668 results in English
’Ventures among the Arabs in Desert, Tent, and Town: Thirteen Years of Pioneer Missionary Life with the Ishmaelites of Moab, Edom, and Arabia
Archibald Forder was an American missionary, born in 1863, who worked for 13 years in the Middle East, primarily in Al-Karak in Palestine, at that time part of the Ottoman Empire. ’Ventures among the Arabs is Forder’s account of his work and travels in the region. Chapter 12 contains a summary overview of Arabia, with brief treatments of the geography, principal cities, government structures, economy, population and language, religion, animals, and modes of transportation. Several chapters recount Forder’s largely unsuccessful attempts to enter Arabia for missionary work. Their ...
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Treatment for the Spirit, Refinement of Manners, and Renunciation of Vice
Mudawat al-nafus wa tahdhib al-akhlaq wa al-zuhd fi-al-radha’il (Treatment for the spirit, refinement of manners, and renunciation of vice) is a collection of essays on various philosophical and ethical points by the famous Muslim thinker Ibn Hazm of Andalusia (994−1064). The author portrays the ethical life as the highest attainment of the learned man, and his personal reflections appear to be the distillation of a long life of scholarship, political activism, and eventual withdrawal from the world. In the introduction, he states that he has set down what ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Selections from "Suite Iberia"
Isaac Albéniz (1860−1909) was the first composer to value and promote Spanish music as universal music beyond the national sphere. Iberia, a set of 12 compositions for piano published in four books, is Albéniz’s most representative work. Its earlier title was Espagne, and it sometimes is called Suite Iberia, based on the fact that the orchestration of these pieces was gathered in four suites. The series for piano was composed in Paris and Nice, where the Albéniz family lived between December 1905 and January 1908. The work was ...
Crown of Roses, Issue 6, January 1905
Klílā d-warde (Crown of roses) was a magazine issued in Mosul (present-day Iraq) between August 1904 and July 1908. It was published by the Dominican Fathers, in the neo-Aramaic language using an East Syriac script, which was common to the Chaldean Catholics of the region. It contained devotional articles, with occasional coverage of cultural topics. The magazine was produced by a small staff of clergy based in Mosul. The Dominican presence in the city goes back to 1750, when Pope Benedict XIV sent a group of Italian friars to establish ...
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Half-length Portrait of Zhan Tianyou
This photograph is a half-length portrait of Zhan Tianyou, also known as Jeme Tien Yow (1861–1919), in official uniform. Zhan was the chief engineer in charge of construction of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou railroad line. A native of Foshan, Guangdong, Zhan received his civil engineering degree in 1881 in the United States. For his contribution to railroad engineering in China, he was known as the "Father of China's Railroads." The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Half-length Portrait of a Railway Official
This half-length portrait of a railway official is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio of Shanghai. The construction had three phases: the first line, from Fengtai to Nankou, was completed in September 1906 ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Two Seated Railway Officials
This portrait of two seated railway officials is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio of Shanghai. The construction had three phases: the first line, from Fengtai to Nankou, was completed in September 1906 ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Engineering Bureau outside the Fuchengmen Gate
This photograph shows the Engineering Bureau of the Jing-Zhang Railway, which was located outside the Fuchengmen Gate, one of the city gates of old Beijing. A plaque can be seen on the right; the text reads, “Official Hospital of the Jing-Zhang Railway.” The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Sitting Room of the Engineering Bureau Outside the Fuchengmen Gate
This photograph shows the sitting room and courtyard of the Engineering Bureau of the Jing-Zhang Railway, which was located outside the Fuchengmen Gate, one of the city gates of old Beijing. The decoration of the sitting room is traditional. On the wall are a scroll painting and a pair of verse couplets written in fine Chinese calligraphy. On the table is a Western clock. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Number 5 Overpass Bridge at the Xibianmen Gate
This photograph shows an overpass bridge along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway; this overpass was located at the Xibianmen Gate. Rail workers are seen on the bridge above the tracks. There were a number of these overpasses along the Jing-Zhang railway line. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Overpass at Xibianmen Gate
This photograph shows rail workers who are approaching an overpass bridge (not visible in this image) along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway; this overpass was located at the Xibianmen Gate. There were a number of these overpasses along the Jing-Zhang railroad line. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Fence Gate on the Railway Tracks at the Fuchengmen Gate
This photograph shows a typical track fence gate on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. This fence gate was located at the Fuchengmen Gate, one of the city gates of old Beijing. Visible on the left, next to the tracks, are buildings. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Fence Gate on the Railway Tracks at the Xizhimen Gate
This photograph shows a typical track fence gate on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. This fence gate was located at the Xizhimen Gate, one of the city gates of old Beijing. Buildings are visible next to the tracks. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Train Yard at the Xizhimen Gate
This photograph shows the train yard located at Xizhimen Gate, one of the city gates of old Beijing. Multiple rail tracks are shown here. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Train Yard at the Xizhimen Gate
This photograph shows the train yard located at Xizhimen Gate, one of the city gates of old Beijing. On the left stands a locomotive engine; the four letters on its body, “P.M.B.L.,” indicate that this is a foreign model with high horsepower. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Train Yard at the Xizhimen Gate
This photograph shows the train yard located at Xizhimen Gate, one of the city gates of old Beijing. Multiple rail tracks are shown here. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Xizhimen Station
This photograph shows the Xizhimen Railway Station, located on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The sign visible on the facade of the station reads, "Beijing Xizhimen Station Hsichihmen." Four guards and an official stand in front of the station. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Number 12 Dashiqiao River Bridge
This photograph shows an overpass bridge on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The bridge was located at Dashiqiao. In this image, the river flows under the bridge. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Frontal View of the Number 15 Nanshahe River Bridge
This photograph shows a frontal view of a bridge over the Nanshahe River. The bridge was located on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. A railway maintenance car is on the bridge, filled with rail workers who are examining the tracks. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Side View of the Number 15 Nanshahe River Bridge
