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Ukrainian People in the Past and Present
This book is the first volume of what became a two-volume, Russian-language encyclopedia of the Ukrainian people. The authors of the articles were prominent Ukrainian and Russian scholars. They included S. Rudnitskii, who wrote about geography of Ukraine; O. Rusov, V. Ohrimovich and S. Tomashevskii, who wrote about population statistics; F. Vovk, whose article was on anthropological and ethnographic features specific to the Ukrainians; and O. Shakhmatov, who contributed a history of the Ukrainian language. The book includes numerous illustrations. World War I interrupted the production of the encyclopedia, but ...
A Collection from the Archaeological Museum, Used for Teaching in the Women's Advanced Courses in Kiev
This book contains an extended essay about and eight illustrations of the clothes and decorations worn by women in ancient Russia. The information is based on archeological excavations of kurgans, or burial mounds, containing domestic objects from the ancient Slavs. The objects depicted are from the Archaeological Museum in Kiev. As indicated in the title, the book was used for teaching courses for women in Kiev. Advanced courses for women opened in Kiev and several other Ukrainian cities in 1878, and were part of a broader movement in the country ...
West Indies Showing Sovereignty of the Various Islands
This undated map of the West Indies from the first half of the 20th century was produced by the Military Intelligence Division of the General Staff of the U.S. Department of the Army. It shows U.S., British, French, and Dutch possessions in the region, along with principal trade routes, undersea telegraph cables owned by Britain and the United States, and the location of government and privately owned radio stations. Defense of the Caribbean against possible incursions by hostile European powers was a major concern of U.S. military ...
National Highways Association Map of the State of Delaware
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1914, shows 300 miles (483 kilometers) of highways proposed for Delaware and their connections to the adjoining states of Pennsylvania and Maryland. No bridge across the Delaware River ...
Fifty Thousand Miles of National Highways Proposed by the National Highways Association, 1914
This map was issued in 1914 by the National Highways Association (NHA) to promote the development of the 50,000-mile (80,500-kilometer) network of national highways proposed by the NHA. Published in the year that the Panama Canal opened to traffic, the map contrasts the benefits to citizens of the canal with those offered by the proposed highway system. The NHA was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated a ...
First World War
This photograph from the archives of the League of Nations shows a soldier killed in World War I. The war raged for more than four years, from August 1914 to November 1918, and resulted in the deaths of more than nine million combatants. As many as seven million civilians also were killed in the war or died as a consequence of it. In the hope of ensuring that such a destructive conflict would never recur, U.S. president Woodrow Wilson and other leaders established, at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference ...
Poetic Collection of Tarzi
Diwan-i tarzi (Poetic collection of Tarzi) contains verses by Ghulām Muḥammad Ṭarzī (1830−1900), mostly concerning piety, ethics, politics, and society in 19th century Afghanistan. Tarzi came from a distinguished background; he belonged to the Mohammadzai sub-lineage of the Durranis, one of two main Afghan Pashtun lineages, the other being Ghilzai. Because of their connections to Muḥammad Yaʻqūb Khān, Tarzi and his family were exiled from Afghanistan in 1882−83 by Abd al-Raḥmān Khān, a kinsman of Yaʻqūb Khān and a rival to the Afghan throne. The feeling of desolation ...
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Echo of Babylon, Number 4, September 3, 1909
Seda Babel (Echo of Babylon), first published in 1909 in Baghdad, was among Iraq’s earliest newspapers. It appeared weekly on Friday. Until the end of World War I, Iraq was part of the Ottoman Empire and was subject to Ottoman law. In 1908, in line with the liberalizing revolution of the Young Turks, imperial press regulation loosened, allowing Iraq’s intellectuals and writers the freedom to publish newspapers, magazines, and books. Seda Babel was one of more than a dozen newspapers to appear as a result, and part of ...
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Through the Brazilian Wilderness, by Theodore Roosevelt: With Illustrations from Photographs by Kermit Roosevelt and Other Members of the Expedition
After failing to win a third term in the elections of 1912, former U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt planned a speaking trip to Argentina and Brazil and a cruise up the Amazon. The government of Brazil suggested that Roosevelt join the famous Brazilian explorer Cândido Rondon in an expedition down the recently discovered River of Doubt. Roosevelt accepted the invitation and, accompanied by his son Kermit, reached the river with Rondon on February 27, 1914. From the beginning, the expedition was fraught with difficulties, including disease, lack of supplies, and ...
