639 results in English
’Ventures among the Arabs in Desert, Tent, and Town: Thirteen Years of Pioneer Missionary Life with the Ishmaelites of Moab, Edom, and Arabia
Archibald Forder was an American missionary, born in 1863, who worked for 13 years in the Middle East, primarily in Al-Karak in Palestine, at that time part of the Ottoman Empire. ’Ventures among the Arabs is Forder’s account of his work and travels in the region. Chapter 12 contains a summary overview of Arabia, with brief treatments of the geography, principal cities, government structures, economy, population and language, religion, animals, and modes of transportation. Several chapters recount Forder’s largely unsuccessful attempts to enter Arabia for missionary work. Their ...
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Crown of Roses, Issue 1, August 1904
Klílā d-warde (Crown of roses) was a magazine issued in Mosul (present-day Iraq) between August 1904 and July 1908. It was published by the Dominican Fathers, in the neo-Aramaic language using an East Syriac script, which was common to the Chaldean Catholics of the region. It contained devotional articles, with occasional coverage of cultural topics. The magazine was produced by a small staff of clergy based in Mosul. The Dominican presence in the city goes back to 1750, when Pope Benedict XIV sent a group of Italian friars to establish ...
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Nepal: An Historical Study of a Hindu Kingdom
Le Nepal: étude historique d’un royaume hindou (Nepal: An historical study of a Hindu kingdom) is a three-volume work by the eminent French orientalist Sylvain Lévi (1863–1935). Lévi became a lecturer at the school of higher studies in Paris in 1886 and taught Sanskrit at the Sorbonne in 1889–94. He was appointed professor at the Collège de France in 1894. Volume 1 of Lévi’s study provides an introduction to Nepal; an overview of the European, Chinese and Tibetan, and indigenous source documents relating to the country ...
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A Catalogue of Palm-leaf and Selected Paper Manuscripts Belonging to the Durbar Library, Nepal
Mahāmahopādhyāya Hara Prasād Sastri, an Indian scholar affiliated with the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and Cecil Bendall, professor of Sanskrit at Cambridge University in England, made a research expedition to Nepal in 1898–99. A major objective of the expedition was to examine and catalog the palm-leaf manuscripts in the Durbar Library, many of which had been acquired by Mahārāja Sir Vīra Sumsher Jung Bahādur Rānā. According to Bendall, this collection, “as regards the antiquity of the documents,” was “surpassed by no Sanskrit Library known to exist.” This book, printed ...
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Armenian Women in Holiday Attire. Artvin
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Armenian Women (Catholics) in Customary Dress. Artvin
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Armenian Woman in National Costume. Artvin
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cotton. In Sukhumi Botanical Garden
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
General View of the Likanskii Palace from the Kura River
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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View of Tiflis from the Grounds of Saint David Church
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Fabric Merchant. Samarkand
This photograph shows a merchant at the market in Samarkand (present-day Uzbekistan) displaying silk, cotton, and wool fabrics, as well as a few traditional carpets. A framed page of the Qur’an hangs at the top of the stall. Founded around 700 BC, Samarkand is one of the oldest cities in the world. It is best known for its central position on the Silk Road between China and the West and for being an Islamic center of learning. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944), who ...
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Melon Vendor. Samarkand
This photograph shows a melon vendor at his stall in one of the markets of Samarkand (present-day Uzbekistan). The man wears a white turban and is dressed in traditional Central Asian attire. The city of Samarkand was surrounded by oases and agricultural regions that supported the urban population. Traditional crops grown in the area included melons, watermelons, fruits, beans, and nuts. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944), who used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire in the ...
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General View of the Shah-i Zindah Mosque (Evening Photo). Samarkand
This remarkable view, taken in the light of the setting sun, shows the middle group of mausolea in the Shah-i Zindah necropolis, located at the outskirts of Samarkand. Built on an ancient burial ground, Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) is revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. From left to right are seen the Octagonal Mausoleum, the Shirin Bika Aga Mausoleum, the Shadi Mulk Aga Mausoleum, the Emir Zade Mausoleum, and the double domes of the Kazy-Zade Rumi Mausoleum, built in 1437 by Ulugh ...
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Samarkand. Portion of Shir-Dar Minaret and Its Dome with Tillia-Kari
At the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, composed of three major monuments of the madrasah (religious school). Seen here is the Shir Dar Madrasah, built in 1619–36 during the Bukhara Ashtrakhanid dynasty. This view shows part of the main facade and imposing entrance arch, or iwan (on right), with a flanking minaret, behind which is a ribbed dome over an instruction hall. Despite structural damage, the ceramic work is relatively well preserved. The minaret displays geometric figures integrated with words in block Kufic script from the Kalima ...
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At the Estate. Denmark
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
At the Estate. Denmark
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
At the Estate. Denmark
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church Square, Pretoria, South Africa, 1905
This 1905 photograph shows Church Square in Pretoria, South Africa, looking east. The cast iron fountain, known as the Sammy Marks Fountain, was imported from Ireland by businessman Sammy Marks (1843-1920) and moved from Church Square to the city zoo in 1910. Born in Lithuania, the son of a Jewish tailor, Marks came to South Africa in 1868. He began his career by peddling jewelry and cutlery, but soon became involved in the rapidly developing gold-, diamond-, and coal-mining industries. Behind the fountain is the recently completed Tudor Chambers, then ...
