25 results in English
Worthy Advice in the Affairs of the World and Religion: The Autobiography of Emir Abdur Rahman Khan
This work is an autobiography of 'Abd al-Raḥmān Khān, emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. It is styled, however, as a manual of advice and a mirror for princes. It is divided into 16 chapters, which are arranged according to the topics on which the author provides advice and worthy examples, in this case drawn from his own conduct. Subdivision by topic of this kind mimics the pattern of books in the advice genre. The colophon dates the work to the month of Muharram of 1303 AH (October–November ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Central Asia: Afghanistan and Her Relation to British and Russian Territories
This 1885 map shows Asia from the eastern littoral of the Mediterranean to western China and the Indian subcontinent. An inset in the upper right depicts the region in the broader context of Asia, Europe, and Africa. A focal point of the map is Afghanistan, where, in what was called “the Great Game,” the Russian and British empires competed for influence throughout most of the 19th century. The British feared that the Russians, who annexed large parts of Central Asia in the 1860s and 1870s, would use Afghanistan as a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Stanford's Map of Western Asia
This 1885 map of Western Asia shows the region from the Mediterranean Sea to British India, including the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula. This region was at the time under the rule of the Ottoman Empire in the west, independent Persia (present-day Iran) in the center, and independent Afghanistan in the east, with the Russian Empire to the north. Relief is shown by hachures, and the elevations of lakes and inland seas are given in feet (one foot = 30.48 centimeters) above sea level. The map indicates pilgrimage routes ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Map of the Countries between Constantinople and Calcutta: Including Turkey in Asia, Persia, Afghanistan and Turkestan
This 1885 map shows the region between Constantinople, capital of the Ottoman Empire, and British India, an area of intense imperial rivalry between the British and Russian Empires in the late-19th century. British possessions are colored in red and include British India, Cyprus, the Aden Protectorate (present-day Yemen), Socotra Island (Yemen), and the northern littoral of the Horn of Africa, which became the protectorate of British Somaliland (present-day Somalia) in 1888. The map shows railroad lines and submarine telegraph cables. The railroad network is at this time more developed in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Book of Literary Expressions
Published in 1885 by the Jesuit Fathers’ printing press of Beirut, the present volume contains an edition of one of the three extant versions of Kitāb al-Alfāẓ al-Kitābiyya (The book of literary expressions) by the tenth-century grammarian, ‛Abd al-Raḥmān ibn ‛Īsā al-Hamḏānī. This work presents a collection of difficult words and expressions found in classical Arabic literary texts. For each word or expression, the author offers a number of synonyms and paraphrases intended to guide the reader to a better understanding of the lexical, grammatical, and syntactical peculiarities of the ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The Commentary of al-Allāma Ibn ʻAqīl on “al-Alfiya” by al-Allāma Ibn Mālik
This work is a commentary by Ibn ʻAqīl on the famous 1,000-line poem on the principles of Arabic grammar, al-Alfīya by Ibn Malik. ʻAbd Allah ibn ʻAbd al-Raḥmān ibn ʻAqil was born in Cairo in about 1294 and died there in 1367. He was a leading grammarian of the Arabic language and wrote prolifically, but not much is known about his life. In addition to his commentary on al-Alfiya, his works include Taysīr al-istiʻdād li rutbat al-ijtihād (The facility of preparedness for the capacity of independent reasoning ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Palestine, or, the Holy Land; Persia, Afghanistan and Beluchistan
“Rand McNally & Co.'s Map of Asia and Europe” displays two maps on a single large sheet. The top half is a map of Asia, with an inset of the Holy Land in the lower-right corner. The bottom half contains a more detailed map of Persia (present-day Iran), Afghanistan, and Baluchistan (in present-day Pakistan and Iran). At the bottom is an index showing lakes, mountains, and cities and towns in Afghanistan and Baluchistan. Populations are given for some cities and towns, with the largest in Afghanistan being Kabul (60,000 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map Illustrative of the March of the Indian Section of the Boundary Commission from Quetta to Olerat and Badkis; of the Frontier as Proposed and Actually Demarcated, and of the Author's Return Journey from Herat to the Caspian
In the early 1880s, Great Britain (which at that time effectively controlled the foreign policy of Afghanistan) and the Russian Empire opened negotiations to define the northern border of Afghanistan. The two sides formed a Joint Boundary Commission, which began work in the fall of 1885. By January 1888, the commission had set up 79 boundary markers along the 630-kilometer frontier from the Du’l-Feqar Pass to the Amudar’ya River. This annotated map of the western half of Afghanistan shows the route taken by the British (i.e., Indian ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
South Korea, Man Standing in Front of American Diplomatic Residence
This image, showing a Korean man standing in front of the U.S. diplomatic residence in Korea, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “I-Shiryom, a friend, Chusa of the F.O. [Foreign Office], taken at the U.S.L. [U.S. Legation], front of dwelling, July 1885.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat ...