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Nepal and the Himalayan Countries
Isabelle Massieu (1844–1932) was a French writer and traveler who became the first French woman to visit Nepal. Beginning in 1892, she undertook a series of journeys from her native Paris that took her to nearly all parts of Asia and resulted in the publication of several popular books. Népal et pays himalayens (Nepal and the Himalayan countries) is a first-hand account of her 1908 voyage from the Sutlej Valley in northern India across Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim to Tibet. Massieu describes the people, landscape, and architecture of the ...
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Siberia
Morgan Philips Price (1885–1973) was a British journalist, photographer, and politician who wrote several books about Russia. He studied science at Cambridge University. In 1910 he joined a British scientific expedition to explore the headwaters of the Enesei River in central Siberia with two friends, writer, photographer, and cartographer Douglas Carruthers, and J.H. Miller, a zoologist and big-game hunter. Siberia is Price’s account of the expedition and his travels on the Trans-Siberian Railroad, his stay in the city of Krasnoiarsk, and his visit to the Siberian provincial ...
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Cycloramic Birds-Eye Views of Belize, British Honduras
This panoramic photograph shows Belize City as it appeared around 1914. “Panoramic” photographs employ a variety of techniques to create a wide angle of view. This panoramic view is comprised of eight photographs spliced together to provide a broader image than would be practical with a single photograph. Belize was the main city and major port of the crown colony of British Honduras. The country changed its name to Belize in 1973 and became fully independent from Britain in 1981.
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British Kaffraria and its German Settlements
In May 1910, the Verein für Sozialpolitik (Association for Social Policy), an influential organization of German economists based in Berlin, decided to commission a series of studies on the colonization and settlement of tropical regions by Europeans, with the goal of determining whether and under what conditions such colonization was economically and socially sustainable. The studies were to assist in the development of the German overseas empire, and German East Africa in particular. Each study was to include an overview of a particular region of settlement; analyses of its economy ...
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Let's Take Care of the Poultry. I am a Fine War Hen. I Eat Little and Produce a Lot
This small poster, produced in France in 1918, features a hen sitting atop a pile of eggs beneath the caption, "Let's take care of the poultry," and above the main caption which reads: "I am a fine war hen. I eat little and produce a lot." The aim of the poster was to encourage the French population to conserve food and other scarce goods in order to support the war effort. Unlike many posters, which were produced by professional artists, this work was designed by a 16-year-old student, who ...
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Confederate Veterans Convention
Reunions of Civil War veterans from both the North and South were a prominent feature of public life in the United States in the early decades of the 20th century. This 1914 silent film records the meeting of 40,000 Confederate veterans in Jacksonville, Florida, nearly a half century after the end of the war. Titles are used to explain each sequence. The motion of the film is somewhat jerky but the quality of the images is good. Aging veterans dance to the music of two fiddlers and gather to ...
Peking
The German East-Asian Expeditionary Corps was sent to China in 1900 by Kaiser Wilhelm II as part of the eight-nation (Britain, France, Germany, Russia, United States, Japan, Austria, Italy) operation to suppress the Boxer Rebellion against foreign influence in China. The German force arrived in Beijing in mid-October, by which time the conflict was largely over. In late 1900-early 1901, the corps engaged in a series of brutal punitive expeditions designed to end Boxer resistance in the countryside and force China to sign a peace treaty with Germany. This detailed ...
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1914! The Murderers!
This poster, designed by the graphic artist Maurice Louis Henri Neumont (1868–1930) and produced in Paris in 1914 by Maison d’édition, depicts Kaiser Wilhelm II (1859–1941), emperor of Germany during World War I, and Franz Joseph I (1830–1916), emperor of Austria-Hungary until the third year of the war, as “murderers.” Each carries a knife, and behind them is a looming image of the imperial eagle of Germany, dripping blood. The papers on the ground show the international agreements and principles of international law that the emperors ...