Persian Tatars. Saatly. Mugan Steppe
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Mugan. Settler's Family. Settlement of Grafovka
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Mugan. Hut of a Settler from Kharkov Province. Grafovka
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mugan. Cotton
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mugan. Inn in Petropavlovskoe
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Mugan. Settlement of Petropavlovskoe. A Street (Seventy-Seven Households)
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
On the Saimaa Canal. Finland
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tea Plantations. Chakva
By the beginning of the 20th century, the plantation and processing plants at Chakva, Georgia, north of the port of Batumi, had become one of the main suppliers of tea to the Russian Empire and an alternative to imports from China. Seen here is a hillside planted with rows of young tea bushes. The natural amphitheater formed by the terrain was well suited for cultivation of the plants, which required careful tending. In the 19th century the Russian Empire expanded into the southern Caucasus, particularly after the conclusion of the ...
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Alley of Chamaerops Excelsus, Windmill Palm
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Group of Workers Harvesting Tea. Greek Women. Chakva
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Weighing Section. Chakva Tea Factory
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pond Feeding Water to the Electric Station's Turbine. Along the Road to the Falls. Gagra
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mary McLeod Bethune with a Line of Girls from the School
Mary McLeod Bethune was a pioneering American educator and civil rights leader. Born Mary Jane McLeod on July 10, 1875, in Mayesville, South Carolina, the daughter of former slaves, Bethune won scholarships to attend Scotia Seminary in Concord, North Carolina (now Barber-Scotia College), and the Institute for Home and Foreign Missions in Chicago (now the Moody Bible Institute). In 1904, she moved to Daytona Beach, Florida, to found her own school. Her one-room school house became the Daytona Normal and Industrial School for Negro Girls before merging with Cookman Institute ...
Nomadic Kirghiz. Golodnaia Steppe
This remarkable photograph shows a nomadic Kyrgyz family resting in the steppe grasslands. The Kyrgyz are a Turkic ethnic group widely spread over the area of eastern Turkestan. The man, with weathered face, is dressed in a skullcap and a frayed traditional striped coat. He is burdened with padded blankets and probably a small tent. The woman, with brilliant white turban, wears a tattered cloak and carries smaller bundles of blankets and clothes. Their small boy wears a colorful skullcap and a sparkling green silk jacket in the Chinese style ...
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Camel Caravan Carrying Thorns for Fodder. Golodnaia Steppe
The Russians developed an irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) in Turkestan a productive area for raising cotton and wheat. Despite such projects, life adhered to ancient traditions for most of the local ethnic groups. This photograph shows a camel driver in a tattered cloak leading a small caravan in the midst of the vast steppe grasslands. The camels are carrying cut thorn bushes for fodder. The severe continental climate—cold in the winter and extreme arid heat in the summer—made camels the primary beast of burden ...
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Nazar Magomet. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of Russian development projects in Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who in 1881 moved to Tashkent. There he sponsored a number of ventures, including a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe,” present-day Uzbekistan) a productive area for raising cotton and wheat. This photograph shows a local inhabitant, Nazar Magomet, on horseback near a simple settler’s hut in the grasslands. The hut is of adobe brick surfaced with mud, while the roof consists of log ...
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Sart Cemetery near Syr-Darya. Golodnaia Steppe
Seen here is a Sart cemetery in the steppe near the Syr-Darya River (just visible in the right background). “Sart” was a term with various ethnic meanings in the late 19th century, and was often used to refer to inhabitants of this area before the coming of Uzbek tribes in the 16th century. The burial mounds were a widespread practice not only in the country but also in cities such as Samarkand. On the right the burial place of a venerated sage is marked by a mazar (ancient shrine) covered ...
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Migrant Farmstead in the Settlement of Nadezhdinsk with a Group of Peasants. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of development in Russian Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who moved to Tashkent in 1881. There he initiated a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) a productive area for cotton and wheat. A related goal was to provide arable land to attract settlers from European Russia. Seen here at the settlement of Nadezhdinsk (from the Russian for “hope”) is a group of settlers in front of a stuccoed brick house with a thatched roof. The ...
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Camel Grazing in the Steppe. Golodnaia Steppe
Located to the southeast of the Kyzyl Kum Desert, Golodnaia Steppe is composed of the loess variety of soil suitable for growing grass and small shrubs in semi-arid conditions. This photograph shows a dromedary camel (with a single hump) grazing in the midst of the steppe grasslands. The harsh continental climate of Golodnaia Steppe—cold in the winter and extreme heat in the summer—made camels the primary beast of burden in this area. In the background is a cow. In the hazy distance is the Turkestan Range. The image ...
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Transit Farmstead in Nadezhdinsk Settlement. Golodnaia Steppe
This photograph depicts a family farmstead in Nadezhdinsk, a Russian settlement in present-day eastern Kazakhstan. As seen in the picture and as suggested by its name, Golodnaia (or Hungry) Steppe, this region was not particularly suitable for farming. Nonetheless, between 1906 and 1912, more than half a million Russian peasants moved to Kazakhstan, prompted by the agrarian reforms introduced by Petr Stolypin, chairman of the council of ministers of the Russian government. Stolypin’s reforms were in part aimed at creating a class of market-oriented, smallholding landowners. The image is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Volyn Levee on the Emperor Nicholas I Canal. Volyn Bridge in the Distance. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of development in Russian Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who moved to Tashkent in 1881. There he sponsored a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) a productive area for cotton and wheat. A related goal was to provide arable land to attract settlers. This photograph shows the Volyn embankment, with water regulator, on the irrigation canal named in honor of Tsar Nicholas I. In the background is a wooden bridge near the Volyn settlement. The ...
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Chapel in the Settlement of Spassky. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of Russian development projects in Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who in 1881 moved to Tashkent. There he sponsored a number of initiatives, including a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe,” present-day Uzbekistan) a productive area for raising cotton and wheat. Conditions in the region were harsh, and it was sometimes difficult to attract Russian settlers by providing arable land. Shown here is the primitive structure of an Orthodox chapel at the settlement of Spasskii ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tree Plantation. View from Vrontsov Plateau.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Etruscan Vases in the Hermitage in Saint Petersburg
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress