47 results in English
Monuments of Ukrainian Art of the 18th Century
This booklet is by Nikolai Makarenko, a specialist in architecture, art history, and archaeology and later director of the Kiev Museum of Arts. He begins by reflecting on the beneficial effects of Cossack culture on southern Russia and its significant impact on Ukrainian culture. He praises 17th- and 18th-century style and describes Pokrovskaia Church as an example of beautiful and pure architecture. The church was built in 1764 by Pyotr Kalishevski in Romny, Poltavskaia Province, and later moved to the city of Poltava. A new church was built in Romny ...
The History of Ukrainian Drama
This work by Ukrainian literary critic, writer, and translator Ivan Steshenko is the first volume of a projected multivolume history of the Ukrainian theater. The volume is in five chapters. The first covers general conceptual and historical issues, such as the rise of the theater and the transformation of ancient cult rituals into performances. The second chapter covers Latin-Germanic and Slavonic folk rites and their content. The third chapter discusses drama as a means for the dissemination of Christianity in Ukraine. The fourth chapter provides information about the development of ...
British Guiana
This map, prepared and printed in 1908 at the office of the Ordnance Survey, Southampton, United Kingdom, provides a relatively detailed view of the geography of British Guiana (present-day Guyana), one of only two British colonies on the mainland of South and Central America (the other being British Honduras). A note indicates that the portion of the map north of 5° North latitude is from a map prepared by the government surveyor of British Guiana, while the remainder of the map “has been compiled from various sources and is less ...
Design for the Proposed Centre Català, Montevideo. Building Plan
Gaietà Buïgas Monravà (1851-1919) was the designer of the monument to Christopher Columbus in Barcelona (erected 1882-88) and of such buildings as the Spa Vichy Català in Caldes de Malavella (1898) and the Banco Popular building in Montevideo (1904−7). Buïgas completed most of his work in South America, in Argentina (1903−4) and, especially, in Uruguay (1904−12), where he lived for nine years. Designs for 36 of the works that he made for these countries are preserved at the Biblioteca de Catalunya. Designs for buildings and monuments in ...
Legislature Building, Montevideo. Longitudinal Section
Gaietà Buïgas i Monravà (1851−1919) was the designer of the monument to Christopher Columbus in Barcelona (erected 1882−88) and of such buildings as the Villa Avelina, now the Hotel El Xalet, in Sitges (1882) and Spa Vichy Català in Caldes de Malavella (1898). Buïgas completed most of his work in South America, in Argentina (1903−4) and, especially, in Uruguay (1904−12), where he lived for nine years. Designs for 36 of the works that he made for these countries are preserved at the Biblioteca de Catalunya. Designs ...
Crown of Roses, Issue 42, January 1908
Klílā d-warde (Crown of roses) was a magazine issued in Mosul (present-day Iraq) between August 1904 and July 1908. It was published by the Dominican Fathers, in the neo-Aramaic language using an East Syriac script, which was common to the Chaldean Catholics of the region. It contained devotional articles, with occasional coverage of cultural topics. The magazine was produced by a small staff of clergy based in Mosul. The Dominican presence in the city goes back to 1750, when Pope Benedict XIV sent a group of Italian friars to establish ...
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Mechanics and Crafts of the People of Annam
Henri J. Oger was a colonial administrator in French Indochina with a deep admiration for the people and culture of Vietnam, or Annam, as the French then called it. In 1908−9 he commissioned artists and wood carvers to visit the 36 streets of Hanoi and the surrounding countryside in order to document the material culture, methods of production, and cultural practices of the common people. The artists sketched 4,200 scenes and produced wood engravings from which prints were made. Oger assembled the prints to create the multivolume Technique ...
Qinglongqiao Station
This photograph has no title, but it shows the front of the station at Qinglongqiao, located on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. On the facade of the station is an inscription reading, "Qinglongqiao Station." The line of Chinese characters on the right reads “Autumn of the Wushen year  (1908) of Guangxu reign,” and on the left, “Inscription by Guan Xianjun.” The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly ...
Contributed by National Library of China
A Distant Southwest View of the Qinglongqiao Train Yard
This photograph shows a distant view of the train yard at Qinglongqiao Station, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. In the foreground is a construction site and railway workers. In the background are high mountains and the Great Wall of China. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese ...
