for women opened in Kiev and several other Ukrainian cities in 1878, and were part of a broader movement in the country ...
West Indies Showing Sovereignty of the Various Islands
This undated map of the West Indies from the first half of the 20th century was produced by the Military Intelligence Division of the General Staff of the U.S. Department of the Army. It shows U.S., British, French, and Dutch possessions in the region, along with principal trade routes, undersea telegraph cables owned by Britain and the United States, and the location of government and privately owned radio stations. Defense of the Caribbean against possible incursions by hostile European powers was a major concern of U.S. military ...
National Highways Association Map of the State of Delaware
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1914, shows 300 miles (483 kilometers) of highways proposed for Delaware and their connections to the adjoining states of Pennsylvania and Maryland. No bridge across the Delaware River ...
Fifty Thousand Miles of National Highways Proposed by the National Highways Association, 1914
This map was issued in 1914 by the National Highways Association (NHA) to promote the development of the 50,000-mile (80,500-kilometer) network of national highways proposed by the NHA. Published in the year that the Panama Canal opened to traffic, the map contrasts the benefits to citizens of the canal with those offered by the proposed highway system. The NHA was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated a ...
First World War
This photograph from the archives of the League of Nations shows a soldier killed in World War I. The war raged for more than four years, from August 1914 to November 1918, and resulted in the deaths of more than nine million combatants. As many as seven million civilians also were killed in the war or died as a consequence of it. In the hope of ensuring that such a destructive conflict would never recur, U.S. president Woodrow Wilson and other leaders established, at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference ...
Echo of Babylon, Number 4, September 3, 1909
Seda Babel (Echo of Babylon), first published in 1909 in Baghdad, was among Iraq’s earliest newspapers. It appeared weekly on Friday. Until the end of World War I, Iraq was part of the Ottoman Empire and was subject to Ottoman law. In 1908, in line with the liberalizing revolution of the Young Turks, imperial press regulation loosened, allowing Iraq’s intellectuals and writers the freedom to publish newspapers, magazines, and books. Seda Babel was one of more than a dozen newspapers to appear as a result, and part of ...
Through the Brazilian Wilderness, by Theodore Roosevelt: With Illustrations from Photographs by Kermit Roosevelt and Other Members of the Expedition
After failing to win a third term in the elections of 1912, former U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt planned a speaking trip to Argentina and Brazil and a cruise up the Amazon. The government of Brazil suggested that Roosevelt join the famous Brazilian explorer Cândido Rondon in an expedition down the recently discovered River of Doubt. Roosevelt accepted the invitation and, accompanied by his son Kermit, reached the river with Rondon on February 27, 1914. From the beginning, the expedition was fraught with difficulties, including disease, lack of supplies, and ...
Nepal and the Himalayan Countries
Isabelle Massieu (1844–1932) was a French writer and traveler who became the first French woman to visit Nepal. Beginning in 1892, she undertook a series of journeys from her native Paris that took her to nearly all parts of Asia and resulted in the publication of several popular books. Népal et pays himalayens (Nepal and the Himalayan countries) is a first-hand account of her 1908 voyage from the Sutlej Valley in northern India across Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim to Tibet. Massieu describes the people, landscape, and architecture of the ...
Morgan Philips Price (1885–1973) was a British journalist, photographer, and politician who wrote several books about Russia. He studied science at Cambridge University. In 1910 he joined a British scientific expedition to explore the headwaters of the Enesei River in central Siberia with two friends, writer, photographer, and cartographer Douglas Carruthers, and J.H. Miller, a zoologist and big-game hunter. Siberia is Price’s account of the expedition and his travels on the Trans-Siberian Railroad, his stay in the city of Krasnoiarsk, and his visit to the Siberian provincial ...
Cycloramic Birds-Eye Views of Belize, British Honduras
This panoramic photograph shows Belize City as it appeared around 1914. “Panoramic” photographs employ a variety of techniques to create a wide angle of view. This panoramic view is comprised of eight photographs spliced together to provide a broader image than would be practical with a single photograph. Belize was the main city and major port of the crown colony of British Honduras. The country changed its name to Belize in 1973 and became fully independent from Britain in 1981.
British Kaffraria and its German Settlements
In May 1910, the Verein für Sozialpolitik (Association for Social Policy), an influential organization of German economists based in Berlin, decided to commission a series of studies on the colonization and settlement of tropical regions by Europeans, with the goal of determining whether and under what conditions such colonization was economically and socially sustainable. The studies were to assist in the development of the German overseas empire, and German East Africa in particular. Each study was to include an overview of a particular region of settlement; analyses of its economy ...
