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Theater and Drama: A Collection of Critical Articles on Theater and Dramatic Literature
Mikola Kindratovich Voroniy (1871–1938) was a prominent Ukrainian poet, writer, actor, and director. This book is a collection of his most important articles on the art of the theater and dramatic literature. The topics covered include the work of actors and directors, dramatic literature as the most complex genre of literary and artistic expression, and the nature and role of the audience. The author draws general conclusions from his analysis and discusses the ways in which the theater might develop in the future. Voroniy received his university education in ...
Snapshot from an Airplane: The Harbor of Copenhagen
This view of Copenhagen harbor is the earliest known Danish aerial photograph. The picture was taken by Holger Damgaard (1870–1945), the first full-time press photographer in Denmark. Damgaard worked for the Danish newspaper Politiken from 1908 until 1940, where he documented a wide variety of events, places, and persons. Aerial photography goes back to the 1850s, when the first photographs were taken from balloons. The first photograph taken from an airplane was made in 1909, when the American aviation pioneer Wilbur Wright flew over Rome, carrying a passenger who ...
National Highways System Proposed in 1913
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This system was to be composed of six main national highways, 13 trunk national highways, and 40 link highways. The link highways, the NHA explained, would connect “the Mains and Trunks” and reach out “in ...
National Highways Map of the State of Wisconsin
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1913, shows 1,500 miles (2,414 kilometers) of national highway proposed for Wisconsin. The NHA employed engineers to plan routes that would maximize the percentage of each ...
State of South Carolina
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1913, shows 1,000 miles (1,609 kilometers) of national highway proposed for South Carolina. The NHA employed engineers to plan routes that would maximize the percentage of ...
State of Alabama Showing Fifteen Hundred Miles of National Highways
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1913, shows 1,500 miles (2,414 kilometers) of national highways proposed for Alabama. The NHA employed engineers to plan routes with the aim of maximizing the share ...
The Cookhouse Tent and Steam Wagon from Buffalo Bill's Wild West, 1913
Every aspect of circuses and shows such as Buffalo Bill’s Wild West was of interest to spectators in the towns and cities visited by these traveling spectacles. In this image dating from 1913, local townspeople gather to watch the cookhouse staff of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show prepare a meal outside the cookhouse tent. The steam wagon and cookhouse tent can be seen, along with the backs of the spectators, who include both men and women. The picture was taken by G. Herbert Whitney, an amateur photographer from ...
Ringling Bros. World’s Greatest Shows
This colorful lithograph advertising the Ringling Bros. Circus was printed by the Strobridge Lithographing Company of Cincinnati, Ohio, and New York, a significant producer of circus posters. The poster depicts the immense size of a large American circus in the early part of the 20th century and is an example of the colorful, eye-catching advertisements commonly used by circuses to attract crowds. The texts at the bottom proclaim “A Magic Moving City of Tents, The Home of Many Marvels, Largest Show Ever Perfected. A Really Great World’s Exposition,” and ...
Echo of Babylon, Number 4, September 3, 1909
Seda Babel (Echo of Babylon), first published in 1909 in Baghdad, was among Iraq’s earliest newspapers. It appeared weekly on Friday. Until the end of World War I, Iraq was part of the Ottoman Empire and was subject to Ottoman law. In 1908, in line with the liberalizing revolution of the Young Turks, imperial press regulation loosened, allowing Iraq’s intellectuals and writers the freedom to publish newspapers, magazines, and books. Seda Babel was one of more than a dozen newspapers to appear as a result, and part of ...
Imperial House of Romanov
This publication was produced in 1913 to mark the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty. It contains an introduction, a genealogical sketch on the Romanov boyars, and a short history of the Romanovs in 17 chapters. The volume also includes biographies, portraits, and photographs of the members of the dynasty. In the introduction, “Three Centuries of the House of Romanov,” Elpidifor Barsov (1836−1917) provides a brief historical overview of the context of Romanov rule. He describes first “the time of troubles” preceding the election of Mikhail Fedorovich, the first ...
Album Commemorating the Tercentenary Anniversary of the Imperial House of Romanov
This book is one of many works published in Russia in connection with the celebration, in 1913, of the 300th anniversary of the House of Romanov. The author, Ivan Bazhenov, was a church historian, theologian, and local historian in Kostroma. In his introduction, Bazhenov states that the goal of the publication is “to give the readers an opportunity to understand and evaluate the great significance of this anniversary and at the same time to awaken their gratitude for the founder of the Romanov dynasty.” He begins by describing Russia before ...