Contributed by National Library of China
A Panoramic View from the West of the Number 39 Bridge of the Qinglongqiao Train Yard
This photograph shows a view of a bridge along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line, seen from the west. The bridge was located at the train yard of Qinglongqiao. In the far background is a chain of mountains. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs ...
Contributed by National Library of China
A Panoramic View from the East Entrance of the Qinglongqiao Train Yard
This photograph shows a view seen from the east entrance of the Qinglongqiao train yard along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. High mountains are on the right and left and in the distant background. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Water Tower at the Qinglongqiao Station
This photograph shows a water tower (seen here on the left) at Qinglongqiao Station, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The train yard of the station is seen on the right. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken ...
Contributed by National Library of China
South View of Two Trains, Passing in the Two Directions, on the West Side of the Qinglongqiao Station
This photograph shows two trains traveling along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line, on the west side of Qinglongqiao Station. The train in the foreground is a freight train. The second train is a passenger train, with the section directly following the locomotive carrying freight. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Number 40 Bridge Outside of the South Entrance of the Badaling Tunnel
This photograph depicts a bridge outside the south entrance of the Badaling Tunnel along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. A railway maintenance car can be seen here with three rail workers. Under the bridge is a caravan of mules and several mule-drivers. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The South Entrance of the Badaling Tunnel
This photograph shows the south entrance of the Badaling Tunnel, one of the four tunnels excavated along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. This was the longest tunnel, measuring a distance of around 1,092 meters. Above the tunnel is a sign that reads, “Badaling Tunnel.” The smaller Chinese characters on the two sides of the sign are illegible. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Ventilation Building over the Badaling Tunnel Shaft
This photograph shows a round ventilation building located over the tunnel shaft of the Badaling Tunnel along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio of ...
Contributed by National Library of China
A Panoramic West View of the Ventilation Building of the Badaling Tunnel Shaft
This photograph shows the round ventilation building located over the tunnel shaft of the Badaling Tunnel along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The Great Wall of China is in the background. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The North Entrance of the Badaling Tunnel
This photograph shows the north entrance of the Badaling Tunnel, one of the four tunnels excavated along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. Above the tunnel entrance is a sign that reads, “Badaling Tunnel.” The same text is found on a sign at the south entrance to the tunnel. The smaller Chinese characters on the two sides of the sign are illegible. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Number 41 Bridge at the North Side of the Badaling Tunnel
This photograph shows a bridge along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated on the north side of the Badaling Tunnel. On the bridge are seven people, five of them in the railway maintenance car and two standing beside the tracks. Under the bridge are two camels and a camel driver. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Number 42 Bridge South of Chadaocheng
This photograph shows a bridge on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated south of Chadaocheng. The Great Wall of China can be seen in the background. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Number 43 Bridge West of Chadaocheng
This photograph shows a bridge on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated west of Chadaocheng. The Great Wall of China is in the background. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Number 44 Longtan'gou Bridge
This photograph shows an arch bridge along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated at Longtan'gou. Workers in a railway maintenance car are on top of the bridge. Under the bridge is a dry riverbed. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Number 45 Xibozi Bridge
This photograph shows a bridge along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated at Xibozi. On the tracks is a railway maintenance car, with three people inside. Under the bridge is a caravan of mules, carrying heavy loads on their backs. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Railway Switches at the Xibozi Station Stockpile Processing Yard
This photograph shows railroad switches at the stockpile processing yard of Xibozi Station, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. Railroad switches are connecting devices that allow switching from one line to another so that trains can turn in another direction safely and smoothly. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Xibozi Station
This photograph shows the incomplete construction of Xibozi Station, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. Rail workers are gathered alongside the tracks. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Number 46 Xiaohongshan'gou Bridge
This photograph shows a bridge on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated at Xiaohongshan'gou. Rail workers are seen here at work on the tracks and under the bridge. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Number 47 Paoshanghe Bridge
This photograph shows a bridge on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated at the Paoshanghe River. Under the bridge is the dry riverbed. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio of ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Number 48 Paoshanghe Bridge
This photograph shows a bridge on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated at the Paoshanghe River. Under the bridge is the dry riverbed. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio of ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Number 49 Paoshanghe Bridge
This photograph shows a bridge on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated at the Paoshanghe River. Under the bridge is the dry riverbed. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio of ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Kangzhuang Station
This photograph has no title, but it shows a view of the station at Kangzhuang, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The inscription on the facade of the station reads,: “Kangzhuang Station, in the Wushen year  (1908) of Guangxu reign, inscription by Guan Xianjun.” The remainder of the inscription is illegible. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Kangzhuang Station Engine House and Water Tower
This photograph shows a view of the engine house and the water tower at Kangzhuang Station, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio ...