Let's Take Care of the Poultry. I am a Fine War Hen. I Eat Little and Produce a Lot
This small poster, produced in France in 1918, features a hen sitting atop a pile of eggs beneath the caption, "Let's take care of the poultry," and above the main caption which reads: "I am a fine war hen. I eat little and produce a lot." The aim of the poster was to encourage the French population to conserve food and other scarce goods in order to support the war effort. Unlike many posters, which were produced by professional artists, this work was designed by a 16-year-old student, who ...
Confederate Veterans Convention
Reunions of Civil War veterans from both the North and South were a prominent feature of public life in the United States in the early decades of the 20th century. This 1914 silent film records the meeting of 40,000 Confederate veterans in Jacksonville, Florida, nearly a half century after the end of the war. Titles are used to explain each sequence. The motion of the film is somewhat jerky but the quality of the images is good. Aging veterans dance to the music of two fiddlers and gather to ...
The German East-Asian Expeditionary Corps was sent to China in 1900 by Kaiser Wilhelm II as part of the eight-nation (Britain, France, Germany, Russia, United States, Japan, Austria, Italy) operation to suppress the Boxer Rebellion against foreign influence in China. The German force arrived in Beijing in mid-October, by which time the conflict was largely over. In late 1900-early 1901, the corps engaged in a series of brutal punitive expeditions designed to end Boxer resistance in the countryside and force China to sign a peace treaty with Germany. This detailed ...
1914! The Murderers!
This poster, designed by the graphic artist Maurice Louis Henri Neumont (1868–1930) and produced in Paris in 1914 by Maison d’édition, depicts Kaiser Wilhelm II, emperor of Germany during World War I, and his father, Kaiser Wilhelm I, who left the throne to his son when he died in 1888, as “murderers.” Each carries a knife, and behind them is a looming image of the imperial eagle of Germany, dripping blood. The papers on the ground show the international agreements and principles of international law that the German ...
All in One with the Irish Canadian Rangers 199th Overseas Battalion
In World War I, many Irish immigrants to Canada volunteered to serve in the Canadian armed forces. To assist with recruitment, the Canadian government established a purely Irish battalion, the Irish Canadian Rangers 199th Overseas Battalion. Based in Montreal, the unit began signing up volunteers in the winter of 1915–16. Also known as the Duchess of Connaught's Own Irish Rangers, after their royal patron, wife of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Governor-General of Canada, the rangers sailed for Europe in December 1916 and made a triumphal tour ...
Boys to the Farm. Bring Your Chum and Do Your Bit
In World War I, Canada established a Soldiers of the Soil corps under which boys aged 15 to 19 were asked to volunteer their summers to work on farms, replacing farmhands who had enlisted for military service. In all, 22,385 boys signed up as farm “soldiers.” This poster, issued by the Canada Food Board, is an appeal for farm labor. It shows a boy wearing a Soldiers of the Soil uniform blowing a bugle to summon others to the corps. In the background, other boys wearing the uniform of ...
Buy Fresh Fish, Save the Meat for Our Soldiers and Allies
This World War I poster, issued by the Canada Food Board, urges consumers to purchase and eat fish rather than meat. The poster shows a butcher pointing at fish while a female customer looks on. The butcher and the woman are both smiling, and the words “A Good Butcher” appear in the background. Canada was a major producer and exporter of meat, grains, and other foodstuffs, and the country ramped up production during the war to help meet the needs of Britain, France, and other allies, where the war caused ...
Canada's Egg Opportunity
This World War I poster, issued by the Canada Food Board, promotes increased production of eggs as a contribution to the war effort. The poster shows a large chicken, two figures representing Great Britain and Canada, and four eggs, representing the size of the egg shortage in Britain, the number of eggs Britain normally imported, and Canadian egg sales to Britain in two different years. The statistics highlight the egg shortage in Britain, owing to decreased wartime production, but note that Canada’s egg sales to Britain were lower than ...
Canada's Pork Opportunity
This World War I poster, issued by the Canada Food Board, promotes increased production of pork as a contribution to the war effort. The poster shows two figures, representing Great Britain and Canada, exchanging money for a small pig. A large hog is pictured below; it indicates how many pounds of pork Britain buys. The smaller pig being exchanged represents how much Canada sells. The text on the poster proclaims: “We're glad to have it, Canada, but we need ten times more.” Canada was a major food producer during ...