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Ukrainian People in the Past and Present
This book is the first volume of what became a two-volume, Russian-language encyclopedia of the Ukrainian people. The authors of the articles were prominent Ukrainian and Russian scholars. They included S. Rudnitskii, who wrote about geography of Ukraine; O. Rusov, V. Ohrimovich and S. Tomashevskii, who wrote about population statistics; F. Vovk, whose article was on anthropological and ethnographic features specific to the Ukrainians; and O. Shakhmatov, who contributed a history of the Ukrainian language. The book includes numerous illustrations. World War I interrupted the production of the encyclopedia, but ...
A Collection from the Archaeological Museum, Used for Teaching in the Women's Advanced Courses in Kiev
This book contains an extended essay about and eight illustrations of the clothes and decorations worn by women in ancient Russia. The information is based on archeological excavations of kurgans, or burial mounds, containing domestic objects from the ancient Slavs. The objects depicted are from the Archaeological Museum in Kiev. As indicated in the title, the book was used for teaching courses for women in Kiev. Advanced courses for women opened in Kiev and several other Ukrainian cities in 1878, and were part of a broader movement in the country ...
West Indies Showing Sovereignty of the Various Islands
This undated map of the West Indies from the first half of the 20th century was produced by the Military Intelligence Division of the General Staff of the U.S. Department of the Army. It shows U.S., British, French, and Dutch possessions in the region, along with principal trade routes, undersea telegraph cables owned by Britain and the United States, and the location of government and privately owned radio stations. Defense of the Caribbean against possible incursions by hostile European powers was a major concern of U.S. military ...
National Highways Association Map of the State of Delaware
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1914, shows 300 miles (483 kilometers) of highways proposed for Delaware and their connections to the adjoining states of Pennsylvania and Maryland. No bridge across the Delaware River ...
Fifty Thousand Miles of National Highways Proposed by the National Highways Association, 1914
This map was issued in 1914 by the National Highways Association (NHA) to promote the development of the 50,000-mile (80,500-kilometer) network of national highways proposed by the NHA. Published in the year that the Panama Canal opened to traffic, the map contrasts the benefits to citizens of the canal with those offered by the proposed highway system. The NHA was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated a ...
First World War
This photograph from the archives of the League of Nations shows a soldier killed in World War I. The war raged for more than four years, from August 1914 to November 1918, and resulted in the deaths of more than nine million combatants. As many as seven million civilians also were killed in the war or died as a consequence of it. In the hope of ensuring that such a destructive conflict would never recur, U.S. president Woodrow Wilson and other leaders established, at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference ...
Poetic Collection of Tarzi
Diwan-i tarzi (Poetic collection of Tarzi) contains verses by Ghulām Muḥammad Ṭarzī (1830−1900), mostly concerning piety, ethics, politics, and society in 19th century Afghanistan. Tarzi came from a distinguished background; he belonged to the Mohammadzai sub-lineage of the Durranis, one of two main Afghan Pashtun lineages, the other being Ghilzai. Because of their connections to Muḥammad Yaʻqūb Khān, Tarzi and his family were exiled from Afghanistan in 1882−83 by Abd al-Raḥmān Khān, a kinsman of Yaʻqūb Khān and a rival to the Afghan throne. The feeling of desolation ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Echo of Babylon, Number 221, January 11, 1914
Seda Babel (Echo of Babylon), first published in 1909 in Baghdad, was among Iraq’s earliest newspapers. It appeared weekly on Friday. Until the end of World War I, Iraq was part of the Ottoman Empire and was subject to Ottoman law. In 1908, in line with the liberalizing revolution of the Young Turks, imperial press regulation loosened, allowing Iraq’s intellectuals and writers the freedom to publish newspapers, magazines, and books. Seda Babel was one of more than a dozen newspapers to appear as a result, and part of ...