South Korea, Archery Practice in Pukhan Mountain Fortress
This image, showing a large group of men, some with archery bows, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “Archery drill in the Puk-Han (mountain fortress); visited with commander-in-chief, May 31, 1885.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in Korea in the 1880s. He was first sent to the country in 1883 with a ...
South Korea, View of Huwon (Garden) in Changdok Palace in Seoul
This image, showing a group of men standing in a garden on the grounds of Changdeokgung, or Changdok palace, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Changdeokgung was built in the 15th century as a secondary palace after the primary palace of Gyeongbokgung. Both palaces were burned down during the Japanese invasion in 1592, and Changdeokgung was the first to be rebuilt in the early 17th century (under ...
South Korea, View of Changdok Palace Complex in Seoul
This image, showing the grounds of Changdeokgung or Changdok palace, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1883 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Changdeokgung was built in the 15th century as a secondary palace after the primary palace of Gyeongbokgung. Both palaces were burned down during the Japanese invasion in 1592, and Changdeokgung was the first to be rebuilt in the early 17th century (under Korean kings Sonjo  and Kwanghae Kun ), after which it ...
South Korea, Juhamnu Pavilion in Front of Buyongji Pond in Changdok Palace in Seoul
This image, showing a group of visitors on the grounds of Changdeokgung or Changdok palace, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Changdeokgung was built in the 15th century as a secondary palace after the primary palace of Gyeongbokgung. Both palaces were burned down during the Japanese invasion in 1592, and Changdeokgung was the first to be rebuilt in the early 17th century (under Korean kings Sonjo  and ...
Canigó
Canigó is regarded as the best epic poem by Jacint Verdaguer (1845−1902), the most important Catalan writer of the 19th century and a leading figure of the Catalan renaissance. A Roman Catholic priest who served in a variety of pastoral positions, Verdaguer wrote mainly lyric and epic poetry, as well as a number of personal diaries, notebooks and journal articles. Canigó (named for Mount Canigou) is set in Catalonia at the beginning of the 11th century at the time of the Reconquista, the gradual liberation by the Christians of ...
Exploratory Expedition through Indochina
Voyage d’exploration en Indo-Chine (Exploratory expedition through Indochina) is an edited and annotated reprint of the account of the Mekong expedition of 1867−68, first published in 1870 in the French geographic weekly Le Tour du Monde. The book is by Francis Garnier (1839−73), the young naval officer who is credited with proposing and being the driving force behind the expedition, which was commanded by a more senior naval officer, Captain Ernest Doudart De Lagrée (1823−68). Garnier was responsible for mapping the river and reporting on its ...
French Indochina Today. Volume 2: Tonkin-Annam
L’Indo-Chine française contemporaine (French Indochina today) is a comprehensive study of French Indochina, a second edition of which was published in Paris in 1885. The work is in two volumes, each with two parts, covering what at that time were the four regions of French Indochina: Cochinchina (the extreme southern part of present-day Vietnam), Cambodia, Tonkin (the northern part of Vietnam), and Annam (central and southern Vietnam except for the area occupied by Cochinchina). Presented here is volume two, which is devoted to the Protectorate of Tonkin (part III ...
Newly Inscribed Medical Understandings of the Medical Master Hải Thượng. Introductory Volume
Shown here is the introductory volume to an extensive set of medical, philosophical, and literary writings by the famous physician Lê Hữu Trác (commonly known as Hải Thượng Lãn Ông, 1720–91). The full set includes 61 volumes, plus this head volume or introductory volume, and an end or addendum volume. The set also includes two prefaces: one by Hải Thượng, the author, written in the year 1770, the other by Lê Cúc Linh. In this volume, there is one article on common rules and conventions used in the series ...
