- Caricatures and cartoons (52)
- Politics and government (52)
- Arabic manuscripts (2)
- Aš´arī, Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm Abū al-Ḥasan al-, died 1155? (1)
- Cape of Good Hope (1)
- Danube River Delta (Romania and Ukraine) (1)
- Fractions (1)
- Geodesy (1)
- Great Britain--Colonies (1)
- Inheritance and succession (1)
- Mathematics, Arab (1)
- Population density (1)
- Rivers (1)
- Surveying (1)
- Weights and measures (1)
Type of Item
A Summary of the Structure of Plant Parts and Their Functions
The work presented here is Kitāb mukhtaṣar tarkīb a‘ḍā’ al-nabāt wa waẓā’ifihā (A summary of the structure of plant parts and their functions) by ‘Uthmān Ghālib (1845−1920), an Egyptian physician and botanist. In a brief preface, he states that his aim is “to write concise books on the (various) branches of natural history so that they could be used in elementary schools.” He explains that “since botany, as the other branches of the natural sciences, requires ‘visualization’ for its apprehension, I strove to produce the necessary figures ...
Austral Africa: Losing It or Ruling It; Being Incidents and Experiences in Bechuanaland, Cape Colony, and England
John Mackenzie (1835–99) was a Scottish missionary who was sent by the London Missionary Society to South Africa in 1858. He lived at Shoshong in present-day Botswana in 1862–76. Mackenzie believed that the Ngwato and other African peoples with whom he worked were threatened by Boer freebooters encroaching on their territory from the south, as well as by politicians such as Cecil Rhodes who wanted to see extensive territories to the north annexed to the British Cape Colony. He thus began a campaign for the establishment of what ...
Maps of the Danube Delta and Comparative Maps of the Mouth and Fluvial Sections of the Soulina Branch Indicating the Latest Constructions Completed There.
The European Commission of the Danube was an early experiment in international organization. It was established in 1856, after the Crimean War, by agreement among Britain, Austria, France, Prussia, Russia, Sardinia, and Turkey. The Danube River rises in the Black Forest of Germany and travels some 3,000 kilometers before reaching the Black Sea. The commission was charged with overseeing projects to improve navigation on the river, one of which was the construction, in 1880-1902, of the Sulina Canal. The headquarters of the commission was established at Galatz (Galaţi), Romania ...
Geographical Distribution of the Population in France, or Population Density by Commune
Victor Turquan (1857-19?) headed the French Statistical Bureau from 1887 to 1896. He wrote numerous works on economic and demographic statistics, which included maps with graded coloration and iso-lines (lines connecting points with equal values). For Turquan, “the study of population distribution within the territory of a country belongs as much to geography as to statistics.” In an era in which color rarely was used even in statistical charts, he created this map of the population distribution in France using isopleths (lines surrounding zones with similar features) and “pitches of ...
The Best of Arithmetic
This treatise on the art of arithmetic, completed in the late 1880s, opens a window into the early interaction between traditional and modern mathematical pedagogy in Egypt. The use of French loan words, such as million, along with some modern notation, indicates the author’s familiarity with developments in the teaching of arithmetic at the time. The work has an introduction followed by ten chapters and a conclusion. Following traditional praise for God, the Prophet Muhammad, and virtuous vanguards of learning, the treatise opens by introducing arithmetic as a useful ...
The Abridged Commentary on "The Apple in the Science of Measurement"
This manuscript is a commentary on the treatise Al-Tuffāḥa fi ‘ilm al-Misāḥa (The apple in the science of measurement), which was written at the beginning of the 12th century by the mathematician Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Ašh‘ari. The study of measures and measurement techniques (‘ilm al-misāha) was of great interest to Arabic mathematicians during the Middle Ages, both from theoretical and practical points of view. The ability to calculate the dimensions of landholdings was extremely important when it came to determining the correct amounts for inheritances and to calculating taxes ...
El Mosquito, January 3, 1875
El Mosquito, which described itself as a “weekly independent, satirical, burlesque periodical with caricatures,” appeared for the first time on May 24, 1863. In the more than 1,500 issues published between then and the last issue in 1893, the newspaper satirized the behavior of local politicians. The publication provides a unique vantage point on the formation of the modern nation-state in Argentina. Published on Sundays, the newspaper consisted of four pages, with the two middle pages exclusively dedicated to lithographs that caricaturized current events and important figures of the ...