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All in One with the Irish Canadian Rangers 199th Overseas Battalion
In World War I, many Irish immigrants to Canada volunteered to serve in the Canadian armed forces. To assist with recruitment, the Canadian government established a purely Irish battalion, the Irish Canadian Rangers 199th Overseas Battalion. Based in Montreal, the unit began signing up volunteers in the winter of 1915–16. Also known as the Duchess of Connaught's Own Irish Rangers, after their royal patron, wife of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Governor-General of Canada, the rangers sailed for Europe in December 1916 and made a triumphal tour ...
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Boys to the Farm. Bring Your Chum and Do Your Bit
In World War I, Canada established a Soldiers of the Soil corps under which boys aged 15 to 19 were asked to volunteer their summers to work on farms, replacing farmhands who had enlisted for military service. In all, 22,385 boys signed up as farm “soldiers.” This poster, issued by the Canada Food Board, is an appeal for farm labor. It shows a boy wearing a Soldiers of the Soil uniform blowing a bugle to summon others to the corps. In the background, other boys wearing the uniform of ...
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Buy Fresh Fish, Save the Meat for Our Soldiers and Allies
This World War I poster, issued by the Canada Food Board, urges consumers to purchase and eat fish rather than meat. The poster shows a butcher pointing at fish while a female customer looks on. The butcher and the woman are both smiling, and the words “A Good Butcher” appear in the background. Canada was a major producer and exporter of meat, grains, and other foodstuffs, and the country ramped up production during the war to help meet the needs of Britain, France, and other allies, where the war caused ...
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Canada's Egg Opportunity
This World War I poster, issued by the Canada Food Board, promotes increased production of eggs as a contribution to the war effort. The poster shows a large chicken, two figures representing Great Britain and Canada, and four eggs, representing the size of the egg shortage in Britain, the number of eggs Britain normally imported, and Canadian egg sales to Britain in two different years. The statistics highlight the egg shortage in Britain, owing to decreased wartime production, but note that Canada’s egg sales to Britain were lower than ...
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Canada's Pork Opportunity
This World War I poster, issued by the Canada Food Board, promotes increased production of pork as a contribution to the war effort. The poster shows two figures, representing Great Britain and Canada, exchanging money for a small pig. A large hog is pictured below; it indicates how many pounds of pork Britain buys. The smaller pig being exchanged represents how much Canada sells. The text on the poster proclaims: “We're glad to have it, Canada, but we need ten times more.” Canada was a major food producer during ...
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Emblems of Liberty and Humanity. The Red Cross, Mother of All Nations
This Spanish-language poster is one in a series issued by the American Red Cross during World War I featuring the flags of the countries allied or associated with the United States in the war. This poster shows two Red Cross nurses. One nurse, depicted as a Madonna figure, appears to cradle in her arms a litter used to transport wounded soldiers, between the flags of Panama and the United States. The title reads: “Emblemas de la libertad y de la humanidad. La Cruz Roja, madre de todas las naciones” (Emblems ...
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Emblems of Liberty and Humanity. The Red Cross, Mother of All Nations
This Spanish-language poster is one in a series issued by the American Red Cross during World War I featuring the flags of the countries allied or associated with the United States in the war. This poster shows two Red Cross nurses. One nurse, depicted as a Madonna figure, cradles in her arms a wounded soldier on a litter between the flags of Bolivia and the United States. The title reads: “Emblemas de la libertad y de la humanidad. La Cruz Roja, madre de todas las naciones” (Emblems of liberty and ...
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Emblems of Liberty and Humanity. The Red Cross, Mother of All Nations
This poster, with text in Japanese and English, is one in a series issued by the American Red Cross during World War I featuring the flags of the countries allied or associated with the United States in the war. This poster shows two Red Cross nurses. One nurse, depicted as a Madonna figure, cradles in her arms a wounded soldier on a litter between the flags of Japan and the United States. The title reads: “Emblems of liberty and humanity. The Red Cross, mother of all nations.” Japan entered the ...
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Forward! To Victory with the 245 Overseas Canadian Grenadier Guards Battalion
This World War I recruiting poster from Canada shows soldiers charging forward under the number “245,” and urges men to enlist in the “245th Overseas Canadian Grenadier Guards Battalion.” The text at the bottom of the poster gives the name of the commanding officer, Lieutenant Colonel C.C. Ballantyne, and lists the address of the armory in Montreal that served as the recruiting base for the battalion. When the war broke out in August 1914, Canada immediately offered to send troops to Europe to fight alongside the British army and ...