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A Song of Blood
Krvavé sonety (A song of blood) is a collection of 32 sonnets by Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav (1849−1921), the pseudonym of the Slovak poet, writer, and lawyer Pavol Országh. Hviezdoslav was an important writer and one of the leading personalities in Slovak literature and culture at the end of the 19th century and the early 20th century. This cycle of poems is the poet’s protest against World War I. The book is a strong reaction to what Hviezdoslav saw as the oppression and humiliation of humanity brought about by ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
The Stanchion of Divine Precepts
ʻUmdat al-farāʼiz̤ (The stanchion of divine precepts) is a 1914 book on the laws of inheritance as described in the sharia (Islamic law). In the opening pages, the author, Nik Muhammad, formally praises the Afghan ruler Habibullah Khan (reigned 1901–19). He states that the book was written by decree of Prince Muʻin al-Saltana (i.e., Habibullah’s son, ‘Inayatullah Khan, who in 1929 would serve briefly as ruler of Afghanistan), and that it was printed by lithography at the Dar al-Saltana printing press in Kabul. The book includes a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Swollen-headed William: Painful Stories and Funny Pictures after the German!
At the time of the First World War, the children’s book Struwwelpeter (Shock-headed Peter) was a familiar nursery classic in both Germany and Britain. In this British wartime parody, the original cautionary tales of naughty children and their fates are all turned against Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany. The “shock-headed Peter” of the title poem becomes “swollen-headed William,” while “fidgety Phil,” whose dinnertime antics knock over the table and ruin the food, becomes “fidgety Will,” who destroys his country’s prosperity. The last poem departs more from the original tale ...
Contributed by The British Library
The European War
This print showing a battle between troops on horseback is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “A brave detachment of Cossacks destroyed German hussars near Sochaczew.” Lubok is a Russian word for popular prints created from woodcuts, engravings, etchings, or later, by using lithography. The prints were often characterized by simple, colorful graphics depicting a narrative, and could also include text. Lubok gained popularity in Russia beginning in the late 17th century. The prints, which often depicted narratives from ...
Contributed by The British Library
Belgians Flooding Germans
This print showing German troops struggling in an unexpected flood in Belgium is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “A heroic feat by small Belgium caused admiration from the whole world. Highly cultured Belgium, outraged by Germany's barbarian attacks, decided to take extreme measures to save the country. The whole of northern Belgium is located in the lowlands, some of which are below sea level. That part does not get flooded only because it is surrounded by dunes ...
Contributed by The British Library
The European War. The Defeat of the Germans near Warsaw
This print showing combat amongst trees and the defeat of the Germans in a battle near Warsaw is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The Siberian Corps demonstrated particular valor in the battles near Warsaw. They captured many prisoners of the 20th German Corps in the battle in the Moshidlovskii Forest. The 17th Corps delivered the main offensive in the area of Błonie and Pruszków and suffered the most. There, Siberians together with the Russian corps inflicted huge losses ...
Contributed by The British Library
The European War. The Belgians Explode their Own Dams and Defeat of German Units near Mechelen
This print showing German troops caught in an unexpected flood in Belgium is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “As German units were bypassing Antwerp in the direction of Dendermonde near Mechelen, they were caught off guard by a flood caused by the blowing up of the dams by the Belgians. The whole area was flooded. While the Germans were trying to rescue their weapons, the Belgians opened fire on them from the Antwerp forts. Meanwhile the water level ...