Meeting Minutes of the First Plenary Session of the Cabildo of Gran Canaria
The Cabildo de Gran Canaria (Council of Gran Canaria) is an administrative and legislative body that was first formed in 1913 under the Ley de Cabildos (Councils Act) passed the previous year in the Kingdom of Spain. Such councils were an instrument of governance used by the old regime in both the Canary Islands and the Americas. During the dictatorship of Francisco Franco members of the Cabildo were appointed by the government, and its functions were limited to administration, focusing on such matters as public health and welfare and roads ...
Burma Under British Rule
Joseph Dautremer was a French scholar specializing in Asian languages who served for a time as the French consul in Rangoon, the capital of British Burma. Burma Under British Rule is a detailed study of Burma, with chapters devoted to the history, people, physical geography, economy, and international trade of the country. A brief concluding chapter deals with the Andaman Islands, where the British maintained a penal colony. Originally published in Paris in 1912, Dautremer’s book was translated from the French into English by Sir (James) George Scott (1851 ...
Natal, Rhodesia, and British East Africa
In May 1910, the Verein für Sozialpolitik (Association for Social Policy), an influential organization of German economists based in Berlin, decided to commission a series of studies on the colonization and settlement of tropical regions by Europeans, with the goal of determining whether and under what conditions such colonization was economically and socially sustainable. The studies were to assist in the development of the German overseas empire, and German East Africa in particular. Each study was to include an overview of a particular region of settlement; analyses of its economy ...
Two Quaint Republics, Andorra and San Marino
Andorra and San Marino are two of the world’s smallest – and oldest – countries. Andorra is located in the Pyrenees between France and Spain. An agreement of 1278 placed it under the joint suzerainty of the Spanish Bishop of Urgel and the French Count of Foix (whose rights later were transferred to the French crown and eventually the president of France). In 1993 Andorra adopted its own constitution and became self-governing. San Marino is located in the Appennine Mountains of northeastern Italy, totally surrounded by Italian territory. It is the ...
Isfandiyar, Khan of the Russian Protectorate of Khorezm (Khiva), in Uniform, Seated on Chair, Outdoors
This is a 1913 photograph of Asfandiyar-khan (Seid Isfandiyar Tyurya; 1871-1918), penultimate ruler of the Khanate of Khiva. Located largely in what is now Uzbekistan, the Khanate of Khiva existed within the ancient territory of Khwarezm from 1511 to 1920 under various dynasties descended from Genghis Khan. A campaign by General Konstantin von Kaufman in 1872–73 culminated in the conquest of Khiva on May 28, 1873, following which the khanate was granted status as a Russian protectorate. In this portrait, taken in the Winter Garden of the Small Hermitage ...
Isfandiyr, Khan of the Russian Protectorate of Khorezm (Khiva), Three-Quarter Length Portrait, in Official Robes, Seated on Chair, Outdoors
This is a 1913 photograph of Asfandiyar-khan (Seid Isfandiyar Tyurya; 1871-1918), penultimate ruler of the Khanate of Khiva. Located largely in what is now Uzbekistan, the Khanate of Khiva existed within the ancient territory of Khwarezm from 1511 to 1920 under various dynasties descended from Genghis Khan. On May 28, 1873 General Konstantin von Kaufman conquered Khiva, and the khanate was granted status as a Russian protectorate. In this portrait, taken in the Winter Garden of the Small Hermitage in Saint Petersburg, the khan wears a Karakul sheepskin hat and ...
Ecclesia Anglicana: For What Does She Stand?
Frank Weston (1871–1924) was an Anglican clergyman who served as bishop of Zanzibar (present-day Tanzania) in 1908–24. He was a staunch Anglo-Catholic, meaning he belonged to the wing of the Anglican Church that emphasized the church’s continuity with its Roman Catholic heritage rather than its Protestant identity. Weston became involved in the bitter Kikuyu controversy of 1913–14, which arose from a 1913 conference in Kikuyu (present-day Kenya), British East Africa, where Anglicans, Methodists, and Presbyterians agreed to federate in response to a perceived threat from non-Christian ...
Planting in Uganda. Coffee—Para Rubber—Cocoa
Planting in Uganda. Coffee—Para Rubber—Cocoa is a comprehensive analysis of plantation agriculture in early 20th-century Uganda, written by two senior managers of Ugandan companies. As stated in the preface, it was intended to assist white planters who were attracted to Uganda by the fertile soils and favorable climate but who, in many cases, had no knowledge of agricultural conditions in the country. It deals with three main products—coffee, Para rubber (today usually simply referred to as rubber), and cocoa—and focuses on two provinces, Buganda and Bugosa ...