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Come on, Boys! Join the Irish Canadian Rangers Overseas Battalion
This World War I recruitment poster for the Irish Canadian Rangers 199th Overseas Battalion shows a smiling soldier with shamrocks in his hand, cap, and gun barrel, walking along an Irish country road. The insignia of the battalion and its motto, Quis separabit, are in the upper left of the poster. The name of the commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel H.J. Trihey, and the address of the recruitment office are listed at the bottom. With the onset of war, many Irish immigrants to Canada volunteered to serve in the Canadian armed ...
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The People of Alsace and Lorraine are French!
In 1871, at the conclusion of the Franco-Prussian War, Alsace and most of Lorraine, which had been part of France before the war, were annexed to the newly-formed German Empire. The French bitterly resented the loss of these territories, and their recovery became a prime objective of French foreign policy and one of France’s chief aims during World War I. This poster, published in Paris in 1914, personifies the German annexation by depicting an Alsatian woman with her hand chained to a brick wall. The bold text on the ...
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Emblems of Liberty and Humanity. The Red Cross, Mother of All Nations
This French-language poster is one in a series issued by the American Red Cross during World War I featuring the flags of the countries allied or associated with the United States in the war. This poster shows two Red Cross nurses. One nurse, depicted as a Madonna figure, cradles in her arms a wounded soldier on a litter between the flags of Haiti and the United States. The title reads: “Symboles de la liberté et de l'humanité. La Croix Rouge, la mère de toutes les nations.” (Emblems of liberty ...
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Under Four Flags: The Third Official United States War Picture
This World War I poster advertises the documentary film Under Four Flags, which was made by the Division of Films of the Committee on Public Information, a government body established in the United States to foster public unity and drum up support for the war effort. The committee was headed by muckraking journalist George Creel (1876–1953). The four flags referred to are those of the United States, France, Great Britain, and Italy, the Allied powers fighting Germany and Austria-Hungary. The two-hour silent film showed French refugees fleeing from the ...
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You Are No Exception. Join Now
This World War I poster from Canada, issued by the Central Recruiting Committee in Toronto, shows a silhouette of a well-dressed man scratching his head and saying: “I should go but!!!” The title proclaims: “You are no exception. Join now.” Canada supplied 600,000 men and women to the Allied war effort; the vast majority of them were volunteers. Recruiting sufficient manpower for the armed forces was a major challenge for Canadian authorities. Prime Minister Robert Borden initially promised that Canada would not institute obligatory military service, but on May ...
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Your Money or His Life. Subscribe to the War Fund
This World War I poster, issued by the Committee on Public Safety in the state of New Hampshire, solicits money for the Red Cross. It depicts a Red Cross nurse offering a wounded soldier a drink from a canteen. The bold text above reads, “Your money or his life.” Like many posters produced during the war, the imagery and text in this poster contrasts and draws a parallel between the heroic sacrifices of those at the front with the un-heroic but important act of contributing money to the war effort ...
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Emblems of Liberty and Humanity. The Red Cross, Mother of all Nations
This Portuguese-language poster is one in a series issued by the American Red Cross during World War I featuring the flags of the countries allied or associated with the United States in the war. This poster shows two Red Cross nurses. One nurse, depicted as a Madonna figure, cradles in her arms a wounded soldier on a litter between the flags of Brazil and the United States. The title reads: “Symbolos da liberdade y da humanidade. A Crux Vermelha, Mãe de todas as nacões” (Emblems of liberty and humanity. The ...
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Atlas of Asiatic Russia
This comprehensive atlas of the Asian part of the Russian Empire, published in 1914 by the Resettlement Department of the Land Regulation and Agriculture Administration, provides detailed information about the historical, geographical, and economic characteristics of Russia east of the Ural Mountains. The atlas was created at a time when this territory had received a new impetus to development from the agrarian reforms instituted, beginning in 1906, by Chairman of the Council of Ministers Pyotr N. Stolypin (1862–1911). The atlas is one of the best examples of prerevolutionary Russian ...
Asiatic Russia, Volumes 1 and 2
This work, commissioned by the Resettlement Department of the Land Regulation and Agriculture Administration in Saint Petersburg, contains some of the best research of the early 20th century on what in the Russian Empire was commonly referred to as Asiatic Russia. Volume I covers the gradual resettlement of Russian peoples beyond the Ural Mountains, to Siberia, the steppe areas, Turkestan, and the Far East, a migration that was encouraged by the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway in the 1890s. It includes essays on the history of Russian settlement, ethnography, and ...