Contributed by The British Library
"Death Valley." The Battle of Mykhaylivka Village
This print showing a battle at the village of Mykhaylivka where the Russians defeated the Austrians is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Under a torrent of Austrian shrapnel and machine guns, our offensive columns quickly gained advanced positions and forced the enemy units into the ravine. Meanwhile our defensive columns were able to reach the opposite hills, and then enclose the enemy division pushed into the ravine. After a few well-aimed shots from the Russian batteries, the enemy ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Battle Near Vladimir-Volynsk
This print showing a battle near Volodymyr-Volynsky (present-day Ukraine) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Enemy artillery, firing over its own cavalry, shelled the trenches in front of the city occupied by our troops. The Austrians were quickly approaching. A terrible moment arrived. Hungarian cavalry, arrayed in a wide semi-circle in front of the city, bravely raced forward. It seemed that after a few minutes they would enter the city. But loud sounds and strange crackling were heard ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Russian-Turkish War. Sinking Four Turkish Cargo Ships
This print showing the sinking of four Turkish cargo ships is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “After a heavy bombardment of the Turkish port of Zonguldak in the Black Sea, our detachment noticed an enemy unit at sea. It consisted of a few warships and four cargo ships carrying troops and supplies. After sinking the cargo ships by artillery fire and causing some damage to the other vessels that managed to escape, our detachment returned to Sevastopol safely ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Russian-Turkish War. The Capture оf Bayazid
This print showing the capture of the fortress of Bayazid (located in what was then Turkish Armenia) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Our gallant Caucasian army, advancing on the fortress of Bayazid in order to capture it, attacked the heavily fortified Turkish positions at Bazyrgan and, having destroyed them, put the Turks to flight. As they fled, the enemy left behind their weapons and dispersed into the villages. On October 21, our troops triumphantly entered Bayazid. This ...
Contributed by The British Library
Russia's War with the Germans. The Battle of the Vistula River
This print showing the Battle of the Vistula River (in present-day Poland) between Russian and German forces is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “During a night-time German offensive on Warsaw, intense fighting broke out near Blonie. Fire from artillery shells and the burning of houses set on fire by the Germans lit the night. Shrapnel burst in the air in different directions, the earth was shaking from the thundering of weapons, and guns fired unceasingly. Despite the lethal ...
Contributed by The British Library
Russia's War with the Germans. The Effect of Our High Explosive Shells
This print showing the devastating effect of a Russian high explosive shell on German troops is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Skillfully built enemy trenches were hard to capture with ordinary artillery fire in the battles at the Vistula River. Only well-aimed shots by high explosive shells managed to force the Germans out of their deep burrows. These high explosive shells are so terrifyingly effective that even Germany’s famous skills in the military arts proved absolutely powerless ...
Contributed by The British Library
Russia's War with the Germans. Russian Troops Crossing the Carpathian Mountains
This print showing Russian troops crossing the Carpathian Mountains is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The Uzhoksky Pass in the Carpathian Mountains is witness to the heroic deeds of the Russian troops. On September 11, after a fierce battle, the pass was taken by us with heavy losses to the enemy. A legend about the impassability of the eastern Carpathian Mountains was dispelled when our gallant army passed them, opening a broad path to Hungary.” Lubok is a ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War
This print showing Russian and German troops engaged in battle is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Brave Russian soldiers attacking the enemy with bayonets on the German front.” Lubok is a Russian word for popular prints created from woodcuts, engravings, etchings, or later, by using lithography. The prints were often characterized by simple, colorful graphics depicting a narrative, and could also include text. Lubok gained popularity in Russia beginning in the late 17th century. The prints, which often ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Battle of Marijampolė
This print showing the Battle of Marijampolė (in present-day Lithuania) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “As Russian troops were retreating for strategic reasons from East Prussia, they had to deal not only with the German troops, but also with civilians in German cities and towns. In a small village, called Darkmen, the entire German population, including young women and 12-year-olds, shot at Russian troops from the windows of houses, the roofs of barns, and cellars. The villagers ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Battle of Augustów