This photograph shows a side view of a bridge over the Nanshahe River. The bridge was located on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. Rail workers can be seen standing on the far left. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Overview of the Number 15 Nanshahe River Bridge
This photograph shows a side view of a bridge over the Nanshahe River. The bridge, shown here in its entirety, was located on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Side View of a Passing Train on the Number 16 Beishahe River Bridge
This photograph shows a side view of a train, used both for passengers and for freight, passing over the Beishahe River on a bridge located on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Side View of the Number 16 Beishahe River Bridge
This photograph shows a side view of a bridge over the Beishahe River. The bridge, shown here in its entirety, was located on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. A rail worker, who is stripped down to the waist and holds a hammer, is seen standing on the bridge. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Nankou Engine House
This photograph shows the Nankou engine house (seen on the right here), located on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. Another building is on the left and standing in the center is a water tower. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Nankou Manufacturing Works
This photograph shows the large-scale buildings of a manufacturing works in Nankou, situated along the tracks of the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway. Behind the buildings are mountains. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Nankou Engineering Bureau
The title of this photograph indicates that this building houses the Nankou Engineering Bureau, located near the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line, but there are no signs visible on the door. Workers stand in front of the building. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Nankou Machinery Management Bureau
The title of this photograph indicates that this building houses the Nankou Machinery Management Bureau, located near the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line, but no signs are visible. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Construction Site of the New Dongyuan Railway Station
This photograph shows the scene of the construction site of the Dongyuan railway station, located on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The station building is constructed in the same style as the Juyongguan and Sanbao stations. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Number 26 Zhan'gou Bridge
This photograph shows the Zhan’gou Bridge, a bridge with five arches located on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. Arches were used in bridge construction to minimize damage to the bridges caused by the pounding of river waves during floods. The high mountains seen in the background suggest the difficulty of building a railway in this area. Several torn posters can be seen on the side wall of the bridge. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Panoramic View of a Train Passing the South Tunnel of the Juyongguan Pass
This photograph shows a portion of the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway. On the tracks in the foreground is a group of rail workers. In the left background is a train heading to the south tunnel of the Juyongguan Pass. The Great Wall of China can also be seen in the background. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Map of Southern Turkestan
The name Turkestan means “Land of the Turks” in Persian. Turkestan has never corresponded to a national entity but has been used in the Persianate world and elsewhere to signify the domain of Turkic peoples in Central Asia. During the second half of the 19th century these lands were the setting for the intense political rivalry between Great Britain and Imperial Russia known as the Great Game. During this period, the Russian Empire conquered vast regions in Central Asia. It assigned much of its newly acquired territory to the newly ...
Nepal: An Historical Study of a Hindu Kingdom
Le Nepal: étude historique d’un royaume hindou (Nepal: An historical study of a Hindu kingdom) is a three-volume work by the eminent French orientalist Sylvain Lévi (1863–1935). Lévi became a lecturer at the school of higher studies in Paris in 1886 and taught Sanskrit at the Sorbonne in 1889–94. He was appointed professor at the Collège de France in 1894. Volume 1 of Lévi’s study provides an introduction to Nepal; an overview of the European, Chinese and Tibetan, and indigenous source documents relating to the country ...
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A Catalogue of Palm-leaf and Selected Paper Manuscripts Belonging to the Durbar Library, Nepal
Mahāmahopādhyāya Hara Prasād Sastri, an Indian scholar affiliated with the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and Cecil Bendall, professor of Sanskrit at Cambridge University in England, made a research expedition to Nepal in 1898–99. A major objective of the expedition was to examine and catalog the palm-leaf manuscripts in the Durbar Library, many of which had been acquired by Mahārāja Sir Vīra Sumsher Jung Bahādur Rānā. According to Bendall, this collection, “as regards the antiquity of the documents,” was “surpassed by no Sanskrit Library known to exist.” This book, printed ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Armenian Women in Holiday Attire. Artvin
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Armenian Women (Catholics) in Customary Dress. Artvin
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Armenian Woman in National Costume. Artvin
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cotton. In Sukhumi Botanical Garden
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
General View of the Likanskii Palace from the Kura River
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
View of Tiflis from the Grounds of Saint David Church
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Fabric Merchant. Samarkand
This photograph shows a merchant at the market in Samarkand (present-day Uzbekistan) displaying silk, cotton, and wool fabrics, as well as a few traditional carpets. A framed page of the Qurʼan hangs at the top of the stall. Founded around 700 BC, Samarkand is one of the oldest cities in the world. It is best known for its central position on the Silk Road between China and the West and for being an Islamic center of learning. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944), who used ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Melon Vendor. Samarkand
This photograph shows a melon vendor at his stall in one of the markets of Samarkand (present-day Uzbekistan). The man wears a white turban and is dressed in traditional Central Asian attire. The city of Samarkand was surrounded by oases and agricultural regions that supported the urban population. Traditional crops grown in the area included melons, watermelons, fruits, beans, and nuts. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944), who used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General View of the Shah-i Zindah Mosque (Evening Photo). Samarkand
This remarkable view, taken in the light of the setting sun, shows the middle group of mausolea in the Shah-i Zindah necropolis, located at the outskirts of Samarkand. Built on an ancient burial ground, Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) is revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. From left to right are seen the Octagonal Mausoleum, the Shirin Bika Aga Mausoleum, the Shadi Mulk Aga Mausoleum, the Emir Zade Mausoleum, and the double domes of the Kazy-Zade Rumi Mausoleum, built in 1437 by Ulugh ...
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