The Church in Uganda: A Charge to the Missionaries of the Uganda Mission, 1913
The Church in Uganda: A Charge to the Missionaries of the Uganda Mission, 1913 contains the text of a document by J.J. Willis, bishop of Uganda, addressed to the Anglican missionaries in Uganda on the eve of the 1913 meeting of the Uganda synod. The document has two parts: the first is an overview of the situation of the church in Uganda and of the work done in the previous year; the second part deals with problems encountered by the Uganda mission in the field. The report on the ...
In Memoriam: Bishop Alfred Robert Tucker, June 19, 1914
“In Memoriam,” is the program for the Eucharist and burial service for Bishop Alfred R. Tucker in Durham Cathedral, in northern England, on June 19, 1914, following Tucker’s death on June 15. Tucker was born in Woolwich, United Kingdom, on April 1, 1849. He studied art, and at the age of 25 exhibited his paintings at the Royal Academy. He entered Oxford University as an undergraduate in 1878 and graduated in 1882, the same year in which he was ordained a deacon in Gloucester Cathedral. In 1890 he wrote ...
Steps towards Reunion: A Statement for the Consultative Committee
At a conference in Kikuyu (present-day Kenya) in 1913, British missionaries from the Anglican, Methodist, and Presbyterian churches agreed to a Scheme of Federation to help them compete with non-Christian groups in Africa and to avoid transplanting the “unhappy divisions” among the churches of Britain to the mission field. The conference gave rise to a bitter controversy within the Anglican Church. Frank Weston, bishop of Zanzibar (present-day Tanzania), objected to federation with the other churches. He accused two of the leading Anglicans involved in the conference, William George Peel, bishop ...
The Case against Kikuyu: A Study in Vital Principles
Frank Weston (1871–1924) was an Anglican clergyman who served as bishop of Zanzibar (present-day Tanzania) in 1908–24. He was a staunch Anglo-Catholic, meaning he belonged to the wing of the Anglican Church that emphasized the church’s continuity with its Roman Catholic heritage rather than its Protestant identity. Weston became involved in the bitter Kikuyu controversy of 1913–14, which arose from a 1913 conference in Kikuyu (present-day Kenya), British East Africa, where Anglicans, Methodists, and Presbyterians agreed to federate in response to a perceived threat from non-Christian ...
Selected Poems with Postscript, 1907–1914
This volume is a collection of poems written in 1907–14 by the Russian futurist Velimir Khlebnikov (born Viktor Khlebnikov, 1885–1922). It includes Khlebnikov’s famous poem “Bobeobi,” in which the poet attributes colors to letters to create a portrait of a face. The book also contains a postscript with reflections on language, history, and numbers and their role in the cycles of history. Illustrations by Pavel Filonov and Kazimir Malevich are included. Khlebnikov was born in Astrakhan Province and lived most of his life in Kazan. He attended ...
Roar! Gauntlets, 1908–1914
This work is a collection of poems, plays, and essays by the Russian futurist Velimir Khlebnikov (born Viktor Khlebnikov, 1885–1922). It opens with Khlebnikov’s statement on the unity of Slavs in the aftermath of the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary in 1908. The book includes a segment of his poem “The Wood Nymph and the Goblin,” the play Asparuh, and the drama in verse Marquise Dezes. It concludes with Khlebnikov’s reflections on railroads. The volume is illustrated by Kazimir Malevich and Vladimir Burliuk. Khlebnikov was ...
The Austrians Surrendered Lvov to the Russians, Like Rabbits Defeated by Lions
This World War I propaganda poster, created by Aristarkh Lentulov (1882–1943), depicts Austrian soldiers defeated by the Russian army in September 1914 fleeing from the city of Lvov (present-day L’viv, Ukraine). The Russian horsemen, long spears raised, charge the enemy as the Austrians panic and run away. Lvov is depicted in the center of the picture with simple geometrical shapes and strong colors. In the early stages of the war, a number of Russian avant-garde artists, including Lentulov, Vladimir Mayakovsky, and Kazimir Malevich, formed the group Segodnyashnii Lubok ...