This print showing the Battle of Augustów (in present-day Poland) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The Germans' attempt to cross the Neman River and enter the rear of our armies in Poland, by cutting the railroad lines from Moscow to Petrograd, ended in a great defeat. Driven from the Neman, the Germans made ​desperate attempts to slow the offensive by our troops. A particularly intense battle took place near Augustów. The Germans were defeated by our artillery ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Defeat of the Austrian Army Near L'viv
This print showing a battle between the Russian and Austrian armies near L’viv (in present-day Ukraine; at that time the city of Lemberg in Austria-Hungary) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “According to the headquarters of the commander in chief, after a seven day battle, our army took advanced and heavily fortified positions near L’viv, 15–20 versts east of the city, and approached the main L’viv forts. After very heavy fighting on August 19 ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great War. Russian Troops Crossing the Carpathian Mountains
This print showing Russian troops crossing the Carpathian Mountains is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Our gallant troops endure incredible hardships during their crossing of the Carpathian Mountains; it seems that all is against the Russians: cliffs, impenetrable goat paths, the most severe frosts and, besides all this, behind each stone and ledge of a rock the cruel enemy is vigilantly eyeing every step taken by us. But nothing can stop the victorious march of our heroes, Russian ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Heroic Feat by Non-commissioned Officer Avvakum Volkov, Who Captured the Austrian Flag
This print showing Russian troops fighting Austrians is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Avvakum Volkov, a volunteer non-commissioned officer, Full Cavalier of Saint George, was brought to one of the Moscow military hospitals. For his outstanding bravery he was granted a promotion and a reward of 500 rubles. Volkov earned his last two honors in battles against the Austrians. Accompanied by seven soldiers, Volkov went on a reconnaissance mission and soon encountered Austrian dragoons, nine enlisted men, one ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War. The Battle of Augustów. German Troops Crossing the Neman
This print showing German troops crossing the Neman River at the Battle of Augustów (in present-day Poland) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “From the report from the headquarters of the Chief of Staff. The Battle of Augustów ended with a victory on September 20. The Germans' defeat was complete, and now they are retreating to the borders of East Prussia in a disorderly manner. Our valiant troops vigorously pursued the enemy, who is leaving behind wagons, guns ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War. A Heroic Feat by Cossack Gumilov, Who Rescued a Wounded Officer
This print showing the rescue of a wounded Russian officer is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Some of the wounded brought to Petrograd from the Austrian battlefields told an interesting story about a heroic feat by the Cossack Gumilov. The Cossack took part in the Battle of L’viv. Together with three of his friends he reached the woods, where they drove off some Austrian cavalrymen. Gumilov went ahead and came to the edge of the forest. A ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War. A Heroic Feat and Death of the Famous Pilot Staff Captain P. N. Nesterov
This print showing the collision of two planes in mid-air and honoring the Russian pilot Staff Captain P.N. Nesterov is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Staff Captain P.N. Nesterov recently saw an Austrian airplane flying over the location of our troops near Zhovkva that was about to drop a bomb. Nesterov got in his airplane, attacked the enemy and, ramming the Austrian airplane, destroyed it and thus prevented casualties to our troops from the bomb. Nesterov ...
Contributed by The British Library
Great European War. Russian Troops Capture Galich Under the Command of Lieutenant General A. A. Brusilov, Who Was Awarded the Cross of Saint George of 4th Class for This Operation
This print showing Russian troops capturing the area of Galich (in present-day Ukraine) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “As reported from the Commander in Chief's Headquarters, our left wing covered 220 versts from August 4 to 21, while being engaged from August 7 to 21 in a continuous battle with the enemy. The main forces of the enemy had established strong positions between Kamenka and Galich, where they were destroyed on August 18 and 19. In ...
Contributed by The British Library
Afghanistan and Its Neighboring Countries
This map of Afghanistan and its neighbors was printed in multiple editions by the publishing house of Carl Flemming in Glogau, Germany (present-day Głogów, Poland). The areas covered by the map were the site of an intense rivalry between Great Britain and Imperial Russia during the course of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The borders of Afghanistan changed repeatedly during the latter part of the 19th century: the border between Baluchistan and Afghanistan was redrawn with the establishment of the Durand Line in 1893, and the borders between Afghanistan ...