The Tongue-Cut Sparrow
This is a chirimen-bon (crepe-paper book), which is a compact watojihon (book bound in a traditional Japanese bookbinding style) containing woodblock-printed pictures and text.  It was called a chirimen-bon because the paper was crinkled until it assumed a cloth-like texture. Published from the middle of the Meiji period until the beginning of the Showa period, chirimen-bon were illustrated translations of Japanese folk stories that were originally intended to increase the exposure of Japanese people to foreign languages after kaikoku (the reopening of Japan in the mid-19th century). However, they soon ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
The Old Man Who Made the Dead Trees Blossom
Presented here is a compact watojihon (book bound in a traditional Japanese bookbinding style) containing pictures and text that are woodblock-printed on textureless paper called hiragami (flat paper). Kobunsha, the publishing company managed by Takejirō Hasegawa, started to translate and publish Nihon Mukashibanashi (Japanese fairy tale series) in 1885. Hanasaki Jiji (The old man who made the dead trees blossom) is a story from the series. It tells of a nice old married couple who kept a pet dog. One day when they dug at a place indicated by the ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Manifestations of Goodness
Dalā’il al-Khayrāt (Manifestations of goodness) is a manuscript by Abu Abdullah Muḥammad ibn Sulaymān al-Jazūlī, a Moroccan Sufi and Islamic scholar who died in 1465. The contents of this work are known to Muslims as one of the best compilations of litanies of peace and blessings upon the Prophet Muhammad. The book was often given to pilgrims on their voyage to Mecca. The beginning of the manuscript shows the varied names by which Allah is called, and several pages portray the names by which the Prophet Muhammad is ...
Vienna 1, Parliament
Rudolf von Alt (1812–1905) was an Austrian painter, draughtsman, and printmaker known for his city scenes, landscapes, and interiors. Shown here is Alt’s ink drawing with white heightening of the parliament building in Vienna, signed and dated 1885 in the lower right-hand corner. Located in the Innere Stadt (Inner City), or the first district of Vienna (“Vienna 1”), the neoclassical structure was built in 1874–83 by Danish architect Baron Theophil Edvard von Hansen (1813–91). It served as the meeting place of the two chambers of the ...
Contributed by Austrian National Library
A Ruthenian Lyrist
This signed oil sketch by the illustrator and painter Sigismund Ajdukiewicz (1861–1917) depicts a scene from Ruthenia, a region located south of the Carpathian Mountains in present-day Ukraine, which was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and ruled by Hungary until 1918. Ajdukiewicz, also known by his Polish name Zygmunt Ajdukiewicz and by its Austrian variant, Sigismund von Ajdukiewicz, was born in Witkowice (present-day Poland). As a young man he studied art at the Vienna Academy and in Munich. From 1885 until the end of his life, he lived and ...
Contributed by Austrian National Library
Moslems Worshipping the Shrines Sacred to Islam, Mecca, Arabia
This photograph of a scene in Mecca, present-day Saudi Arabia, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Central Africa after the Newest Research
Dr. Joseph Chavanne’s map of central Africa, most likely created in the early 1880s, is a product of the European imperial “scramble for Africa.” Although the Dutch and Portuguese established trading posts along the coasts of Africa as early as the late 15th century, the European race to claim significant tracts of territory in sub-Saharan Africa began in earnest only in the late 19th century. Belgium, Britain, France, and Germany all carved out competing claims, based on the discoveries of inland explorers whose expeditions Chavanne documents. Originally from Vienna ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
El Mosquito, January 4, 1885
El Mosquito, which described itself as a “weekly independent, satirical, burlesque periodical with caricatures,” appeared for the first time on May 24, 1863. In the more than 1,500 issues published between then and the last issue in 1893, the newspaper satirized the behavior of local politicians. The publication provides a unique vantage point on the formation of the modern nation-state in Argentina. Published on Sundays, the newspaper consisted of four pages, with the two middle pages exclusively dedicated to lithographs that caricaturized current events and important figures of the ...
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