Contributed by National Library of China
East View of the Kangzhuang Train Yard
This photograph shows the train yard of Kangzhuang in the foreground; in the background of the image are the engine house and the water tower at Kangzhuang Station, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Kangzhuang Warehouses and Train Yard
This photograph shows the warehouses and the train yard at Kangzhuang, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. On the wall of one warehouse is the name of a company, “Kangzhuang Warehouse of Jicheng Company.” The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the ...
Contributed by National Library of China
View of the Drains Beside the Tracks in Front of the Dawangzhuang Village
This photograph shows railway tracks in front of the Dawangzhuang Village, part of the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. On either side of the tracks are drains. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Number 52 Bridge Behind Siqiaozi Village
This photograph shows a bridge on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated behind the village of Siqiaozi. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio of Shanghai. The construction had three phases ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Number 55 Nanheshuoying Bridge
This photograph shows the Nanheshuoying Bridge, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. A railway maintenance car is on the tracks, along with five rail workers. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Northeast View of the Number 56 Huailai River Bridge
This photograph shows a northeast side view of the Huailai River Bridge, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The bridge was 200 meters long and constructed with steel frames. This was the longest bridge on the Beijing-Zhangjiakou railroad line. Here, a railway maintenance car is seen on top of the bridge, with rail workers. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Spinner in Vivian Cotton Mills, Cherryville, North Carolina: Been at it Two Years. Where Will Her Good Looks Be in Ten Years?
This image of a young girl working in a North Carolina textile mill in the early 20th century is from the Records of the National Child Labor Committee (NCLC) at the Library of Congress. The photograph is attributed to Lewis W. Hine (1874-1940), one of the leading American documentary photographers of the Progressive Era. Best known for his photography of urban social conditions in New York City, Hine also investigated conditions at cotton mills across the Carolina Piedmont. Working with the Reverend Alfred E. Seddon and journalist A.H. Ulm ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Third Class Carriage, Sultan's Railway, Syria
Railway construction in the Ottoman Empire began in the mid-19th century, generally with European financing and supervision in the context of Great Power rivalry. By the early 20th century, railways had become a major mode of transportation in the Near East. This stereo-view image from around 1908 depicts men seated in a railroad car, some wearing traditional dress, others in Western dress with fezzes. The producer of the image was the Stereo Travel Company of Corona, Long Island, New York, a small firm active in the early years of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
At Prayer in the Mosque, Damascus, Syria
This card from around 1908 depicts Muslim men at prayer in the Great Umayyad Mosque of Damascus (Jāmi' al-Umawī al-Kabīr). Constructed in the eighth century on the site of earlier places of worship, the mosque is a site of spiritual significance to both Sunni and Shi’a Muslims. It is also said to house the head of John the Baptist. The card is a “stereo view,” produced by the Stereo Travel Company of Corona, Long Island, New York, which was active in the early years of the 20th century. Popular ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
In Iasnaia Poliana
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Roald Amundsen's "The North West Passage"; Being the Record of a Voyage of Exploration of the Ship "Gjöa", 1903-1907
Attempts to find the Northwest Passage—a water route from Europe to Asia through the Arctic archipelago north of the Canadian mainland—began as far back as the late-15th century. After numerous failures, many involving disaster and great loss of life, the Northwest Passage finally was successfully navigated in 1903–6 by the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen (1872–1928). Amundsen and a small crew of six left Christiania (present-day Oslo, Norway) in the converted 47-ton fishing boat Gjöa on June 16, 1903. They proceeded to the west coast of Greenland ...
Contributed by Library of Congress