Through the Brazilian Wilderness, by Theodore Roosevelt: With Illustrations from Photographs by Kermit Roosevelt and Other Members of the Expedition
After failing to win a third term in the elections of 1912, former U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt planned a speaking trip to Argentina and Brazil and a cruise up the Amazon. The government of Brazil suggested that Roosevelt join the famous Brazilian explorer Cândido Rondon in an expedition down the recently discovered River of Doubt. Roosevelt accepted the invitation and, accompanied by his son Kermit, reached the river with Rondon on February 27, 1914. From the beginning, the expedition was fraught with difficulties, including disease, lack of supplies, and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Nepal and the Himalayan Countries
Isabelle Massieu (1844–1932) was a French writer and traveler who became the first French woman to visit Nepal. Beginning in 1892, she undertook a series of journeys from her native Paris that took her to nearly all parts of Asia and resulted in the publication of several popular books. Népal et pays himalayens (Nepal and the Himalayan countries) is a first-hand account of her 1908 voyage from the Sutlej Valley in northern India across Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim to Tibet. Massieu describes the people, landscape, and architecture of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Siberia
Morgan Philips Price (1885–1973) was a British journalist, photographer, and politician who wrote several books about Russia. He studied science at Cambridge University. In 1910 he joined a British scientific expedition to explore the headwaters of the Enesei River in central Siberia with two friends, writer, photographer, and cartographer Douglas Carruthers, and J.H. Miller, a zoologist and big-game hunter. Siberia is Price’s account of the expedition and his travels on the Trans-Siberian Railroad, his stay in the city of Krasnoiarsk, and his visit to the Siberian provincial ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cycloramic Birds-Eye Views of Belize, British Honduras
This panoramic photograph shows Belize City as it appeared around 1914. “Panoramic” photographs employ a variety of techniques to create a wide angle of view. This panoramic view is comprised of eight photographs spliced together to provide a broader image than would be practical with a single photograph. Belize was the main city and major port of the crown colony of British Honduras. The country changed its name to Belize in 1973 and became fully independent from Britain in 1981.
Contributed by Library of Congress
British Kaffraria and its German Settlements
In May 1910, the Verein für Sozialpolitik (Association for Social Policy), an influential organization of German economists based in Berlin, decided to commission a series of studies on the colonization and settlement of tropical regions by Europeans, with the goal of determining whether and under what conditions such colonization was economically and socially sustainable. The studies were to assist in the development of the German overseas empire, and German East Africa in particular. Each study was to include an overview of a particular region of settlement; analyses of its economy ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Let's Take Care of the Poultry. I am a Fine War Hen. I Eat Little and Produce a Lot
This small poster, produced in France in 1918, features a hen sitting atop a pile of eggs beneath the caption, "Let's take care of the poultry," and above the main caption which reads: "I am a fine war hen. I eat little and produce a lot." The aim of the poster was to encourage the French population to conserve food and other scarce goods in order to support the war effort. Unlike many posters, which were produced by professional artists, this work was designed by a 16-year-old student, who ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Confederate Veterans Convention
Reunions of Civil War veterans from both the North and South were a prominent feature of public life in the United States in the early decades of the 20th century. This 1914 silent film records the meeting of 40,000 Confederate veterans in Jacksonville, Florida, nearly a half century after the end of the war. Titles are used to explain each sequence. The motion of the film is somewhat jerky but the quality of the images is good. Aging veterans dance to the music of two fiddlers and gather to ...
Peking
The German East-Asian Expeditionary Corps was sent to China in 1900 by Kaiser Wilhelm II as part of the eight-nation (Britain, France, Germany, Russia, United States, Japan, Austria, Italy) operation to suppress the Boxer Rebellion against foreign influence in China. The German force arrived in Beijing in mid-October, by which time the conflict was largely over. In late 1900-early 1901, the corps engaged in a series of brutal punitive expeditions designed to end Boxer resistance in the countryside and force China to sign a peace treaty with Germany. This detailed ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
1914! The Murderers!
This poster, designed by the graphic artist Maurice Louis Henri Neumont (1868–1930) and produced in Paris in 1914 by Maison d’édition, depicts Kaiser Wilhelm II (1859–1941), emperor of Germany during World War I, and Franz Joseph I (1830–1916), emperor of Austria-Hungary until the third year of the war, as “murderers.” Each carries a knife, and behind them is a looming image of the imperial eagle of Germany, dripping blood. The papers on the ground show the international agreements and principles of international law that the emperors ...
Contributed by Library of Congress